Re: Emulsifier question
- --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "Héctor A. Landaeta C."
> Whoa, Harry! Thanks! Of all the gadgets in my kitchen I neverturned to
> the Braun whatchamacallit that works like kind of a handheldblender (know
> the one?) The gadgets your links point at look much the same. Ihave this
> restaurant size SS blender that I keep in the brewery soeverything I want
> to mix thoroughly gets that sole treatment. That could be theculprit.
> Anyway I really think I need some aditional chemical help besidesthe
> physical aides.with my
> The sodium caseinate tip is capital. Tomorrow morning I¹ll check
> chem suppliers and see if they carry some. Any discovery of usagerates in
> your findings? (I know I¹m asking too much)Hi Hector,
> Thanks again.
> Salud mi pana!
There is much good information in the U.S. patents office (if you
know what/how to search for it. :-))
Here's something that is extremely useful to you, for the background
knowledge, the description of process, and the references cited.
I'll cut & paste some of it here (long), then point you at the site
article. You can purchase the article online if you want a personal
United States Patent 4,957,765
Widmar , et al. September 18, 1990
Cream based liqueurs
The present invention involves a system and method for preparing
cream liqueur products having improved emulsion stability and
products thereof. The method comprises the steps of preparing a
spirits premix by combining spirits, a carbohydrate, and water, and
preferably including flavoring and colorant; preparing a protein
premix by dissolving citric acid or a salt thereof and caseinate in
water; thoroughly mixing the protein premix with cream, preferably
double cream; thereafter preparing a product mixture by mixing the
spirit premix with the mixture of cream and the protein premix; and
homogenizing the product mixture so that the average particle size
is reduced to less than 5 microns, preferably less than 2 microns.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Well known cream liqueur products, such as Baileys Irish Cream, and
the like, are basically emulsions formed from mixtures of aqueous
alcoholic spirits and cream.
A recurring problem with such products is lack of emulsion
stability, i.e., the ability of the two phases of the emulsion to
resist change over a period of time and/or stress.
Emulsions may be defined as a mixture of liquids that are immiscible
under ordinary conditions and which may separate into layers upon
standing, heating, freezing, agitation or the addition of chemicals.
Emulsions are basically two-phase systems. The phase which is
present in the form of finely divided droplets is called the
internal phase; the phase which forms the matrix in which these
droplets are suspended is called the external phase. Cream liqueurs
are emulsions which have butter oil (from dairy cream) as the
internal phase, and a suspension of protein, buffering salts,
flavorants and colorants in an alcohol/water mixture as the external
One kind of emulsion instability is "creaming". This mechanism
involves the rising of the dispersed (internal) phase to the surface
of the emulsion. Factors influencing the rate and degree
of "creaming" are the surface electrical charge of the globule, the
relative sizes of the globules and the ionic balance of the external
"Creaming" does not involve total breakdown of the emulsion and the
layer of risen globules can be re-dispersed into the emulsion by
simple agitation. However, repeated re-dispersion of the emulsion's
components increases the tendency towards complete phase-separation.
Phase-separation, sometimes called syneresis, results from the
coalescence of a few oversized globules, followed by agglomeration
of the coalesced globules that are unable to return to the uniformly
dispersed state. As these agglomerates become larger they form
clumps. Phase-separated cream liqueurs lose their original flavor
and texture characteristics and other important properties.
The effects of "creaming" in cream liqueur products, though
undesirable, can usually be overcome by shaking or simple agitation.
Phase separation, however, is a more serious problem. Phase-
separation renders the cream liqueur product unsaleable and
unuseable to consumers. Accordingly, emulsion stability is extremely
important to the preparation of cream liqueurs having a commercially
The emulsion stability of cream liqueur products must be sufficient
to avoid "creaming" and phase separation under normal handling,
transportation, storage and use for such products. Therefore, such
products must be stable to vibration, agitation, shaking, high
shear, freeze-thaw cycling, elevated temperatures, dilution and, of
course, be stable with the other constituents of the product itself
such as salts, flavorings, colorants, alcohol, sugars, and the like.
Emulsion stability of cream liqueurs is a result of its composition
and its mode of preparation.
It is known that the emulsion stability of cream liqueur products
can be improved by adding stabilizing agents such as the sodium
and/or potassium salts of citric acid as disclosed in the British
Patent Application GB No. 2 084 185 A.
It is also known that, apart from their composition, the preparation
of and processing of cream liqueur products, e.g., the mixing order,
influences emulsion stability, hence, the shelf life. (Reference:
Banks, W. et al. "Formulation of Cream-based Liqueurs: A Comparison
of Sucrose and Sorbitol As The Carbohydrate Component." Journal of
the Society of Dairy Technology, Vol. 35, No. 2, Apr. 1982, pp. 41-
etc. etc. etc...
Hector, go here...
Plug in the patent number 4,957,765
If you want the drawings, click the [images] button.
If you want to purchase a copy, click the [add to cart] button.
- Hola gente!
I¹ve just received a magisterial class of emulsifiers by a couple of Phd¹s
on that precise subject (the ones I told you before that invented
Orimulsion, the heavy oil and water fuel-oil substitute). Having presented
myself to them as the lowest of the low layman in the area (and with a low
IQ as a garnish) I received some pretty interesting data in the simplest
terms: It seems there¹s basically two types of emulsifiers, ones that are
meant to to be used in a fat in water context and others in a water in fat
context; it all depends of the fat to water ratio. In the case of
chocolate (the solid one that comes in bars) that¹s a water in fat scenario,
and in that case you must use an emulsifier which has more water than fat
affinity, like lecithin. In the case of a fat based liquor (like my
chocolate liquor) the right emulsifier is one that exhibits more fat
affinity (the recipe calls for 600 ml of H2O per liter), and the
best/cheapest/stablest in the context is Polysorbate 60. In the ice-cream
and bakery industries there¹s a widespread use of a brother of this
substance, Polysorbate 80, but this emulsifier serves other conditions (or
so I¹m told).
Sodium caseinate applies, almost exclusively, to liquors whose fat content
is milk fat (cream) based.
They told me that the usage threshold of soy lecithin in a liquid scenario
like mine is like 300-700 ppm and that by using 3 ml per liter I was using
about 60.000 ppm! (and it didn¹t work, by the way, it did separate at less
than 24 hours).
It happens that they had a bucket full of the stuff I needed (looks exactly
like vaseline) and they gave me a generous helping to test on a range of 0,5
to 3 grams per liter, to keep things in a conservative side. Polysorbate 60
costs like 25% of what soy lecithin does in our local market.
They emphasized the role of mixing and the sequence in which you introduce
the elements. If you¹re using the fat in water type of emulsifiers you
should start by mixing it with the water and watery ingredients and add the
fat substances last (if using the other type, then by the inverse).
Agitation should be done by means that introduce the less air possible (told
me the hand blender was the best choice and that the vortex implied in
blender mixing was no good because of that). Also told me that it should be
mixed for a period of no less than 5 minutes.
Thanks again to all that gave their advice. The final recipes I would
publish by the day past tomorrow to give time for tests in progress to give
their final verdict.
Colonia Tovar - Venezuela.
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