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Re: Enzymes in polished rice

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  • waljaco
    It works for milled raw (uncooked) grains because they still have some enzymes. Cooking grain will destroy them. Bread making uses the same process but with
    Message 1 of 6 , May 13 8:06 PM
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      It works for milled raw (uncooked) grains because they still have some
      enzymes. Cooking grain will destroy them. Bread making uses the same
      process but with less water although enzymes are added these days to
      speed things up.
      Irving Hirsh (1937) said regarding the whiskey recipe using raw ground
      rye -
      "It should be noted however, that when malted rye is used in the mash
      the 'body' of the whiskey is greatly improved."

      wal

      --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "nenengstoute" <nenengstoute@...>
      wrote:
      >
      > well wal i'm glad you took the time to learn that it really works.
      > thats the purpose of this group,at least i hope, that we can all
      > learn from each other. i'm not an engineer,so it doesn't do me much
      > good reading all these papers,but all i know is the recipe i gave out
      > works. the alcohol is best used as a neutral spirit as you won't have
      > a sweet taste like corn. Thanks for the apology. Mabuhay. MIKE---
      > In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "waljaco" <waljaco@> wrote:
      > >
      > > It appears the best way to use raw rice is in the form of rice flour
      > > as the cell walls are fractured by the milling which eliminates the
      > > need to gelatinize by heat. I would then mix it with water at 60°C
      > to
      > > allow the enzymes to act. When cooled down you then add yeast (and
      > > fruit juice and sugar for specialty recipes).
      > > The use of additional enzymes would no doubt speed things up.
      > > In "Manufacture of Whiskey, Brandy and Cordials" by Irving Hirsch
      > > (1937) there is a recipe for rye whiskey using only ground rye hot
      > > water and yeast.
      > >
      > > wal
      > >
      > > --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "Harry" <gnikomson2000@> wrote:
      > > >
      > > > --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "waljaco" <waljaco@> wrote:
      > > > >
      > > > > Something else I read -
      > > > > http://park.itc.u-tokyo.ac.jp/ppk/fuji/49.pdf
      > > > >
      > > > > wal
      > > >
      > > >
      > > >
      > > > Wal,
      > > >
      > > > I was surprised by the findings in that paper.
      > > > Like you, I was under the impression that an outside source of
      > > > enzyme was required to break down rice starch to sugars, similar
      > to
      > > > other grain starch sources. However, according to that paper you
      > > > found, that is not the case. Or did I get it wrong?
      > > >
      > > > It appears that polished rice does have enough natural enzymes,
      > and
      > > > can benefit from slow cooking, at least to 60°C, possibly
      > higher.
      > > > But I don't think that boiling it will help.
      > > >
      > > > It's also somewhat of a problem that standard iodine testing
      > appears
      > > > not to work in cooked rice. So, how do you know when it's
      > > > converted? What's the expected yield etc. etc.?
      > > > Seems to me that there's an experiment or two needs to be done.
      > > > Anyone up for it?
      > > >
      > > > The relevant info from the article is below my sig.
      > > >
      > > >
      > > > Slainte!
      > > > regards Harry
      > > >
      > > > <ext>
      > > > In this study, although
      > > > the activity of RS (Reducing Sugars) production from starch was
      > high
      > > > in
      > > > the crude extract from the inner endosperm (Figure
      > > > 2a,b), starch degradation activity was not detected by
      > > > the iodine-starch reaction (Figure 7). This indicated
      > > > that R-glucosidase can produce sugars from starch
      > > > without markedly influencing the molecular size of the
      > > > starch molecule. Production of sugars with a smaller
      > > > influence on starch texture would be an advantage for
      > > > preference of rice when both texture and sweetness are
      > > > considered.
      > > >
      > > > During cooking of sweet potato, especially when
      > > > heating is slow, large quantities of RS are produced,
      > > > presumably because of the extended action period of
      > > > â-amylase (Damir, 1989). Therefore, slowly cooked sweet
      > > > potato is thought to be sweeter and preferred, compared
      > > > with rapidly cooked sweet potato. The sweetness of
      > > > cooked rice may also be determined by the activity of
      > > > the enzymes that catalyze degradation of starch into RS
      > > > during cooking, as in sweet potato.
      > > >
      > > > Rice enzymes that
      > > > maintain activity above 60 °C may be able to act for a
      > > > long time during heating. Furthermore, gelatinization
      > > > of rice starch occurs from 66 to 77 °C (Guilbot and
      > > > Mercier, 1985). Considering this result, at around 60
      > > > °C starch granules may break and the starch may be
      > > > loosened. Therefore, starch may be degraded more easily
      > > > at this temperature than raw starch due to easy access.
      > > >
      > > > If the enzymes causing starch degradation can act above
      > > > this temperature (60 °C), such enzymes should be able
      > > > to degrade starch effectively. Consequently, rice having
      > > > a higher level of these enzymes would produce more
      > > > sugar during cooking, making the rice sweeter and
      > > > tastier. In nature, enzymes having a high optimum
      > > > temperature, such as 60 °C, could not be advantageous
      > > > because such high temperatures are rarely reached. Rice
      > > > containing R-glucosidase with a high optimum temperature
      > > > is considered to have been selected as good quality
      > > > rice by the Japanese people.
      > > > </ext>
      > > >
      > >
      >
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