Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

Distillation - Confectioner's Recipes (long)

Expand Messages
  • Harry
    There was a time when Bakers were more than just bread & biscuit makers. Enjoy. Slainte! regards Harry ... Extracted from... Title: The Complete Confectioner,
    Message 1 of 19 , Nov 26, 2005
    • 0 Attachment
      There was a time when Bakers were more than just bread & biscuit
      makers.
      Enjoy.

      Slainte!
      regards Harry
      ------------------------


      Extracted from...

      Title: The Complete Confectioner, Pastry-Cook, and Baker...
      Author: Parkinson
      Publisher: Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co.

      WITH ADDITIONS AND ALTERATIONS,
      BY PARKINSON,
      Practical Confectioner, Chestnut Street.
      PHILADELPHIA:
      J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO.
      1864.

      Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1849, by
      W. A. LEARY.
      in the clerk's office of the district court of the United States in
      and the eastern district of Pennsylvania.
      -----------------------------------------



      SECTION XXIII.--DISTILLATION.

      THIS art is of great importance to a confectioner, as it enables him
      to make his own oils, waters, and spirits for liqueurs and ratafias
      instead of purchasing at a high rate those vile adulterations which
      are often sold.


      The still or apparatus for distilling consists of a cucurbit, which
      is a copper pot or boiler, and contains the wash, dregs, or
      infusions to be distilled. A cover, with a large tapering neck or
      pipe in the centre, is fixed on, and a continuation of small pipe,
      made either of tin


      or pewter, of several feet in length, is bent into a spiral form,
      and termed the worm. This is placed in a tub containing water, which
      is fastened on to the end of the neck. The joints or crevices are
      luted, to prevent evaporation, with a paste made of linseed meal, or
      equal portions of slacked lime or whitening, flour and salt,
      moistened with water, and spread on rags or pieces of bladder, when
      it is applied to the joints and crevices. The water in the tub where
      the worm is should be kept quite cold, except in distilling oil of
      anise-seeds; and for this purpose a tap or cock should be placed
      about half-way down the tub, that the top of the water may be drawn
      off when it is warm. Again fill it with cold water, and keep coarse
      cloths dipped in cold water to put round the alembic or still in
      case it should boil too fast. It is by these means that the steam or
      vapour which rises with the heat is condensed, and runs out at the
      end of the pipe in a small stream. If the operation is well
      conducted, it should never exceed this. When the phlegm arises,
      which is a watery insipid liquor, the receiver must be withdrawn,
      for if a drop of it should run in, it must be cohobated, that is, re-
      distilled, as it will thicken the spirit and spoil the taste.


      The still should not be filled above three parts full, to prevent it
      rising over the neck, should it happen to boil violently, as in this
      case it would spoil what is already drawn, which must be re-
      distilled.



      > ON ESSENTIAL OILS.



      To obtain these from plants or peels, the articles should be infused
      for two or three days, or even longer, in a sufficient quantity of
      cold water, until it has fully penetrated the pores of the
      materials. For this purpose roots should be cut into thin slices,
      barks reduced to a coarse powder, and seeds slightly bruised; those
      of soft and loose texture require to be infused two or three days,
      the harder and more compact a week or two, whilst some tender herbs
      and plants require to be distilled directly. After the solvent has
      fully penetrated, distil it with an open fire; that is, a fire under
      the still like a common washing copper, which immediately strikes
      the bottom. Regulate the fire so as to make it boil as speedily as
      possible, and that the oil may continue to distil freely during the
      whole process; for the longer it is submitted to an unnecessary heat
      without boiling, a greater portion of the oil is mixed with the
      water than there would otherwise be. The oil comes over the water,
      and either sinks to the bottom or swims on the top, according as it
      is lighter or heavier than that fluid. What comes over at first is
      more fragrant than that towards the end, which is thicker, and
      should be re-distilled by a gentle heat, when it leaves a resinous
      matter behind.


      All essential oils, after they are distilled, should be suffered to
      stand some days in open bottles or vessels, loosely covered with
      paper to keep out the dust, until they have lost their disagreeable
      fiery odour, and become quite limpid: put them into small bottles,
      and keep them


      quite full in a cold place. The light oils pass over the swan neck
      of the common still, but the heavier ones will not so readily,
      therefore a large low head is preferable; the heavier oils are those
      from cloves, allspice, cinnamon, &c., or such as contain a portion
      of resin.


      Some plants yield three times as much oil, if gathered when the
      flowers begin to fall off,--as lavender; others when young, before
      they have sent forth any flowers,--as sage; and others when the
      flowers begin to appear,--as thyme.


      All fragrant herbs yield a large portion of oil when produced in dry
      soils and warm summers. Herbs and flowers give out a larger quantity
      of oil after they have been partly dried in a dry shady place. Four
      pounds of the leaves of the dried mint yield one ounce of oil, but
      six pounds of fresh leaves only three drachms and a-half. This oil
      is more fine and bright when rectified--that is, re-distilled.


      After the distillation of one oil, the worm should be carefully
      cleansed, by passing a little spirit of wine through it, before
      another is proceeded with.





      A great quantity of oil is wasted by confectioners when they
      preserve their lemon and orange peels by boiling them in open
      vessels instead of a still; what is saved by this means alone would
      soon repay the expense of the apparatus.



      > DISTILLED WATERS.

      These are obtained in a similar manner to the oils, with a high
      narrow-necked still, and differ from them by the oil being retained
      or united with the water. Plants for this purpose should be gathered
      fresh on a dry day, as the water drawn from them in this state is
      more aromatic when they are dry; for the oil is mixed with an
      aqueous fluid in the plant, which concretes and separates in drying.


      Herbs should be bruised and steeped for a day in about three times
      their quantity of water when green, but considerably more when dry;
      but at all times sufficient water should be added that some may be
      left to prevent the herbs or flowers being burnt to the bottom of
      the still. After all the water is drawn, the distillation should
      continue so long as any taste or smell of the ingredients comes
      over; and the fire should be so regulated that the water may run in
      a small continued stream.


      If a superior article is required, it must be re-distilled by a
      gentle heat, with the addition of a little pure spirit (about one-
      twentieth part) which has not got any bad smell.




      Orange-Flower Water. --The leaves of orange flowers three pounds,
      water three pints.






      Rose Water. --As orange flower, using either the damask or pale
      single rose. Neither the purgative quality of the damask, nor the
      astringent quality of red roses, rises in distillation, but is
      contained in the water left in the still.




      Cinnamon Water. --Cinnamon one pound, water two gallons. Bruise or
      break the spice, and infuse it in water for two days. Some consider
      it sufficient to simmer the spice in the still for half an hour,
      putting back what comes over, and filtering the whole when cold
      through a flannel bag or blotting paper.






      Peppermint Water. --Dried herb one pound and a half, or green herb
      three pounds, to a gallon of water.






      Lemon-Peel Water. --Two pounds of fresh peel to the gallon.






      Black-Cherry Water. --Twelve pounds of ripe fruit to a gallon of
      water. Bruise the fruit in a mortar so as to break the stones, that
      the flavour of the kernel may be obtained.






      Angelica, star, anise-seed, caraway, lavender, rosemary, myrtle,
      vanilla, raspberry, strawberry, and all other waters, are made in
      the same manner; the first half of the water which comes over is the
      best and strongest.





      > SPIRITS FOR LIQUEURS.

      Spirits and alcohol are obtained by the distillation of fermented
      articles. The peculiar taste of each depends on the essential oil of
      the article from which it is prepared being held in solution:
      therefore, by knowing the nature of its oil, alcohol may be made to
      imitate any desired spirit. A few drops of nitric ether added to
      malt spirit will impart to it the flavour of cognac brandy; and two
      scruples of benzoic acid, mixed with one quart of rum, will give it
      the taste of arrack. Brandy is generally recommended for the use of
      the confectioner in making spirits for liqueurs, but a superior
      article may be made with less expense from rectified spirits of
      wine, or pure spirit which has neither taste nor smell, as the
      spirit afterwards drawn will only have the flavour of the articles
      with which it is required to be impregnated. Rectified spirits may
      be obtained from the dregs of beer, cider, ale or wine, suitable for
      any purpose, as well as from brandy.


      Spirits rise in the still with less heat than watery infusions,
      therefore it is best to distil by means of the bain-marie, that is,
      by the still being placed in another vessel containing water. This
      method is more safe, as it prevents accidents, and the articles from
      being burnt.


      Common spirits may be deprived of their impurities by mixing them
      with an equal quantity of water, and distilling them by a gentle
      heat, or in a water-bath. Continue the operation until the phlegm
      arises, which will appear milky and is of a nauseous taste. A great
      quantity of the oil which it retained will remain in the water. If
      the spirit was very impure, a second rectification may be necessary,
      as before. A very pure and tasteless spirit may be obtained by
      mixing with the spirit, after rectification, one-fourth of its
      weight of pure dry salt of wormwood or tartar. Let it stand a little
      time in a gentle heat, and distil in the bain-marie. A small portion
      of alum being added


      prevents any of the salt being brought over with the spirit. The
      result is pure alcohol. It may be reduced to proof spirit by mixing
      twenty ounces of alcohol with seventeen of water, by weight.




      Distilled Spirituous Waters for Liqueurs. --Orange, rose, pink,
      jessamine, and all other flowers, are made by adding eight pounds of
      the leaves or petals of the flowers to a gallon of pure proof
      spirit. Put them in a cold cellar or ice-house to infuse for a week.
      Distil in the bain-marie to dryness. If they are distilled on an
      open gentle fire, water should be added to the articles when they
      are put on the fire, so as to prevent their being burnt.


      Lavender, mint, rosemary, angelica, the yellow rind of lemon and
      orange peels, and bergamot, lemon, vanilla, ginger, and orris-root
      for violet, and other herbs, are made by adding two pounds of the
      plant, &c, partly dried, to a gallon of pure proof spirit. Let it
      steep in a jar close covered for twelve or fourteen days in a cool
      place, and distil in the bain-marie. Myrtle and balm-melissæ, one
      pound to the gallon. If any of the waters appear rather turbid when
      they are first drawn, they will become clear and bright by standing
      a few days. Filter them through blotting paper-placed in a glass or
      earthenware funnel over a bottle to receive them.


      Strawberries, raspberries, &c., sixteen pounds to the gallon.


      Cinnamon, coriander, caraways, cloves, &c., are made by adding one
      pound of the bruised seed or spice to the gallon of proof spirit.
      Cardamoms four ounces, nutmegs and mace three ounces to the gallon.






      Hungary Water, or Aqua Reginæ. --Fresh gathered rosemary flowers in
      full bloom, four pounds to the gallon of pure proof spirit. It may
      also be made with the addition of one pound of each of marjoram and
      lavender flowers, and two quarts more of spirit. Distil immediately.
      Half a pound of sage leaves, and two ounces of ginger, are
      recommended as an excellent addition by foreign writers.






      Maraschino de Zara. --Morello cherries nine pounds, black wild
      cherries seven pounds, or sixteen pounds of Morello cherries,* one
      pint and a-quarter of Kirchenwasser, spirit of roses one ounce and a-
      half, spirit of orange flowers one ounce and a-half, of jessamine a
      quarter of an ounce, peach or cherry leaves one pound and a-quarter;
      pick the stalks from the cherries and press out their juice, pound
      the stones and skins with the leaves in a mortar, and steep all
      together for a fortnight,--some only filter the infusion,--and add
      to it four pounds and a-half of treble-refined sugar; dissolve and
      strain through a jelly-bag; but a superior spirit may be obtained by
      the addition of four quarts of rectified proof spirit; distil with
      the bain-marie, and rectify.





      *Genuine Maraschino is the spirit of Morello cherries, as
      Kirchenwasser is of black cherries. Maraschino may also be made from
      gooseberries. Ripe gooseberries 102 pounds; black cherry leaves
      bruised, 12 pounds; ferment as Kirchenwasser; distil and rectify it.







      Kirchenwasser. --Get some small black cherries and a few Morello
      cherries quite ripe, take off their stalks and put them in a cask
      with the head off, cover the top or surface of the cherries with
      mortar or wood ashes mixed to a consistence with water, let them
      stand for six weeks or two months, during which time they will
      ferment, then take off the covering and distil them.






      Eau Divine. --Essence of bergamot and lemon, of each one drachm,
      rectified spirit one gallon, fresh balm leaves two ounces; distil
      with the bain-marie; add orange-flower water five ounces. The liquor
      is made by adding to this four pounds of treble refined sugar
      dissolved in two gallons of water.






      Eau de Cologne. ***** --Spirit of rosemary two quarts, essence of
      bergamot four ounces, balm water two quarts, essence of cédrats and
      citrons four ounces, neroli two drachms, rosemary two ounces,
      spirits of wine ten quarts; draw fourteen quarts.



      Balm water two pints and a-quarter, spirit of rosemary three pounds
      and a-half, oil of rosemary one drachm, essence of lemon three
      drachms, of cédrats two drachms, of neroli two drachms and a-half,
      of bergamot three drachms, rectified spirit twelve pounds, distil in
      the bain-marie, and keep in a cool place for some time.






      Curacao. --This is a species of wild or bitter orange; the dried
      peel may be obtained from the chemists; the yellow peel of Seville
      oranges, dried and powdered, will answer as well; use one pound to
      the gallon of rum or rectified spirit, and distil as the others.






      Eau de Mélisse des Carmes. --Spirit of balm eight pints, spirit of
      lemon and citron four pints; spirit of nutmegs, musk, and coriander,
      of each two pints, spirit of thyme, cinnamon, anise-seed, marjoram,
      hyssop, green-verdigris, or the vitriol of iron, sage, angelica-
      root, and cloves, of each one pint; distil, and keep in an ice-house
      for twelve months. Supposed to be the original recipe of the
      barefooted Carmelites, now in possession of the Company of
      Apothecaries of Paris.



      The English Method.--Fresh balm leaves four ounces, fresh lemon-peel
      two ounces (the yellow rind), coriander seeds and nutmegs, of each
      one ounce, angelica-root, cinnamon, and cloves, of each half an
      ounce, rectified spirit two pounds, brandy two pounds, powder the
      dry ingredients, and steep the whole in a close vessel with the
      spirit for four or five days. Two pints of rectified spirit and one
      pint of balm-water may be used instead of the spirit and brandy;
      distil in the bain-marie nearly to dryness; re-distil and keep it
      for some time in a cold cellar or ice-house. This is an elegant and
      beautiful cordial.






      Spirit of Coffee. --One pound of the best Mocha coffee, fresh
      roasted and ground, add to it one gallon of rectified proof spirit,
      let it infuse for a week, and distil in the bain-marie.






      Spirit of bitter Almonds. --One pound of blanched almonds, one
      gallon of proof spirit; pound the almonds quite fine with a little
      water, to prevent their oiling, add them to the spirit with an ounce


      of bruised angelica-root, steep for a week, and distil in the bain-
      marie.






      Spirit of Tea. --Four ounces of the best tea to a gallon of
      rectified proof spirit, pour a little cold water on the tea and let
      it infuse for three or four hours, add it to the spirit, and distil
      it in a week.






      Escubac--Usquebaugh. --Saffron one ounce, catechu three ounces,
      ambergris half a grain, dates without their kernels, and raisins,
      each three ounces, jujubes six ounces, anise-seed, cloves, mace, and
      coriander seed one drachm, cinnamon two drachms, proof spirit six
      quarts, pound the ingredients, infuse for a week and distil. The
      whole of these spirituous distilled waters are for making liquors
      and for flavouring ices, liqueurs, bon-bons, drops, &c., or anything
      in which liquors are introduced.






      LIQUEURS.
      These are made by mixing equal proportions of any of the spirits,
      water, and sugar together, that is, one pint of spirit, one pint of
      water, one pound of the treble-refined sugar; dissolve the sugar in
      the water, add it to the spirit, and filter through blotting-paper;
      being perfectly clear and colourless when drawn, they require to be
      coloured of the same tint as the articles from which they were
      extracted, and for this purpose none but those which are perfectly
      harmless should be employed, as prepared cochineal, infusion of
      saffron, burnt sugars or indigo.





      > RATAFIAS.

      These are liqueurs made by the infusion of the ingredients in
      spirits, and are similarly composed to the spirituous waters, but
      instead of being distilled they are simply filtered, and sugar is
      added to them.




      Ratafia de Cafe. --Fresh roasted Mocha coffee ground, one pound,
      proof spirit one gallon, loaf sugar one pound and a half; infuse for
      a week, string it every other day, filter, bottle, and cork close.






      Ratafia de Cacao. --Cacao of Caracca one pound, West India cocoa
      nuts eight ounces, proof spirit one gallon, roast the nuts and
      bruise them, add them to the spirit and infuse for fourteen days,
      stirring them occasionally, filter and add thirty drops of essence
      of vanilla and two pounds of sugar.






      Ratafia des Noyaux. --Half a pound of bitter almonds, half a pound
      of sweet almonds, proof spirit one gallon, (peach or apricot kernels
      may be used instead of the bitter almonds), three pounds of loaf
      sugar; beat the almonds fine with part of the sugar, steep the whole
      together for twelve or fourteen days, and filter; this liqueur will
      be much improved if rectified spirit is reduced to proof with the
      juice of apricots or peaches.








      Ratafia of Cherries. --Morello cherries eight pounds, black cherries
      eight pounds, raspberries and red or white currants of each two
      pounds, coriander-seeds three ounces, cinnamon half an ounce, mace
      half an ounce, proof spirit one gallon; press out the juice from the
      fruit, take one-half of the stones of the cherries and pound them
      with the spices, and add two pounds and a half of sugar, steep for a
      month and filter.






      Ratafia des Cassis. --Ripe black currants six pounds, cloves half a
      drachm, cinnamon one drachm, black currant leaves one pound and a
      half, Morello cherries two pounds, sugar five pounds, proof spirit
      eight quarts; bruise the spice, infuse a fortnight, filter, and
      bottle.






      Ratafia of Raspberries. --Raspberries quite ripe eight pounds, proof
      spirit one gallon, quarter of an ounce of cinnamon and cloves, steep
      for fourteen days, stirring it occasionally. Currants and
      strawberries are made the same.






      Ratafia des Fleurs des Oranges. --Fresh orange-flowers two pounds,
      proof spirit one gallon, sugar two pounds; infuse for eight or ten
      hours.






      Ratafia d'Å'illets. --The petals of clove pinks, with the white
      parts pulled off, four pounds, cinnamon and cloves twenty-five
      grains, proof spirit one gallon, sugar three pounds. Infuse for a
      month, filter, and bottle.






      Ratafia d'Angelique. --Angelica seeds one ounce, angelica stalks
      four ounces, bitter almonds four ounces, one drachm each of cinnamon
      and cloves, proof spirit six quarts, loaf sugar four pounds. Blanch
      and pound the almonds with some of the sugar, or a little water;
      pound the other ingredients a little, and bruise the stalks. Infuse
      for a month, stirring it occasionally. Filter and bottle.






      Vespetro. --Coriander seed one ounce, angelica seed two ounces,
      fennel and anise-seed of each two drachms, two lemons, two oranges,
      the zest of two citrons, two quarts of rectified spirit and two
      pounds of sugar, caraway seeds four grains. Bruise the ingredients,
      pare off the yellow rind of the lemons and oranges, and squeeze the
      juice. Dissolve the sugar in a pint of water. Infuse the whole
      together for fourteen days. Strain, filter, and bottle.






      Chrême de Barbade. --The yellow rind of three oranges and three
      lemons, cinnamon four ounces, mace two drachms, cloves one drachm,
      rum nine quarts, fresh balm leaves six ounces. Infuse and distil in
      the bain-marie, or strain; add an equal quantity of sugar with water.






      Chrême d'Orange. --Thirty-six sweet oranges, sliced, tincture of
      saffron one ounce and four drachms, orange-flower water four pints,
      rectified spirits two gallons, water eighteen quarts, loaf sugar
      eighteen pounds. Dissolve the sugar in the water: mix the other
      articles and infuse for a fortnight. Filter and bottle.






      Ratafia d'Anis. --Star anise-seed four ounces, proof spirit one
      gallon.



      Infuse for a fortnight; add two pounds of sugar, or a pint and a-
      half of syrup, and a little essence of vanilla.






      Ratafia de Brout des Noix. --Young walnuts, when the shells are not
      formed, number eighty, mace, cinnamon, and cloves, of each half a
      drachm, proof spirit one gallon. Pound the nuts in a mortar, add
      them and the spice to the spirit, with two pounds of sugar. Infuse
      for two months, stirring it occasionally; press out the liquor
      through a cloth. Filter and bottle.
    • waljaco
      The article uses the term pure proof spirit . I assume this means 50%abv (US system)? wal Useful concise compilation of 19th century recipes.
      Message 2 of 19 , Dec 1, 2005
      • 0 Attachment
        The article uses the term "pure proof spirit". I assume this means
        50%abv (US system)?
        wal
        Useful concise compilation of 19th century recipes.



        --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "Harry" <gnikomson2000@y...> wrote:
        >
        > There was a time when Bakers were more than just bread & biscuit
        > makers.
        > Enjoy.
        >
        > Slainte!
        > regards Harry
        > ------------------------
        >
        >
        > Extracted from...
        >
        > Title: The Complete Confectioner, Pastry-Cook, and Baker...
        > Author: Parkinson
        > Publisher: Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co.
        >
        > WITH ADDITIONS AND ALTERATIONS,
        > BY PARKINSON,
        > Practical Confectioner, Chestnut Street.
        > PHILADELPHIA:
        > J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO.
        > 1864.
        >
        > Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1849, by
        > W. A. LEARY.
        > in the clerk's office of the district court of the United States in
        > and the eastern district of Pennsylvania.
        > -----------------------------------------
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > > SPIRITS FOR LIQUEURS.
        >
        > Spirits and alcohol are obtained by the distillation of fermented
        > articles. The peculiar taste of each depends on the essential oil of
        > the article from which it is prepared being held in solution:
        > therefore, by knowing the nature of its oil, alcohol may be made to
        > imitate any desired spirit. A few drops of nitric ether added to
        > malt spirit will impart to it the flavour of cognac brandy; and two
        > scruples of benzoic acid, mixed with one quart of rum, will give it
        > the taste of arrack. Brandy is generally recommended for the use of
        > the confectioner in making spirits for liqueurs, but a superior
        > article may be made with less expense from rectified spirits of
        > wine, or pure spirit which has neither taste nor smell, as the
        > spirit afterwards drawn will only have the flavour of the articles
        > with which it is required to be impregnated. Rectified spirits may
        > be obtained from the dregs of beer, cider, ale or wine, suitable for
        > any purpose, as well as from brandy.
        >
        >
        > Spirits rise in the still with less heat than watery infusions,
        > therefore it is best to distil by means of the bain-marie, that is,
        > by the still being placed in another vessel containing water. This
        > method is more safe, as it prevents accidents, and the articles from
        > being burnt.
        >
        >
        > Common spirits may be deprived of their impurities by mixing them
        > with an equal quantity of water, and distilling them by a gentle
        > heat, or in a water-bath. Continue the operation until the phlegm
        > arises, which will appear milky and is of a nauseous taste. A great
        > quantity of the oil which it retained will remain in the water. If
        > the spirit was very impure, a second rectification may be necessary,
        > as before. A very pure and tasteless spirit may be obtained by
        > mixing with the spirit, after rectification, one-fourth of its
        > weight of pure dry salt of wormwood or tartar. Let it stand a little
        > time in a gentle heat, and distil in the bain-marie. A small portion
        > of alum being added
        >
        >
        > prevents any of the salt being brought over with the spirit. The
        > result is pure alcohol. It may be reduced to proof spirit by mixing
        > twenty ounces of alcohol with seventeen of water, by weight.
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
      • waljaco
        The section on SPIRITS FOR LIQUEURS suggests a triple distillation, with the addition of salt of wormwood prior to the final distillation to which alum is
        Message 3 of 19 , Dec 3, 2005
        • 0 Attachment
          The section on SPIRITS FOR LIQUEURS suggests a triple distillation,
          with the addition of 'salt of wormwood' prior to the final
          distillation to which 'alum' is also added.

          'Salt of wormwood' (a.k.a. 'Salt of tartar' or 'pearl ash') is
          potassium carbonate K2CO3.

          'Alum' is either Potassium aluminium sulphate or aluminium sulphate.

          wal


          --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "waljaco" <waljaco@h...> wrote:
          >
          >
          > The article uses the term "pure proof spirit". I assume this means
          > 50%abv (US system)?
          > wal
          > Useful concise compilation of 19th century recipes.
          >
          >
          >
          > --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "Harry" <gnikomson2000@y...> wrote:
          > >
          > > There was a time when Bakers were more than just bread & biscuit
          > > makers.
          > > Enjoy.
          > >
          > > Slainte!
          > > regards Harry
          > > ------------------------
          > >
          > >
          > > Extracted from...
          > >
          > > Title: The Complete Confectioner, Pastry-Cook, and Baker...
          > > Author: Parkinson
          > > Publisher: Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co.
          > >
          > > WITH ADDITIONS AND ALTERATIONS,
          > > BY PARKINSON,
          > > Practical Confectioner, Chestnut Street.
          > > PHILADELPHIA:
          > > J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO.
          > > 1864.
          > >
          > > Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1849, by
          > > W. A. LEARY.
          > > in the clerk's office of the district court of the United States in
          > > and the eastern district of Pennsylvania.
          > > -----------------------------------------
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > > > SPIRITS FOR LIQUEURS.
          > >
          > > Spirits and alcohol are obtained by the distillation of fermented
          > > articles. The peculiar taste of each depends on the essential oil of
          > > the article from which it is prepared being held in solution:
          > > therefore, by knowing the nature of its oil, alcohol may be made to
          > > imitate any desired spirit. A few drops of nitric ether added to
          > > malt spirit will impart to it the flavour of cognac brandy; and two
          > > scruples of benzoic acid, mixed with one quart of rum, will give it
          > > the taste of arrack. Brandy is generally recommended for the use of
          > > the confectioner in making spirits for liqueurs, but a superior
          > > article may be made with less expense from rectified spirits of
          > > wine, or pure spirit which has neither taste nor smell, as the
          > > spirit afterwards drawn will only have the flavour of the articles
          > > with which it is required to be impregnated. Rectified spirits may
          > > be obtained from the dregs of beer, cider, ale or wine, suitable for
          > > any purpose, as well as from brandy.
          > >
          > >
          > > Spirits rise in the still with less heat than watery infusions,
          > > therefore it is best to distil by means of the bain-marie, that is,
          > > by the still being placed in another vessel containing water. This
          > > method is more safe, as it prevents accidents, and the articles from
          > > being burnt.
          > >
          > >
          > > Common spirits may be deprived of their impurities by mixing them
          > > with an equal quantity of water, and distilling them by a gentle
          > > heat, or in a water-bath. Continue the operation until the phlegm
          > > arises, which will appear milky and is of a nauseous taste. A great
          > > quantity of the oil which it retained will remain in the water. If
          > > the spirit was very impure, a second rectification may be necessary,
          > > as before. A very pure and tasteless spirit may be obtained by
          > > mixing with the spirit, after rectification, one-fourth of its
          > > weight of pure dry salt of wormwood or tartar. Let it stand a little
          > > time in a gentle heat, and distil in the bain-marie. A small portion
          > > of alum being added
          > >
          > >
          > > prevents any of the salt being brought over with the spirit. The
          > > result is pure alcohol. It may be reduced to proof spirit by mixing
          > > twenty ounces of alcohol with seventeen of water, by weight.
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > >
          >
        • Harry
          ... sulphate. ... The Alum of previous centuries was Potassium-alum aka native alum, Chemical Formula: KAl(SO4)2·12(H2O). Found worldwide but mainly
          Message 4 of 19 , Dec 4, 2005
          • 0 Attachment
            --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "waljaco" <waljaco@h...> wrote:
            >
            > The section on SPIRITS FOR LIQUEURS suggests a triple distillation,
            > with the addition of 'salt of wormwood' prior to the final
            > distillation to which 'alum' is also added.
            >
            > 'Salt of wormwood' (a.k.a. 'Salt of tartar' or 'pearl ash') is
            > potassium carbonate K2CO3.
            >
            > 'Alum' is either Potassium aluminium sulphate or aluminium
            sulphate.
            >
            > wal



            The 'Alum' of previous centuries was Potassium-alum aka native alum,
            Chemical Formula: KAl(SO4)2·12(H2O). Found worldwide but mainly
            Vesuvius, Italy and Alum Cave, Tennessee, USA. It was used in
            everything because of its flocculant properties. It removes many
            impurities in this way and is also a natural deodorant, in that it
            absorbs gases. It is still available as a food grade item from many
            sources. One I found here. ..
            http://tinyurl.com/azqt2

            The papermaker's alum in use today is not true alum, but either
            aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3·14H2O), (Al2(SO4)3·18H2O), or a mixture
            of these hydrates, and is manufactured by treating pulverized
            bauxite with 80% sulfuric acid at 110° C., the resulting solution
            being purified, concentrated, and allowed to solidify. It is soluble
            in water, and, while slightly alkaline in the dry form, it is
            decidedly acidic when dissolved in water.


            Slainte!
            regards Harry
            Moderator
          • italiandistiller
            I would assume this method will produce extremely clean spirit! A good source for the Alum, as well as absinthe herb is:
            Message 5 of 19 , Dec 5, 2005
            • 0 Attachment
              I would assume this method will produce extremely clean spirit! A
              good source for the Alum, as well as absinthe herb is:

              http://www.shamanshop.net/store/proddetail.cfm/ItemID/15298.0/Category
              ID/15500.0/SubCatID/3620.0/file.htm

              The Potassium Carbonate is provided in bulk by Arm&Hammer for
              livestock, so if you're near a feedstore that carries it you're set,
              otherwise try ebay.

              Bob

              > >
              > > The section on SPIRITS FOR LIQUEURS suggests a triple
              distillation,
              > > with the addition of 'salt of wormwood' prior to the final
              > > distillation to which 'alum' is also added.
              > >
              > > 'Salt of wormwood' (a.k.a. 'Salt of tartar' or 'pearl ash') is
              > > potassium carbonate K2CO3.
              > >
              > > 'Alum' is either Potassium aluminium sulphate or aluminium
              > sulphate.
              > >
              > > wal
              >
              >
              >
              > The 'Alum' of previous centuries was Potassium-alum aka native alum,
              > Chemical Formula: KAl(SO4)2•12(H2O). Found worldwide but mainly
              > Vesuvius, Italy and Alum Cave, Tennessee, USA. It was used in
              > everything because of its flocculant properties. It removes many
              > impurities in this way and is also a natural deodorant, in that it
              > absorbs gases. It is still available as a food grade item from many
              > sources. One I found here. ..
              > http://tinyurl.com/azqt2
              >
              > The papermaker's alum in use today is not true alum, but either
              > aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3•14H2O), (Al2(SO4)3•18H2O), or a mixture
              > of these hydrates, and is manufactured by treating pulverized
              > bauxite with 80% sulfuric acid at 110° C., the resulting solution
              > being purified, concentrated, and allowed to solidify. It is soluble
              > in water, and, while slightly alkaline in the dry form, it is
              > decidedly acidic when dissolved in water.
              >
              >
              > Slainte!
              > regards Harry
              > Moderator
              >
            • italiandistiller
              I m currently trying this method and doing the 2nd distillation with the addition of some Potassium Carbonate & Alum to clean the spirit. THE RESULT: The heads
              Message 6 of 19 , Dec 15, 2005
              • 0 Attachment
                I'm currently trying this method and doing the 2nd distillation with
                the addition of some Potassium Carbonate & Alum to clean the spirit.
                THE RESULT: The heads smells like household ammonia! The middle of
                the run now running at 78.2C has less of an ammonia smell, but it is
                very pungent. It's definitely not drinkable.

                I'm hoping the final, 3rd distillation results in the odorless pure
                spirit promised. I'd hate to have to delegate these 4 gallons of
                spirit to cleaning the barbeque.

                Some numbers: The amount of Potassium Carbonate suggested calculates
                out to be 225 grams/liter using 50% abv spirit. In practice this
                comes to about 2-1/2 cups of K2CO3 per gallon of the spirit. To be
                conservative, I cut the K2CO3 to 1 cup/gallon for this test. I added
                about 1 tsp of the Alum (potassium aluminum sulphate) per gallon of
                50% abv spirit. I'm using sugar mash/turbo yeast and a reflux column.

                Cin Cin!

                Bob


                >The section on SPIRITS FOR LIQUEURS suggests a triple distillation,
                >with the addition of 'salt of wormwood' prior to the final
                >distillation to which 'alum' is also added.
                >
                >'Salt of wormwood' (a.k.a. 'Salt of tartar' or 'pearl ash') is
                >potassium carbonate K2CO3.
                >
                >'Alum' is either Potassium aluminium sulphate or aluminium sulphate.
                >
                >wal
                >>--- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "waljaco" <waljaco@h...> wrote:
                >>
                >>
                >> The article uses the term "pure proof spirit". I assume this means
                >> 50%abv (US system)?
                >> wal
                >> Useful concise compilation of 19th century recipes.

                <snip>
                >> A very pure and tasteless spirit may be obtained by
                > > mixing with the spirit, after rectification, one-fourth of its
                > > weight of pure dry salt of wormwood or tartar. Let it stand a
                little
                > > time in a gentle heat, and distil in the bain-marie. A small
                portion
                > > of alum being added
                > >
              • waljaco
                Russian sites recommend 8-10 frams of sodium or potassium chloride/litre. Stir and allow to stand for 30 minutes. Then add 2 grams potassium permanganate/litre
                Message 7 of 19 , Dec 16, 2005
                • 0 Attachment
                  Russian sites recommend 8-10 frams of sodium or potassium
                  chloride/litre. Stir and allow to stand for 30 minutes. Then add 2
                  grams potassium permanganate/litre and allow to stand for 12 hours.
                  Decant and redistill. Before a triple distillation add 200 ml of
                  fresh (skim?) milk/litre. Allow to stand for 30 minutes, add water and
                  redistill.
                  Alum? This is the first time I have seen it used. The literature says
                  it is used to clear turbid liquids.
                  wal
                  --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "italiandistiller"
                  <italiandistiller@y...> wrote:
                  >
                  > I'm currently trying this method and doing the 2nd distillation with
                  > the addition of some Potassium Carbonate & Alum to clean the spirit.
                  > THE RESULT: The heads smells like household ammonia! The middle of
                  > the run now running at 78.2C has less of an ammonia smell, but it is
                  > very pungent. It's definitely not drinkable.
                  >
                  > I'm hoping the final, 3rd distillation results in the odorless pure
                  > spirit promised. I'd hate to have to delegate these 4 gallons of
                  > spirit to cleaning the barbeque.
                  >
                  > Some numbers: The amount of Potassium Carbonate suggested calculates
                  > out to be 225 grams/liter using 50% abv spirit. In practice this
                  > comes to about 2-1/2 cups of K2CO3 per gallon of the spirit. To be
                  > conservative, I cut the K2CO3 to 1 cup/gallon for this test. I added
                  > about 1 tsp of the Alum (potassium aluminum sulphate) per gallon of
                  > 50% abv spirit. I'm using sugar mash/turbo yeast and a reflux column.
                  >
                  > Cin Cin!
                  >
                  > Bob
                  >
                  >
                  > >The section on SPIRITS FOR LIQUEURS suggests a triple distillation,
                  > >with the addition of 'salt of wormwood' prior to the final
                  > >distillation to which 'alum' is also added.
                  > >
                  > >'Salt of wormwood' (a.k.a. 'Salt of tartar' or 'pearl ash') is
                  > >potassium carbonate K2CO3.
                  > >
                  > >'Alum' is either Potassium aluminium sulphate or aluminium sulphate.
                  > >
                  > >wal
                  > >>--- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "waljaco" <waljaco@h...> wrote:
                  > >>
                  > >>
                  > >> The article uses the term "pure proof spirit". I assume this means
                  > >> 50%abv (US system)?
                  > >> wal
                  > >> Useful concise compilation of 19th century recipes.
                  >
                  > <snip>
                  > >> A very pure and tasteless spirit may be obtained by
                  > > > mixing with the spirit, after rectification, one-fourth of its
                  > > > weight of pure dry salt of wormwood or tartar. Let it stand a
                  > little
                  > > > time in a gentle heat, and distil in the bain-marie. A small
                  > portion
                  > > > of alum being added
                  > > >
                  >
                • miciofelice2003
                  Hi to everybody. Sorry to be so polemical, but I m wondering if it s so difficult to distil only good stuff. I learned on my skin that if you distil not good
                  Message 8 of 19 , Dec 16, 2005
                  • 0 Attachment
                    Hi to everybody.

                    Sorry to be so polemical, but I'm wondering if it's so difficult to
                    distil only good stuff.

                    I learned "on my skin" that if you distil not good stuff you'll get
                    only ... bad stuff: rubbish in, rubbish out.

                    And so you have to become crazy to correct your mistakes, adding some
                    chemicals, and so on.

                    Really, I learned from my personnel experience that it's better not
                    to accept any compromise: I got success in correcting my mistakes but
                    it's better to avoid to do any of it's.

                    So, please, learn by other's people mistakes (including me): use
                    only
                    good, fresh stuff and add nothing else than your experience,
                    passion, and love for what you are doing.

                    ciao to everybody and... Merry Christmas by

                    micio felice



                    --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "waljaco" <waljaco@h...> wrote:
                    >
                    > Russian sites recommend 8-10 frams of sodium or potassium
                    > chloride/litre. Stir and allow to stand for 30 minutes. Then add 2
                    > grams potassium permanganate/litre and allow to stand for 12 hours.
                    > Decant and redistill. Before a triple distillation add 200 ml of
                    > fresh (skim?) milk/litre. Allow to stand for 30 minutes, add water
                    and
                    > redistill.
                    > Alum? This is the first time I have seen it used. The literature
                    says
                    > it is used to clear turbid liquids.
                    > wal
                    > --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "italiandistiller"
                    > <italiandistiller@y...> wrote:
                    > >
                    > > I'm currently trying this method and doing the 2nd distillation
                    with
                    > > the addition of some Potassium Carbonate & Alum to clean the
                    spirit.
                    > > THE RESULT: The heads smells like household ammonia! The middle
                    of
                    > > the run now running at 78.2C has less of an ammonia smell, but it
                    is
                    > > very pungent. It's definitely not drinkable.
                    > >
                    > > I'm hoping the final, 3rd distillation results in the odorless
                    pure
                    > > spirit promised. I'd hate to have to delegate these 4 gallons of
                    > > spirit to cleaning the barbeque.
                    > >
                    > > Some numbers: The amount of Potassium Carbonate suggested
                    calculates
                    > > out to be 225 grams/liter using 50% abv spirit. In practice this
                    > > comes to about 2-1/2 cups of K2CO3 per gallon of the spirit. To
                    be
                    > > conservative, I cut the K2CO3 to 1 cup/gallon for this test. I
                    added
                    > > about 1 tsp of the Alum (potassium aluminum sulphate) per gallon
                    of
                    > > 50% abv spirit. I'm using sugar mash/turbo yeast and a reflux
                    column.
                    > >
                    > > Cin Cin!
                    > >
                    > > Bob
                    > >
                    > >
                    > > >The section on SPIRITS FOR LIQUEURS suggests a triple
                    distillation,
                    > > >with the addition of 'salt of wormwood' prior to the final
                    > > >distillation to which 'alum' is also added.
                    > > >
                    > > >'Salt of wormwood' (a.k.a. 'Salt of tartar' or 'pearl ash') is
                    > > >potassium carbonate K2CO3.
                    > > >
                    > > >'Alum' is either Potassium aluminium sulphate or aluminium
                    sulphate.
                    > > >
                    > > >wal
                    > > >>--- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "waljaco" <waljaco@h...>
                    wrote:
                    > > >>
                    > > >>
                    > > >> The article uses the term "pure proof spirit". I assume this
                    means
                    > > >> 50%abv (US system)?
                    > > >> wal
                    > > >> Useful concise compilation of 19th century recipes.
                    > >
                    > > <snip>
                    > > >> A very pure and tasteless spirit may be obtained by
                    > > > > mixing with the spirit, after rectification, one-fourth of
                    its
                    > > > > weight of pure dry salt of wormwood or tartar. Let it stand a
                    > > little
                    > > > > time in a gentle heat, and distil in the bain-marie. A small
                    > > portion
                    > > > > of alum being added
                    > > > >
                    > >
                    >
                  • Robert Thomas
                    Hi all, I m typing here for two reasons: 1. to Micio, there are lots of ways of chemically removing everything except alcohol, if that is what is wanted.
                    Message 9 of 19 , Dec 16, 2005
                    • 0 Attachment
                      Hi all,
                      I'm typing here for two reasons:
                      1. to Micio, there are lots of ways of chemically removing everything
                      except alcohol, if that is what is wanted. Obviously, if your grappa
                      came out tasting (?) like neutral alcohol, you would be unhappy. But if
                      you are going to flavour after, then maybe it is a way to go (let's say
                      for gin). I think, however, that you are right. It really isn't
                      difficult to get a clean fermentation. After that it is down to still
                      design and experience. I would much rather invest in getting the still
                      perfect than invest in chemicals that need to be bought every time.
                      2. the second reason is that I want to time the arrival of this post!
                      People must think I just answer messages after everyone else has said
                      what I do. not true, I seem to have a very slow line somewhere!
                      time is now 13:37 GMT.
                      Cheers,
                      Rob.


                      --- miciofelice2003 <miciofelice2003@...> wrote:

                      > Hi to everybody.
                      >
                      > Sorry to be so polemical, but I'm wondering if it's so difficult to
                      > distil only good stuff.
                      >
                      > I learned "on my skin" that if you distil not good stuff you'll get
                      > only ... bad stuff: rubbish in, rubbish out.
                      >
                      > So, please, learn by other's people mistakes (including me): use only
                      >
                      > good, fresh stuff and add nothing else than your experience, passion,
                      >
                      > and love for what you are doing.
                      >
                      > ciao to everybody and... Merry Christmas by
                      >
                      > micio felice
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "waljaco" <waljaco@h...> wrote:
                      > >
                      > > Russian sites recommend 8-10 frams of sodium or potassium
                      > > chloride/litre. Stir and allow to stand for 30 minutes. Then add 2
                      > > grams potassium permanganate/litre and allow to stand for 12 hours.
                      > > Decant and redistill. Before a triple distillation add 200 ml of
                      > > fresh (skim?) milk/litre. Allow to stand for 30 minutes, add water
                      > and
                      > > redistill.
                      > > Alum? This is the first time I have seen it used. The literature
                      > says
                      > > it is used to clear turbid liquids.
                      > > wal
                      > > --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "italiandistiller"
                      > > <italiandistiller@y...> wrote:
                      > > >
                      > > > I'm currently trying this method and doing the 2nd distillation
                      > with
                      > > > the addition of some Potassium Carbonate & Alum to clean the
                      > spirit.
                      > > > THE RESULT: The heads smells like household ammonia! The middle
                      > of
                      > > > the run now running at 78.2C has less of an ammonia smell, but it
                      >
                      > is
                      > > > very pungent. It's definitely not drinkable.
                      > > >
                      > > > I'm hoping the final, 3rd distillation results in the odorless
                      > pure
                      > > > spirit promised. I'd hate to have to delegate these 4 gallons of
                      > > > spirit to cleaning the barbeque.
                      > > >
                      > > > Some numbers: The amount of Potassium Carbonate suggested
                      > calculates
                      > > > out to be 225 grams/liter using 50% abv spirit. In practice this
                      > > > comes to about 2-1/2 cups of K2CO3 per gallon of the spirit. To
                      > be
                      > > > conservative, I cut the K2CO3 to 1 cup/gallon for this test. I
                      > added
                      > > > about 1 tsp of the Alum (potassium aluminum sulphate) per gallon
                      > of
                      > > > 50% abv spirit. I'm using sugar mash/turbo yeast and a reflux
                      > column.
                      > > >
                      > > > Cin Cin!
                      > > >
                      > > > Bob
                      > > >
                      > > >
                      > > > >The section on SPIRITS FOR LIQUEURS suggests a triple
                      > distillation,
                      > > > >with the addition of 'salt of wormwood' prior to the final
                      > > > >distillation to which 'alum' is also added.
                      > > > >
                      > > > >'Salt of wormwood' (a.k.a. 'Salt of tartar' or 'pearl ash') is
                      > > > >potassium carbonate K2CO3.
                      > > > >
                      > > > >'Alum' is either Potassium aluminium sulphate or aluminium
                      > sulphate.
                      > > > >
                      > > > >wal
                      > > > >>--- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "waljaco" <waljaco@h...>
                      > wrote:
                      > > > >>
                      > > > >>
                      > > > >> The article uses the term "pure proof spirit". I assume this
                      > means
                      > > > >> 50%abv (US system)?
                      > > > >> wal
                      > > > >> Useful concise compilation of 19th century recipes.
                      > > >
                      > > > <snip>
                      > > > >> A very pure and tasteless spirit may be obtained by
                      > > > > > mixing with the spirit, after rectification, one-fourth of
                      > its
                      > > > > > weight of pure dry salt of wormwood or tartar. Let it stand a
                      >
                      > > > little
                      > > > > > time in a gentle heat, and distil in the bain-marie. A small
                      > > > portion
                      > > > > > of alum being added
                      > > > > >
                      > > >
                      > >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >


                      Cheers,
                      Rob.

                      __________________________________________________
                      Do You Yahoo!?
                      Tired of spam? Yahoo! Mail has the best spam protection around
                      http://mail.yahoo.com
                    • miciofelice2003
                      Yes Rob, you are right. Sometimes, like my previous post, I forget that we are in a world Forum, where a lot of people distil a lot of different things getting
                      Message 10 of 19 , Dec 16, 2005
                      • 0 Attachment
                        Yes Rob, you are right.

                        Sometimes, like my previous post, I forget that we are in a world
                        Forum, where a lot of people distil a lot of different things getting
                        a lot of different distillates.

                        So, what is right for grappa isn't right (or not completely right)
                        for gin, or vodka, or something else.

                        Sorry for my post, but take the positive thing from it: use only good
                        quality stuff.
                        After all, you are doing it for yourself.

                        Merry Christmas one more time
                        from

                        micio felice





                        --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, Robert Thomas <whosbrewing@y...>
                        wrote:
                        >
                        > Hi all,
                        > I'm typing here for two reasons:
                        > 1. to Micio, there are lots of ways of chemically removing
                        everything
                        > except alcohol, if that is what is wanted. Obviously, if your grappa
                        > came out tasting (?) like neutral alcohol, you would be unhappy.
                        But if
                        > you are going to flavour after, then maybe it is a way to go (let's
                        say
                        > for gin). I think, however, that you are right. It really isn't
                        > difficult to get a clean fermentation. After that it is down to
                        still
                        > design and experience. I would much rather invest in getting the
                        still
                        > perfect than invest in chemicals that need to be bought every time.
                        > 2. the second reason is that I want to time the arrival of this
                        post!
                        > People must think I just answer messages after everyone else has
                        said
                        > what I do. not true, I seem to have a very slow line somewhere!
                        > time is now 13:37 GMT.
                        > Cheers,
                        > Rob.
                        >
                        >
                        > --- miciofelice2003 <miciofelice2003@y...> wrote:
                        >
                        > > Hi to everybody.
                        > >
                        > > Sorry to be so polemical, but I'm wondering if it's so difficult
                        to
                        > > distil only good stuff.
                        > >
                        > > I learned "on my skin" that if you distil not good stuff you'll
                        get
                        > > only ... bad stuff: rubbish in, rubbish out.
                        > >
                        > > So, please, learn by other's people mistakes (including me): use
                        only
                        > >
                        > > good, fresh stuff and add nothing else than your experience,
                        passion,
                        > >
                        > > and love for what you are doing.
                        > >
                        > > ciao to everybody and... Merry Christmas by
                        > >
                        > > micio felice
                        > >
                        > >
                        > >
                        > >
                        > >
                        > > --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "waljaco" <waljaco@h...> wrote:
                        > > >
                        > > > Russian sites recommend 8-10 frams of sodium or potassium
                        > > > chloride/litre. Stir and allow to stand for 30 minutes. Then
                        add 2
                        > > > grams potassium permanganate/litre and allow to stand for 12
                        hours.
                        > > > Decant and redistill. Before a triple distillation add 200 ml
                        of
                        > > > fresh (skim?) milk/litre. Allow to stand for 30 minutes, add
                        water
                        > > and
                        > > > redistill.
                        > > > Alum? This is the first time I have seen it used. The
                        literature
                        > > says
                        > > > it is used to clear turbid liquids.
                        > > > wal
                        > > > --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "italiandistiller"
                        > > > <italiandistiller@y...> wrote:
                        > > > >
                        > > > > I'm currently trying this method and doing the 2nd
                        distillation
                        > > with
                        > > > > the addition of some Potassium Carbonate & Alum to clean the
                        > > spirit.
                        > > > > THE RESULT: The heads smells like household ammonia! The
                        middle
                        > > of
                        > > > > the run now running at 78.2C has less of an ammonia smell,
                        but it
                        > >
                        > > is
                        > > > > very pungent. It's definitely not drinkable.
                        > > > >
                        > > > > I'm hoping the final, 3rd distillation results in the
                        odorless
                        > > pure
                        > > > > spirit promised. I'd hate to have to delegate these 4 gallons
                        of
                        > > > > spirit to cleaning the barbeque.
                        > > > >
                        > > > > Some numbers: The amount of Potassium Carbonate suggested
                        > > calculates
                        > > > > out to be 225 grams/liter using 50% abv spirit. In practice
                        this
                        > > > > comes to about 2-1/2 cups of K2CO3 per gallon of the spirit.
                        To
                        > > be
                        > > > > conservative, I cut the K2CO3 to 1 cup/gallon for this test.
                        I
                        > > added
                        > > > > about 1 tsp of the Alum (potassium aluminum sulphate) per
                        gallon
                        > > of
                        > > > > 50% abv spirit. I'm using sugar mash/turbo yeast and a reflux
                        > > column.
                        > > > >
                        > > > > Cin Cin!
                        > > > >
                        > > > > Bob
                        > > > >
                        > > > >
                        > > > > >The section on SPIRITS FOR LIQUEURS suggests a triple
                        > > distillation,
                        > > > > >with the addition of 'salt of wormwood' prior to the final
                        > > > > >distillation to which 'alum' is also added.
                        > > > > >
                        > > > > >'Salt of wormwood' (a.k.a. 'Salt of tartar' or 'pearl ash')
                        is
                        > > > > >potassium carbonate K2CO3.
                        > > > > >
                        > > > > >'Alum' is either Potassium aluminium sulphate or aluminium
                        > > sulphate.
                        > > > > >
                        > > > > >wal
                        > > > > >>--- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "waljaco" <waljaco@h...>
                        > > wrote:
                        > > > > >>
                        > > > > >>
                        > > > > >> The article uses the term "pure proof spirit". I assume
                        this
                        > > means
                        > > > > >> 50%abv (US system)?
                        > > > > >> wal
                        > > > > >> Useful concise compilation of 19th century recipes.
                        > > > >
                        > > > > <snip>
                        > > > > >> A very pure and tasteless spirit may be obtained by
                        > > > > > > mixing with the spirit, after rectification, one-fourth
                        of
                        > > its
                        > > > > > > weight of pure dry salt of wormwood or tartar. Let it
                        stand a
                        > >
                        > > > > little
                        > > > > > > time in a gentle heat, and distil in the bain-marie. A
                        small
                        > > > > portion
                        > > > > > > of alum being added
                        > > > > > >
                        > > > >
                        > > >
                        > >
                        > >
                        > >
                        > >
                        > >
                        > >
                        >
                        >
                        > Cheers,
                        > Rob.
                        >
                        > __________________________________________________
                        > Do You Yahoo!?
                        > Tired of spam? Yahoo! Mail has the best spam protection around
                        > http://mail.yahoo.com
                        >
                      • italiandistiller
                        I did the 3rd Distillation after using the K2C03/Alum on the second distillation and it has yielded the cleanest purest alcohol ever-- hydrometer sails up
                        Message 11 of 19 , Dec 16, 2005
                        • 0 Attachment
                          I did the 3rd Distillation after using the K2C03/Alum on the second
                          distillation and it has yielded the cleanest purest alcohol ever--
                          hydrometer sails up there at 195! This will be ideal to make excellent
                          infusions of botanicals for gin.

                          Note: I do have very controlled clean fermentations and obtain very
                          good alcohol on the second distillation without the chem additives, but
                          this procedure does really kick it up several notches! Thanks to
                          Moderator & the Good Distillers here for sharing the lore.

                          Bam!

                          Bob
                        • Harry
                          ... second ... excellent ... very ... additives, but ... Thank you for the experimentation,commentary and updates, Bob. It s good to see you proved the old
                          Message 12 of 19 , Dec 16, 2005
                          • 0 Attachment
                            --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "italiandistiller"
                            <italiandistiller@y...> wrote:
                            >
                            > I did the 3rd Distillation after using the K2C03/Alum on the
                            second
                            > distillation and it has yielded the cleanest purest alcohol ever--
                            > hydrometer sails up there at 195! This will be ideal to make
                            excellent
                            > infusions of botanicals for gin.
                            >
                            > Note: I do have very controlled clean fermentations and obtain
                            very
                            > good alcohol on the second distillation without the chem
                            additives, but
                            > this procedure does really kick it up several notches! Thanks to
                            > Moderator & the Good Distillers here for sharing the lore.
                            >
                            > Bam!
                            >
                            > Bob
                            >


                            Thank you for the experimentation,commentary and updates, Bob. It's
                            good to see you proved the old fellas knew what they were on about.
                            It never ceases to amaze me how they arrived at all these results
                            without benefit of gas chromatographs, modern chemistry or even a
                            thorough knowledge of how fermentation works! It just goes to show,
                            we could do worse than follow the traditional methods, albeit with
                            help from our knowledge of modern techniques thrown in.


                            Slainte!
                            regards Harry
                          • waljaco
                            The alkali potassium carbonate reacts with fusels. But what does potash alum do? wal
                            Message 13 of 19 , Dec 17, 2005
                            • 0 Attachment
                              The alkali potassium carbonate reacts with fusels. But what does
                              potash alum do?
                              wal
                              --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "italiandistiller"
                              <italiandistiller@y...> wrote:
                              >
                              > I did the 3rd Distillation after using the K2C03/Alum on the second
                              > distillation and it has yielded the cleanest purest alcohol ever--
                              > hydrometer sails up there at 195! This will be ideal to make excellent
                              > infusions of botanicals for gin.
                              >
                              > Note: I do have very controlled clean fermentations and obtain very
                              > good alcohol on the second distillation without the chem additives, but
                              > this procedure does really kick it up several notches! Thanks to
                              > Moderator & the Good Distillers here for sharing the lore.
                              >
                              > Bam!
                              >
                              > Bob
                              >
                            • Robert Thomas
                              Could it be that the alum is acting as a mordant, essentially making the acids and higher alcohols nonvolatile? It is certainly used in dying as a mordant, and
                              Message 14 of 19 , Dec 17, 2005
                              • 0 Attachment
                                Could it be that the alum is acting as a mordant, essentially making
                                the acids and higher alcohols nonvolatile? It is certainly used in
                                dying as a mordant, and in paper making as size (I think).
                                Cheers,
                                Rob.


                                --- waljaco <waljaco@...> wrote:

                                > The alkali potassium carbonate reacts with fusels. But what does
                                > potash alum do?
                                > wal
                                > --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "italiandistiller"
                                > <italiandistiller@y...> wrote:
                                > >
                                > > I did the 3rd Distillation after using the K2C03/Alum on the second
                                >
                                > > distillation and it has yielded the cleanest purest alcohol ever--
                                > > hydrometer sails up there at 195! This will be ideal to make
                                > excellent
                                > > infusions of botanicals for gin.
                                > >
                                > > Note: I do have very controlled clean fermentations and obtain very
                                >
                                > > good alcohol on the second distillation without the chem additives,
                                > but
                                > > this procedure does really kick it up several notches! Thanks to
                                > > Moderator & the Good Distillers here for sharing the lore.
                                > >
                                > > Bam!
                                > >
                                > > Bob
                                > >
                                >
                                >
                                >
                                >
                                >


                                Cheers,
                                Rob.

                                __________________________________________________
                                Do You Yahoo!?
                                Tired of spam? Yahoo! Mail has the best spam protection around
                                http://mail.yahoo.com
                              • italiandistiller
                                The article states the alum s purpose: A small portion of alum being added prevents any of the salt being brought over with the spirit. The result is pure
                                Message 15 of 19 , Dec 17, 2005
                                • 0 Attachment
                                  The article states the alum's purpose: "A small portion
                                  of alum being added prevents any of the salt being brought over with
                                  the spirit. The result is pure alcohol. It may be reduced to proof
                                  spirit by mixing twenty ounces of alcohol with seventeen of water, by
                                  weight."

                                  Of course salt here refers to the Potassium Carbonate: "Salt of
                                  wormwood' (a.k.a. 'Salt of tartar' or 'pearl ash') is potassium
                                  carbonate K2CO3."

                                  Bob

                                  --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, Robert Thomas <whosbrewing@y...>
                                  wrote:
                                  >
                                  > Could it be that the alum is acting as a mordant, essentially making
                                  > the acids and higher alcohols nonvolatile? It is certainly used in
                                  > dying as a mordant, and in paper making as size (I think).
                                  > Cheers,
                                  > Rob.
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > --- waljaco <waljaco@h...> wrote:
                                  >
                                  > > The alkali potassium carbonate reacts with fusels. But what does
                                  > > potash alum do?
                                  > > wal
                                  > > --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "italiandistiller"
                                  > > <italiandistiller@y...> wrote:
                                  > > >
                                  > > > I did the 3rd Distillation after using the K2C03/Alum on the
                                  second
                                  > >
                                  > > > distillation and it has yielded the cleanest purest alcohol
                                  ever--
                                  > > > hydrometer sails up there at 195! This will be ideal to make
                                  > > excellent
                                  > > > infusions of botanicals for gin.
                                  > > >
                                  > > > Note: I do have very controlled clean fermentations and obtain
                                  very
                                  > >
                                  > > > good alcohol on the second distillation without the chem
                                  additives,
                                  > > but
                                  > > > this procedure does really kick it up several notches! Thanks
                                  to
                                  > > > Moderator & the Good Distillers here for sharing the lore.
                                  > > >
                                  > > > Bam!
                                  > > >
                                  > > > Bob
                                • waljaco
                                  A mordant is either inherently colloidal or produces colloids. Alum in this case is then used to trap the soaps produced from the pearl ash acting on the
                                  Message 16 of 19 , Dec 17, 2005
                                  • 0 Attachment
                                    A mordant is either inherently colloidal or produces colloids. Alum in
                                    this case is then used to trap the 'soaps' produced from the pearl ash
                                    acting on the fusel oils (higher alcohols). The milk proteins in the
                                    Russian usage act in a similar way. The amount of milk used is 1
                                    tbsp/litre for clarification purposes.
                                    wal
                                    --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "italiandistiller"
                                    <italiandistiller@y...> wrote:
                                    >
                                    > The article states the alum's purpose: "A small portion
                                    > of alum being added prevents any of the salt being brought over with
                                    > the spirit. The result is pure alcohol. It may be reduced to proof
                                    > spirit by mixing twenty ounces of alcohol with seventeen of water, by
                                    > weight."
                                    >
                                    > Of course salt here refers to the Potassium Carbonate: "Salt of
                                    > wormwood' (a.k.a. 'Salt of tartar' or 'pearl ash') is potassium
                                    > carbonate K2CO3."
                                    >
                                    > Bob
                                    >
                                    > --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, Robert Thomas <whosbrewing@y...>
                                    > wrote:
                                    > >
                                    > > Could it be that the alum is acting as a mordant, essentially making
                                    > > the acids and higher alcohols nonvolatile? It is certainly used in
                                    > > dying as a mordant, and in paper making as size (I think).
                                    > > Cheers,
                                    > > Rob.
                                    > >
                                    > >
                                    > > --- waljaco <waljaco@h...> wrote:
                                    > >
                                    > > > The alkali potassium carbonate reacts with fusels. But what does
                                    > > > potash alum do?
                                    > > > wal
                                    > > > --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "italiandistiller"
                                    > > > <italiandistiller@y...> wrote:
                                    > > > >
                                    > > > > I did the 3rd Distillation after using the K2C03/Alum on the
                                    > second
                                    > > >
                                    > > > > distillation and it has yielded the cleanest purest alcohol
                                    > ever--
                                    > > > > hydrometer sails up there at 195! This will be ideal to make
                                    > > > excellent
                                    > > > > infusions of botanicals for gin.
                                    > > > >
                                    > > > > Note: I do have very controlled clean fermentations and obtain
                                    > very
                                    > > >
                                    > > > > good alcohol on the second distillation without the chem
                                    > additives,
                                    > > > but
                                    > > > > this procedure does really kick it up several notches! Thanks
                                    > to
                                    > > > > Moderator & the Good Distillers here for sharing the lore.
                                    > > > >
                                    > > > > Bam!
                                    > > > >
                                    > > > > Bob
                                    >
                                  • waljaco
                                    Chemists were quite active in the 19th century as attested by the number of publications. The amount of potassium carbonate suggested in the article (1/4 of
                                    Message 17 of 19 , Dec 17, 2005
                                    • 0 Attachment
                                      Chemists were quite active in the 19th century as attested by the
                                      number of publications.
                                      The amount of potassium carbonate suggested in the article (1/4 of the
                                      weight of the distillate or 225g/l) seems excessive when compared to
                                      the results of current Distillers using potassium bicarbonate - about
                                      5-10g/litre.

                                      wal
                                      --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "Harry" <gnikomson2000@y...> wrote:
                                      >
                                      > --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "italiandistiller"
                                      > <italiandistiller@y...> wrote:
                                      > >
                                      > > I did the 3rd Distillation after using the K2C03/Alum on the
                                      > second
                                      > > distillation and it has yielded the cleanest purest alcohol ever--
                                      > > hydrometer sails up there at 195! This will be ideal to make
                                      > excellent
                                      > > infusions of botanicals for gin.
                                      > >
                                      > > Note: I do have very controlled clean fermentations and obtain
                                      > very
                                      > > good alcohol on the second distillation without the chem
                                      > additives, but
                                      > > this procedure does really kick it up several notches! Thanks to
                                      > > Moderator & the Good Distillers here for sharing the lore.
                                      > >
                                      > > Bam!
                                      > >
                                      > > Bob
                                      > >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      > Thank you for the experimentation,commentary and updates, Bob. It's
                                      > good to see you proved the old fellas knew what they were on about.
                                      > It never ceases to amaze me how they arrived at all these results
                                      > without benefit of gas chromatographs, modern chemistry or even a
                                      > thorough knowledge of how fermentation works! It just goes to show,
                                      > we could do worse than follow the traditional methods, albeit with
                                      > help from our knowledge of modern techniques thrown in.
                                      >
                                      >
                                      > Slainte!
                                      > regards Harry
                                      >
                                    • italiandistiller
                                      I agree. For my tests I cut the suggested amount by 0.5 using 112.5 gr/liter and that seemed excessive. I used 1 teaspoon of the alum per gallon of 50% abv and
                                      Message 18 of 19 , Dec 17, 2005
                                      • 0 Attachment
                                        I agree. For my tests I cut the suggested amount by 0.5 using 112.5
                                        gr/liter and that seemed excessive. I used 1 teaspoon of the alum per
                                        gallon of 50% abv and that was probably overboard as formulary
                                        indicates "a pinch" to generally be less than 1/8 teaspoon. Potassium
                                        Carbonate in bulk is not a great expense and the results were
                                        excellent, but the Potassium Bicarbonate, if it produces a similar
                                        result would be the way to go. Can you suggest a good method of using
                                        Potassium bicarbonate?

                                        Bob

                                        >
                                        > Chemists were quite active in the 19th century as attested by the
                                        > number of publications.
                                        > The amount of potassium carbonate suggested in the article (1/4 of
                                        the
                                        > weight of the distillate or 225g/l) seems excessive when compared to
                                        > the results of current Distillers using potassium bicarbonate -
                                        about
                                        > 5-10g/litre.
                                        >
                                        > wal
                                        > --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "Harry" <gnikomson2000@y...>
                                        wrote:
                                        > >
                                        > > --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "italiandistiller"
                                        > > <italiandistiller@y...> wrote:
                                        > > >
                                        > > > I did the 3rd Distillation after using the K2C03/Alum on the
                                        > > second
                                        > > > distillation and it has yielded the cleanest purest alcohol
                                        ever--
                                        > > > hydrometer sails up there at 195! This will be ideal to make
                                        > > excellent
                                        > > > infusions of botanicals for gin.
                                        > > >
                                        > > > Note: I do have very controlled clean fermentations and obtain
                                        > > very
                                        > > > good alcohol on the second distillation without the chem
                                        > > additives, but
                                        > > > this procedure does really kick it up several notches! Thanks to
                                        > > > Moderator & the Good Distillers here for sharing the lore.
                                        > > >
                                        > > > Bam!
                                        > > >
                                        > > > Bob
                                        > > >
                                        > >
                                        > >
                                        > > Thank you for the experimentation,commentary and updates, Bob.
                                        It's
                                        > > good to see you proved the old fellas knew what they were on
                                        about.
                                        > > It never ceases to amaze me how they arrived at all these results
                                        > > without benefit of gas chromatographs, modern chemistry or even a
                                        > > thorough knowledge of how fermentation works! It just goes to
                                        show,
                                        > > we could do worse than follow the traditional methods, albeit with
                                        > > help from our knowledge of modern techniques thrown in.
                                        > >
                                        > >
                                        > > Slainte!
                                        > > regards Harry
                                      • waljaco
                                        Pearl ash used to be made by burning wood - possibly the quantity of 1/4 of the weight of the distillate refers to this source. Some Italian communities used
                                        Message 19 of 19 , Dec 19, 2005
                                        • 0 Attachment
                                          'Pearl ash' used to be made by burning wood - possibly the quantity of
                                          1/4 of the weight of the distillate refers to this source. Some
                                          Italian communities used to dissolve this ash in water to produce a
                                          washing lye which was also added to fats to make soap.
                                          Harry (see msg 31737) says that sodium bicarbonate reaches saturation
                                          at roughly 100g/litre but most use from 1tsp/l to 1 tbsp/l. Keep in
                                          mind that with proper disilling your product is relatively clean to
                                          begin with.
                                          wal

                                          --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "italiandistiller"
                                          <italiandistiller@y...> wrote:
                                          >
                                          > I agree. For my tests I cut the suggested amount by 0.5 using 112.5
                                          > gr/liter and that seemed excessive. I used 1 teaspoon of the alum per
                                          > gallon of 50% abv and that was probably overboard as formulary
                                          > indicates "a pinch" to generally be less than 1/8 teaspoon. Potassium
                                          > Carbonate in bulk is not a great expense and the results were
                                          > excellent, but the Potassium Bicarbonate, if it produces a similar
                                          > result would be the way to go. Can you suggest a good method of using
                                          > Potassium bicarbonate?
                                          >
                                          > Bob
                                          >
                                          > >
                                          > > Chemists were quite active in the 19th century as attested by the
                                          > > number of publications.
                                          > > The amount of potassium carbonate suggested in the article (1/4 of
                                          > the
                                          > > weight of the distillate or 225g/l) seems excessive when compared to
                                          > > the results of current Distillers using potassium bicarbonate -
                                          > about
                                          > > 5-10g/litre.
                                          > >
                                          > > wal
                                          > > --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "Harry" <gnikomson2000@y...>
                                          > wrote:
                                          > > >
                                          > > > --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "italiandistiller"
                                          > > > <italiandistiller@y...> wrote:
                                          > > > >
                                          > > > > I did the 3rd Distillation after using the K2C03/Alum on the
                                          > > > second
                                          > > > > distillation and it has yielded the cleanest purest alcohol
                                          > ever--
                                          > > > > hydrometer sails up there at 195! This will be ideal to make
                                          > > > excellent
                                          > > > > infusions of botanicals for gin.
                                          > > > >
                                          > > > > Note: I do have very controlled clean fermentations and obtain
                                          > > > very
                                          > > > > good alcohol on the second distillation without the chem
                                          > > > additives, but
                                          > > > > this procedure does really kick it up several notches! Thanks to
                                          > > > > Moderator & the Good Distillers here for sharing the lore.
                                          > > > >
                                          > > > > Bam!
                                          > > > >
                                          > > > > Bob
                                          > > > >
                                          > > >
                                          > > >
                                          > > > Thank you for the experimentation,commentary and updates, Bob.
                                          > It's
                                          > > > good to see you proved the old fellas knew what they were on
                                          > about.
                                          > > > It never ceases to amaze me how they arrived at all these results
                                          > > > without benefit of gas chromatographs, modern chemistry or even a
                                          > > > thorough knowledge of how fermentation works! It just goes to
                                          > show,
                                          > > > we could do worse than follow the traditional methods, albeit with
                                          > > > help from our knowledge of modern techniques thrown in.
                                          > > >
                                          > > >
                                          > > > Slainte!
                                          > > > regards Harry
                                          >
                                        Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.