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Natural flavor - how much?

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  • waljaco@hotmail.com
    I am one who believes that using natural flavors is a great part of home distillation, and that valid flavor variations are superior to poor imitations. With
    Message 1 of 2 , Sep 5, 2001
      I am one who believes that using natural flavors is a great part of
      home distillation, and that valid flavor variations are superior to
      poor imitations. With this in mind I have been trying to rationalise
      the myriad of empirically based recipes. A good starting point is to
      find out the percentage yield of essential oil from the common herbs
      and spices used, as these produce the flavors. Knowing how much
      essential oil is required to produce the desired taste, we can work
      out the quantity of raw material required. We can macerate this
      material in alcohol and then redistill, adjusting the taste with
      clean alcohol, or we can add it to (or above) the mash/wash and
      distill together. A useful site for essential oil yield is:
      http://www.benzalco.com/herb_distil_info.html
      While there check out their pot stills.
      For details of herbs see:
      http://www.botanical.com

      Recipes indicate that 7 drops of essential oil per litre of spirit is
      the minimum requirement. About 1/2tsp. of essential oil/litre of
      alcohol (40%abv) seems to be the optimum amount. To be safe, begin by
      using 1/8 tsp., then add more drops of oil until you are satisfied
      with the flavor. With anise oil you should not go below proof as the
      anise oil turns white in water. Extracts are essential oils diluted
      in alcohol and usually 4 units of extract is equivalent to 1 unit of
      essential oil. The S.G. of oil is about 0.8kg/l.
      Examples-

      Anise flavor. Crushed anise seeds give an oil yield of 1.5 - 4%.
      Assuming a practical 2% yield, 100g of crushed aniseed for each litre
      of alcohol (50%abv ) should be sufficient.(about 2.5ml or 1/2tsp. of
      oil). Therefore adding 500g crushed aniseed to a 25l wash should be
      sufficient for the 5l of alcohol (50%abv) one can obtain. 2tsp. of
      aniseed weighs approx. 10g while 4 heaped tablespoons weigh about 50g.

      Orange flavor. Citrus peels have a potential oil yield of 1.5 - 2%.
      The peel from one orange weighs about 50g. Therefore you need the
      peel of 3 oranges(150g) for each litre of alcohol (40%abv). This
      yields about 1/2tsp. of orange oil for each litre of alcohol. You can
      macerate this amount in alcohol to draw out the oil for liqueurs if
      you don't mind the orange tinge.

      Lemon flavor. You need the peel of about 6 lemons for each litre of
      alcohol (about 2.5ml or 1/2tsp. of essential oil). Literature
      suggests that a 1000 lemons are required to produce one pound of
      essential oil. Macerate this amount in alcohol to make limoncello
      (750ml 40% alcohol,peel from 6lemons, 21/2 cups sugar, 21/4 cups
      water - macerate for 2-4 weeks.)

      Gin. It appears to me from 2 sites that of the main ingredients you
      need are 25g of juniper berries and 12.5g coriander seeds for each
      litre of alcohol (45%abv). The oil yield from juniper berries is 1.5%
      and for coriander seeds its 1%. Therefore about 7 drops of juniper
      oil and 3 drops of coriander oil would be quite sufficient, together
      with small amounts of the other herbals. Dutch gin is stronger
      flavored, and historically used malted grains in the mash. The use of
      pure alcohol is a modern idea.

      Oak. Wine makers use 1-5g of oak shavings per litre of wine, checking
      every 2 months until the desired flavor is obtained. A similar
      quantity would be appropriate for alcohol. American oak has more
      vanillins than French oak and is preferred for whisky, rum and
      bourbon. Scotch and rum is aged in casks which held oloroso sherry,
      and this can be imitated by soaking the chips in dry Spanish oloroso
      sherry before adding to the alcohol. Toasting oak produces sugars and
      vanillins, and adding toasted oak to make brandy quickens the
      process, as French oak being high in tannin takes a while to mellow.

      Rum. You can use raw sugar to produce light white rums like those
      from cane syrup or use molasses (50% sugar) for stronger flavors. For
      the south-east asian arak you can use palm sugar which comes from
      Thailand and Indonesia and is sold in Chinese grocery stores. Use
      sherry soaked oak chips to produce gold rum. Add caramel to produce
      dark rum.

      Wal
      P.S. Please add or correct.
    • waljaco
      Some corrections (for Orange flavor) to msg 3098 - ... part of ... rationalise ... to ... herbs ... is ... by ... the ... of ... A metric teaspoon is 5ml and
      Message 2 of 2 , Nov 10, 2004
        Some corrections (for Orange flavor) to msg 3098 -

        --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, waljaco@h...
        part of
        > home distillation, and that valid flavor variations are superior to
        > poor imitations. With this in mind I have been trying to
        rationalise
        > the myriad of empirically based recipes. A good starting point is
        to
        > find out the percentage yield of essential oil from the common
        herbs
        > and spices used, as these produce the flavors. Knowing how much
        > essential oil is required to produce the desired taste, we can work
        > out the quantity of raw material required. We can macerate this
        > material in alcohol and then redistill, adjusting the taste with
        > clean alcohol, or we can add it to (or above) the mash/wash and
        > distill together. A useful site for essential oil yield is:
        > http://www.benzalco.com/herb_distil_info.html
        > While there check out their pot stills.
        > For details of herbs see:
        > http://www.botanical.com
        >
        > Recipes indicate that 7 drops of essential oil per litre of spirit
        is
        > the minimum requirement. About 1/2tsp. of essential oil/litre of
        > alcohol (40%abv) seems to be the optimum amount. To be safe, begin
        by
        > using 1/8 tsp., then add more drops of oil until you are satisfied
        > with the flavor. With anise oil you should not go below proof as
        the
        > anise oil turns white in water. Extracts are essential oils diluted
        > in alcohol and usually 4 units of extract is equivalent to 1 unit
        of
        > essential oil. The S.G. of oil is about 0.8kg/l.

        A metric teaspoon is 5ml and holds 100 drops.

        > Examples-
        >
        > Anise flavor. Crushed anise seeds give an oil yield of 1.5 - 4%.
        > Assuming a practical 2% yield, 100g of crushed aniseed for each
        litre
        > of alcohol (50%abv ) should be sufficient.(about 2.5ml or 1/2tsp.
        of
        > oil). Therefore adding 500g crushed aniseed to a 25l wash should be
        > sufficient for the 5l of alcohol (50%abv) one can obtain. 2tsp. of
        > aniseed weighs approx. 10g while 4 heaped tablespoons weigh about
        50g.
        >
        > Orange flavor. Citrus peels have a potential oil yield of 1.5 - 2%.
        > The zest from one orange weighs about 25g. Recipes suggest that you
        need the
        > zest of 3-4 oranges(80g) for each litre of alcohol (40%abv). This
        > yields about 1/4tsp. of orange oil for each litre of alcohol. You
        can
        > macerate this amount in alcohol to draw out the oil for liqueurs if
        > you don't mind the orange tinge.
        >
        > Lemon flavor. You need the zest of about 6 lemons for each litre of
        > alcohol (about 2.5ml or 1/2tsp. of essential oil). Literature
        > suggests that a 1000 lemons are required to produce one pound of
        > essential oil. i.e. 6 lemons give about 2.5ml of essential oil.
        Macerate this amount of zest in alcohol to make limoncello
        > (750ml 40% alcohol,peel from 6lemons, 21/2 cups sugar, 21/4 cups
        > water - macerate for 2-4 weeks.)
        >
        > Gin. It appears to me from 2 sites that of the main ingredients you
        > need are 25g of juniper berries and 12.5g coriander seeds for each
        > litre of alcohol (45%abv). The oil yield from juniper berries is
        1.5%
        > and for coriander seeds its 1%. Therefore about 7 drops of juniper
        > oil and 3 drops of coriander oil would be quite sufficient,
        together
        > with small amounts of the other herbals. Dutch gin is stronger
        > flavored, and historically used malted grains in the mash. The use
        of
        > pure alcohol is a modern idea.
        >
        > Oak. Wine makers use 1-5g of oak shavings per litre of wine,
        checking
        > every 2 months until the desired flavor is obtained. A similar
        > quantity would be appropriate for alcohol. American oak has more
        > vanillins than French oak and is preferred for whisky, rum and
        > bourbon. Scotch and rum is aged in casks which held oloroso sherry,
        > and this can be imitated by soaking the chips in dry Spanish
        oloroso
        > sherry before adding to the alcohol. Toasting oak produces sugars
        and
        > vanillins, and adding toasted oak to make brandy quickens the
        > process, as French oak being high in tannin takes a while to mellow.
        >
        > Rum. You can use raw sugar to produce light white rums like those
        > from cane syrup or use molasses (50% sugar) for stronger flavors.
        For
        > the south-east asian arak you can use palm sugar which comes from
        > Thailand and Indonesia and is sold in Chinese grocery stores. Use
        > sherry-soaked oak chips to produce gold rum. Add caramel to produce
        > dark rum.
        >
        > Wal
        > P.S. Please add or correct.
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