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Re: [unitednon-tagalogs] Visayan verbal paradigm charts

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  • Carl Rubino
    Oh my! So now I have a different take on the old phrase kuskus balungos . But the main point of this letter is to offer some more Visayan verbal paradigms
    Message 1 of 16 , Nov 29, 2001
      Oh my! So now I have a different take on the old phrase "kuskus balungos".
        But the main point of this letter is to offer some more Visayan verbal paradigms (Hiligaynon, Cebuano, and Waray) you may like to compare and contrast, all from the following book:
       
      Jane Garry and Carl Rubino (eds.) Encyclopedia of the World's Major Languages: Past and Present. New York/Dublin: HW Wilson.
       
      charts by David Zorc, John Wolff and myself:
       
        I also made some colorful maps tracing various linguistic patterns around the Philippines while I was a typologist at ANU. I will have to resuscitate them some place in my files as it seems like many in this group would like to see them. I'm glad they can be of some use!
        Here are the paradigms (you will need to be able to read html e-mail to view them correctly):
       
      WARAY WARAY
       

      Waray Waray Verbal Affixes (accent or : denotes vowel length)

      Aspect

      Imperfective

      Perfective

      Tense ®

      VOICE ¯

      Actual

      Contingent

      Aorist

      Actual

      Contingent

      Aorist

      Active

      punctual

      durative

      potentive

      ná:

      nagCV:-

      nakáka-/

      náka-

      má:

      magCV:-

      makáka-/

      máka-

      CV:-

      pagCV:-

      pakáka-

      {i(m)n}

      nag-

      naka-

      {um}

      mag-

      maka-

      0-

      pag-

      paka-

      Instrument

      punctual

      durative

      potentive

      iCinV:-

      iginCV:-

      nahíhi-/

      ikinaCV-nahaCV:-

      iCV:-

      igCV:-

      mahíhi-/

      ikaCV:-/

      mahaCV:-

      iCV:-

      +CV --an

      igCV:-

      maCV--an/

      ikaCV:-/

      mahaCV:-

      i- {in}

      igin-

      nahi-/

      ikina-/

      naha-

      i-

      ig-

      mahi-/

      ika-/

      maha-/

      i- -an

      ig-

      +ma--an

      ika-

      maha-

      Pat/Goal

      punctual

      durative

      potentive

      CinV-

      ginCV:-

      naCV:-

      CV:--en

      pagCV:- -en

      maCV- -en

      CV:- -a

      pagCV:- -a

      kaCV:- -i

      {in}

      gin-

      na-

      -en

      pag- -en

      ma- -en

      -a

      pag- -a

      ka-

      Local

      punctual

      durative

      potentive

      CinV:--an

      ginCV:--an

      naCV:--an

      CV:--an

      pagCV:--an

      maCV:--an

      CV:--i

      pagCV:--an

      kaCV:--i

      {in}-an

      gin—an

      na—an

       

      -an

      pag--an

      ma--an

      -i

      pag--i

      ka--i

      USES:

      present

      progressive

      future

      future

      with

      future

      preverbs

      past,

      perfect

      infinitive, polite commands

      commands, with past preverb

       
      CEBUANO
       

      Voice (case)

      Past

      Future

      Tenseless

      active volitional

      mipalít

      "bought"

      mupalít

      "will buy"

      mupalít

      / palít "buy"

      active non-volitional

      nagpalít

      "bought"

      magpalít

      "will buy"

      magpalít

      "buy"

      active progressive

      nagapalít

      "is buying"

      magapalít

      "will be buying"

      magapalít

      "be buying"

      direct passive

      gipalít

      "bought it"

      palitún

      "will buy it"

      palitá

      "buy it"

      local passive

      gipalitán

      "bought from it"

      palitán

      "will buy from it"

      palití

      "buy from it"

      conveyance passive

      gipalít

      "used it to buy/buy for him"

      /

      ipalít"will use to buy, etc."

      /

      ipalít "use to buy, etc."
       
      HILIGAYNON:
       

      Past Progressive Contingent Future Command

      Active

      Punctual -um- -um- ma- mag-

      Durative nag- naga- mag- maga- pag-

      Distributive naN- nagapaN- maN- magapaN- magpaN-

      Potential naka- naka- maka- maka-

      Passive

      Punctual -in- -(h)on -(h)on -a

      Durative gin- gina- pag--on paga--on pag--a

      Distributive ginpaN- ginapaN- paN--on paN--on

      Potential na- na- ma- ma-

      Instrumental

      Punctual -in- i- i- i-

      Durative gin- gina- i(g)- iga- ipag-

      Distributive ginpaN--an ginapaN--an ipaN-- ipaN-

      Potential (ki)na- na- ika- ika-

      Local Passive

      Punctual -in--an -an -an -i

      Durative gin--an gina--an pag--an paga--an pag--i

      Distributive ginpaN--an ginapaN--an paN--an paN--an

      Potential na--an na--an ma--an ma--an

      Examples with the very root balígya’ ‘sell’ include: nagabalígya’ ‘is selling [active progressive],’ nagbalígya’ ‘sold [active past],’ magabalígya’ ‘will sell [active future],’ magbalígya’ ‘sell [active command],’ nakabalígya’ ‘was able to sell; could sell [active potential past],’ makabalígya’ ‘can sell [active potential future],’ nagapamalígya’ ‘sell lots [distributive active progressive],’ namalígya’ ‘sold lots [distributive active past],’ ginbalígya’ ‘was sold [instrumental past],’ ginabalígya’ ‘is being sold [instrumental progressive],’ ibalígya’ ‘will be sold [instrumental future]; sell it! [object focus command],’ ikabalígya’ ‘can be sold [instrumental potential future],’ ginabligya’án ‘is being sold to [local passive progressive],’ ginbaligya’án ‘was sold to [local passive past],’ nabaligya’án ‘was able (could) be sold to [local passive past potential].’

      The verb system also has some other frequently used affixes:

      -ánay Reciprocal patyanáy killing each other

      pa

      - Causative pakíta’ show, cause to see

      pakig

      - Mutual Activity pagpakigkíta’ meeting with someone

      nakighámbal

      talked with

      magka

      - Stative nagkabuhí’ lived one’s life out
       
        Have a happy weekend everyone!!
        Carl
       
      ----- Original Message -----
      From: Dindo Generoso <dindo@...>
      Sent: Thursday, November 29, 2001 9:19 PM
      Subject: Re: [unitednon-tagalogs] Please help: "Angry" words in Philippine languages???

      > Careful now, guys!
      >
      > To the 32 million Cebuano speakers "balungus" means "pubic hair" and it is
      > very rude to even mention it! ((:-)
      >
      > * * *
      >
    • Jed Pensar
      Dear Carl, Unfortunately I am not a linguist by profession. Can you explain to me terms such as voice/case , active volitional , active non-volitional ,
      Message 2 of 16 , Nov 29, 2001

        Dear Carl,

        Unfortunately I am not a linguist by profession. Can you explain to me terms such as 'voice/case', 'active volitional', 'active non-volitional', 'tenseless', 'actual', 'contingent', 'aorist', etc.. I find your tables fascinating because I actually use these affixes without thinking of them, but I admit I can hardly comprehend the linguistic terms that you use and would like to learn about them. Start with the Cebuano table because it's looks the simplest. Use 'palit' in its different affixed forms in whole sentences, and explain why it is 'active volitional- past', and so on.

        Confused,

        Jed Pensar

          Carl Rubino <carlrubino@...> wrote:

        Oh my! So now I have a different take on the old phrase "kuskus balungos".
          But the main point of this letter is to offer some more Visayan verbal paradigms (Hiligaynon, Cebuano, and Waray) you may like to compare and contrast, all from the following book:
         
        Jane Garry and Carl Rubino (eds.) Encyclopedia of the World's Major Languages: Past and Present. New York/Dublin: HW Wilson.
         
        charts by David Zorc, John Wolff and myself:
         
          I also made some colorful maps tracing various linguistic patterns around the Philippines while I was a typologist at ANU. I will have to resuscitate them some place in my files as it seems like many in this group would like to see them. I'm glad they can be of some use!
          Here are the paradigms (you will need to be able to read html e-mail to view them correctly):
         
        WARAY WARAY
         

        Waray Waray Verbal Affixes (accent or : denotes vowel length)

        Aspect

        Imperfective

        Perfective

        Tense

        VOICE

        Actual

        Contingent

        Aorist

        Actual

        Contingent

        Aorist

        Active

        punctual

        durative

        potentive

        n�:

        nagCV:-

        nak�ka-/

        n�ka-

        m�:

        magCV:-

        mak�ka-/

        m�ka-

        CV:-

        pagCV:-

        pak�ka-

        {i(m)n}

        nag-

        naka-

        {um}

        mag-

        maka-

        0-

        pag-

        paka-

        Instrument

        punctual

        durative

        potentive

        iCinV:-

        iginCV:-

        nah�hi-/

        ikinaCV-nahaCV:-

        iCV:-

        igCV:-

        mah�hi-/

        ikaCV:-/

        mahaCV:-

        iCV:-

        +CV --an

        igCV:-

        maCV--an/

        ikaCV:-/

        mahaCV:-

        i- {in}

        igin-

        nahi-/

        ikina-/

        naha-

        i-

        ig-

        mahi-/

        ika-/

        maha-/

        i- -an

        ig-

        +ma--an

        ika-

        maha-

        Pat/Goal

        punctual

        durative

        potentive

        CinV-

        ginCV:-

        naCV:-

        CV:--en

        pagCV:- -en

        maCV- -en

        CV:- -a

        pagCV:- -a

        kaCV:- -i

        {in}

        gin-

        na-

        -en

        pag- -en

        ma- -en

        -a

        pag- -a

        ka-

        Local

        punctual

        durative

        potentive

        CinV:--an

        ginCV:--an

        naCV:--an

        CV:--an

        pagCV:--an

        maCV:--an

        CV:--i

        pagCV:--an

        kaCV:--i

        {in}-an

        gin�an

        na�an

         

        -an

        pag--an

        ma--an

        -i

        pag--i

        ka--i

        USES:

        present

        progressive

        future

        future

        with

        future

        preverbs

        past,

        perfect

        infinitive, polite commands

        commands, with past preverb

         
        CEBUANO
         

        Voice (case)

        Past

        Future

        Tenseless

        active volitional

        mipal�t

        "bought"

        mupal�t

        "will buy"

        mupal�t

        / pal�t "buy"

        active non-volitional

        nagpal�t

        "bought"

        magpal�t

        "will buy"

        magpal�t

        "buy"

        active progressive

        nagapal�t

        "is buying"

        magapal�t

        "will be buying"

        magapal�t

        "be buying"

        direct passive

        gipal�t

        "bought it"

        palit�n

        "will buy it"

        palit�

        "buy it"

        local passive

        gipalit�n

        "bought from it"

        palit�n

        "will buy from it"

        palit�

        "buy from it"

        conveyance passive

        gipal�t

        "used it to buy/buy for him"

        /

        ipal�t"will use to buy, etc."

        /

        ipal�t "use to buy, etc."
         
        HILIGAYNON:
         

        Past Progressive Contingent Future Command

        Active

        Punctual -um- -um- ma- mag-

        Durative nag- naga- mag- maga- pag-

        Distributive naN- nagapaN- maN- magapaN- magpaN-

        Potential naka- naka- maka- maka-

        Passive

        Punctual -in- -(h)on -(h)on -a

        Durative gin- gina- pag--on paga--on pag--a

        Distributive ginpaN- ginapaN- paN--on paN--on

        Potential na- na- ma- ma-

        Instrumental

        Punctual -in- i- i- i-

        Durative gin- gina- i(g)- iga- ipag-

        Distributive ginpaN--an ginapaN--an ipaN-- ipaN-

        Potential (ki)na- na- ika- ika-

        Local Passive

        Punctual -in--an -an -an -i

        Durative gin--an gina--an pag--an paga--an pag--i

        Distributive ginpaN--an ginapaN--an paN--an paN--an

        Potential na--an na--an ma--an ma--an

        Examples with the very root bal�gya� �sell� include: nagabal�gya� �is selling [active progressive],� nagbal�gya� �sold [active past],� magabal�gya� �will sell [active future],� magbal�gya� �sell [active command],� nakabal�gya� �was able to sell; could sell [active potential past],� makabal�gya� �can sell [active potential future],� nagapamal�gya� �sell lots [distributive active progressive],� namal�gya� �sold lots [distributive active past],� ginbal�gya� �was sold [instrumental past],� ginabal�gya� �is being sold [instrumental progressive],� ibal�gya� �will be sold [instrumental future]; sell it! [object focus command],� ikabal�gya� �can be sold [instrumental potential future],� ginabligya��n �is being sold to [local passive progressive],� ginbaligya��n �was sold to [local passive past],� nabaligya��n �was able (could) be sold to [local passive past potential].�

        The verb system also has some other frequently used affixes:

        -�nay Reciprocal patyan�y killing each other

        pa

        - Causative pak�ta� show, cause to see

        pakig

        - Mutual Activity pagpakigk�ta� meeting with someone

        nakigh�mbal

        talked with

        magka

        - Stative nagkabuh�� lived one�s life out
         
          Have a happy weekend everyone!!
          Carl
         
        ----- Original Message -----
        From: Dindo Generoso <dindo@...>
        Sent: Thursday, November 29, 2001 9:19 PM
        Subject: Re: [unitednon-tagalogs] Please help: "Angry" words in Philippine languages???

        > Careful now, guys!
        >
        > To the 32 million Cebuano speakers "balungus" means "pubic hair" and it is
        > very rude to even mention it! ((:-)
        >
        > * * *
        >


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        unitednon-tagalogs-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com



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      • Jed Pensar
        Dear friends, I have noticed that recent messages have been domianted by our linguist friends. I find the exchanges fascinating and novel. I have never seen
        Message 3 of 16 , Nov 29, 2001

          Dear friends,

          I have noticed that recent messages have been domianted by our linguist friends. I find the exchanges fascinating and novel. I have never seen anything like it. I myself have been an active participant in this linguistics discussion.

          Do any of you have any new ideas on how to actually protect our languages? In other words, make the Department of Education and Culture teach our languages in Philippine schools instead of killing them with Tagalog?

          My research indicates that the only sure way to protect a language is by requiring schools to teach it. Such a policy can even revive dead languages such as Irish or Hebrew, which were taught in schools in Ireland and Israel, and now have an increasing number of native speakers.

          Jed Pensar



          Do You Yahoo!?
          Yahoo! GeoCities - quick and easy web site hosting, just $8.95/month.
        • Dindo Generoso
          Carl, Correction from a native speaker: Nagpalit is short for Nagapalit ; they mean the same thing - progressive tense. magtukod (eg: ug balay) is the
          Message 4 of 16 , Nov 29, 2001
            Carl,
             
            Correction from a native speaker:
             
            "Nagpalit" is short for "Nagapalit"; they mean the same thing - progressive tense. "magtukod" (eg: ug balay) is the same as "magatukod" ug balay- future tense. The "maga..." is the formal way of saying it.
             
            "Napalit" (bought) IS the past tense.
             
            "used it to buy" is "ipalit" (not "gipalit") as in "Kini mo'y IPALIT..." .This one is confusing: "used it" is past but followed by "to buy" which is future...maybe you mean "what was used to buy it"? In that case it should be "Unsa'y gigamit pagpalit..."
             
            "buy for him/her" is "paliti" (not "gipalit") as in "PALITI siya (him or her)".
             
            ( (:-)  ((:-)
             
            Regards,
             
            Dindo
             
            * * *
            ----- Original Message -----
            Sent: Friday, November 30, 2001 4:01 PM
            Subject: Re: [unitednon-tagalogs] Visayan verbal paradigm charts

            Oh my! So now I have a different take on the old phrase "kuskus balungos".
              But the main point of this letter is to offer some more Visayan verbal paradigms (Hiligaynon, Cebuano, and Waray) you may like to compare and contrast, all from the following book:
             
            Jane Garry and Carl Rubino (eds.) Encyclopedia of the World's Major Languages: Past and Present. New York/Dublin: HW Wilson.
             
            charts by David Zorc, John Wolff and myself:
             
              I also made some colorful maps tracing various linguistic patterns around the Philippines while I was a typologist at ANU. I will have to resuscitate them some place in my files as it seems like many in this group would like to see them. I'm glad they can be of some use!
              Here are the paradigms (you will need to be able to read html e-mail to view them correctly):
             
            WARAY WARAY
             

            Waray Waray Verbal Affixes (accent or : denotes vowel length)

            Aspect

            Imperfective

            Perfective

            Tense ®

            VOICE ¯

            Actual

            Contingent

            Aorist

            Actual

            Contingent

            Aorist

            Active

            punctual

            durative

            potentive

            ná:

            nagCV:-

            nakáka-/

            náka-

            má:

            magCV:-

            makáka-/

            máka-

            CV:-

            pagCV:-

            pakáka-

            {i(m)n}

            nag-

            naka-

            {um}

            mag-

            maka-

            0-

            pag-

            paka-

            Instrument

            punctual

            durative

            potentive

            iCinV:-

            iginCV:-

            nahíhi-/

            ikinaCV-nahaCV:-

            iCV:-

            igCV:-

            mahíhi-/

            ikaCV:-/

            mahaCV:-

            iCV:-

            +CV --an

            igCV:-

            maCV--an/

            ikaCV:-/

            mahaCV:-

            i- {in}

            igin-

            nahi-/

            ikina-/

            naha-

            i-

            ig-

            mahi-/

            ika-/

            maha-/

            i- -an

            ig-

            +ma--an

            ika-

            maha-

            Pat/Goal

            punctual

            durative

            potentive

            CinV-

            ginCV:-

            naCV:-

            CV:--en

            pagCV:- -en

            maCV- -en

            CV:- -a

            pagCV:- -a

            kaCV:- -i

            {in}

            gin-

            na-

            -en

            pag- -en

            ma- -en

            -a

            pag- -a

            ka-

            Local

            punctual

            durative

            potentive

            CinV:--an

            ginCV:--an

            naCV:--an

            CV:--an

            pagCV:--an

            maCV:--an

            CV:--i

            pagCV:--an

            kaCV:--i

            {in}-an

            gin—an

            na—an

             

            -an

            pag--an

            ma--an

            -i

            pag--i

            ka--i

            USES:

            present

            progressive

            future

            future

            with

            future

            preverbs

            past,

            perfect

            infinitive, polite commands

            commands, with past preverb

             
            CEBUANO
             

            Voice (case)

            Past

            Future

            Tenseless

            active volitional

            mipalít

            "bought"

            mupalít

            "will buy"

            mupalít

            / palít "buy"

            active non-volitional

            nagpalít

            "bought"

            magpalít

            "will buy"

            magpalít

            "buy"

            active progressive

            nagapalít

            "is buying"

            magapalít

            "will be buying"

            magapalít

            "be buying"

            direct passive

            gipalít

            "bought it"

            palitún

            "will buy it"

            palitá

            "buy it"

            local passive

            gipalitán

            "bought from it"

            palitán

            "will buy from it"

            palití

            "buy from it"

            conveyance passive

            gipalít

            "used it to buy/buy for him"

            /

            ipalít"will use to buy, etc."

            /

            ipalít "use to buy, etc."
             
            HILIGAYNON:
             

            Past Progressive Contingent Future Command

            Active

            Punctual -um- -um- ma- mag-

            Durative nag- naga- mag- maga- pag-

            Distributive naN- nagapaN- maN- magapaN- magpaN-

            Potential naka- naka- maka- maka-

            Passive

            Punctual -in- -(h)on -(h)on -a

            Durative gin- gina- pag--on paga--on pag--a

            Distributive ginpaN- ginapaN- paN--on paN--on

            Potential na- na- ma- ma-

            Instrumental

            Punctual -in- i- i- i-

            Durative gin- gina- i(g)- iga- ipag-

            Distributive ginpaN--an ginapaN--an ipaN-- ipaN-

            Potential (ki)na- na- ika- ika-

            Local Passive

            Punctual -in--an -an -an -i

            Durative gin--an gina--an pag--an paga--an pag--i

            Distributive ginpaN--an ginapaN--an paN--an paN--an

            Potential na--an na--an ma--an ma--an

            Examples with the very root balígya’ ‘sell’ include: nagabalígya’ ‘is selling [active progressive],’ nagbalígya’ ‘sold [active past],’ magabalígya’ ‘will sell [active future],’ magbalígya’ ‘sell [active command],’ nakabalígya’ ‘was able to sell; could sell [active potential past],’ makabalígya’ ‘can sell [active potential future],’ nagapamalígya’ ‘sell lots [distributive active progressive],’ namalígya’ ‘sold lots [distributive active past],’ ginbalígya’ ‘was sold [instrumental past],’ ginabalígya’ ‘is being sold [instrumental progressive],’ ibalígya’ ‘will be sold [instrumental future]; sell it! [object focus command],’ ikabalígya’ ‘can be sold [instrumental potential future],’ ginabligya’án ‘is being sold to [local passive progressive],’ ginbaligya’án ‘was sold to [local passive past],’ nabaligya’án ‘was able (could) be sold to [local passive past potential].’

            The verb system also has some other frequently used affixes:

            -ánay Reciprocal patyanáy killing each other

            pa

            - Causative pakíta’ show, cause to see

            pakig

            - Mutual Activity pagpakigkíta’ meeting with someone

            nakighámbal

            talked with

            magka

            - Stative nagkabuhí’ lived one’s life out
             
              Have a happy weekend everyone!!
              Carl
             
            ----- Original Message -----
            From: Dindo Generoso <dindo@...>
            Sent: Thursday, November 29, 2001 9:19 PM
            Subject: Re: [unitednon-tagalogs] Please help: "Angry" words in Philippine languages???

            > Careful now, guys!
            >
            > To the 32 million Cebuano speakers "balungus" means "pubic hair" and it is
            > very rude to even mention it! ((:-)
            >
            > * * *
            >


            To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
            unitednon-tagalogs-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com



            Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to the Yahoo! Terms of Service.
          • Carl Rubino
            Dear Jed, Sure. I would be happy to explain them. I m on my way to Philadelphia now, so will have to write back when I return. (The terms are not easily
            Message 5 of 16 , Nov 30, 2001
              Dear Jed,
              Sure. I would be happy to explain them. I'm on my way to Philadelphia now, so will have to write back when I return. (The terms are not easily explained).
                I will send you the full text of the Cebuano article by John Wolff and Zorc's Hiligaynon article (to you personally and not the whole group -- as attachments are not good for mailing lists). Those too will explain in prose the meanings of the terms, but if they are still confusing, I will try my best to clarify with examples. For those that want copies of the articles, please e-mail me, and I'll send them to you too.
                Hope you have a nice weekend,
                Carl
              ----- Original Message -----
              Sent: Friday, November 30, 2001 12:33 AM
              Subject: Re: [unitednon-tagalogs] Visayan verbal paradigm charts

              Dear Carl,

              Unfortunately I am not a linguist by profession. Can you explain to me terms such as 'voice/case', 'active volitional', 'active non-volitional', 'tenseless', 'actual', 'contingent', 'aorist', etc.. I find your tables fascinating because I actually use these affixes without thinking of them, but I admit I can hardly comprehend the linguistic terms that you use and would like to learn about them. Start with the Cebuano table because it's looks the simplest. Use 'palit' in its different affixed forms in whole sentences, and explain why it is 'active volitional- past', and so on.

              Confused,

              Jed Pensar

                Carl Rubino <carlrubino@...> wrote:

              Oh my! So now I have a different take on the old phrase "kuskus balungos".
                But the main point of this letter is to offer some more Visayan verbal paradigms (Hiligaynon, Cebuano, and Waray) you may like to compare and contrast, all from the following book:
               
              Jane Garry and Carl Rubino (eds.) Encyclopedia of the World's Major Languages: Past and Present. New York/Dublin: HW Wilson.
               
              charts by David Zorc, John Wolff and myself:
               
                I also made some colorful maps tracing various linguistic patterns around the Philippines while I was a typologist at ANU. I will have to resuscitate them some place in my files as it seems like many in this group would like to see them. I'm glad they can be of some use!
                Here are the paradigms (you will need to be able to read html e-mail to view them correctly):
               
              WARAY WARAY
               

              Waray Waray Verbal Affixes (accent or : denotes vowel length)

              Aspect

              Imperfective

              Perfective

              Tense ®

              VOICE ¯

              Actual

              Contingent

              Aorist

              Actual

              Contingent

              Aorist

              Active

              punctual

              durative

              potentive

              ná:

              nagCV:-

              nakáka-/

              náka-

              má:

              magCV:-

              makáka-/

              máka-

              CV:-

              pagCV:-

              pakáka-

              {i(m)n}

              nag-

              naka-

              {um}

              mag-

              maka-

              0-

              pag-

              paka-

              Instrument

              punctual

              durative

              potentive

              iCinV:-

              iginCV:-

              nahíhi-/

              ikinaCV-nahaCV:-

              iCV:-

              igCV:-

              mahíhi-/

              ikaCV:-/

              mahaCV:-

              iCV:-

              +CV --an

              igCV:-

              maCV--an/

              ikaCV:-/

              mahaCV:-

              i- {in}

              igin-

              nahi-/

              ikina-/

              naha-

              i-

              ig-

              mahi-/

              ika-/

              maha-/

              i- -an

              ig-

              +ma--an

              ika-

              maha-

              Pat/Goal

              punctual

              durative

              potentive

              CinV-

              ginCV:-

              naCV:-

              CV:--en

              pagCV:- -en

              maCV- -en

              CV:- -a

              pagCV:- -a

              kaCV:- -i

              {in}

              gin-

              na-

              -en

              pag- -en

              ma- -en

              -a

              pag- -a

              ka-

              Local

              punctual

              durative

              potentive

              CinV:--an

              ginCV:--an

              naCV:--an

              CV:--an

              pagCV:--an

              maCV:--an

              CV:--i

              pagCV:--an

              kaCV:--i

              {in}-an

              gin—an

              na—an

               

              -an

              pag--an

              ma--an

              -i

              pag--i

              ka--i

              USES:

              present

              progressive

              future

              future

              with

              future

              preverbs

              past,

              perfect

              infinitive, polite commands

              commands, with past preverb

               
              CEBUANO
               

              Voice (case)

              Past

              Future

              Tenseless

              active volitional

              mipalít

              "bought"

              mupalít

              "will buy"

              mupalít

              / palít "buy"

              active non-volitional

              nagpalít

              "bought"

              magpalít

              "will buy"

              magpalít

              "buy"

              active progressive

              nagapalít

              "is buying"

              magapalít

              "will be buying"

              magapalít

              "be buying"

              direct passive

              gipalít

              "bought it"

              palitún

              "will buy it"

              palitá

              "buy it"

              local passive

              gipalitán

              "bought from it"

              palitán

              "will buy from it"

              palití

              "buy from it"

              conveyance passive

              gipalít

              "used it to buy/buy for him"

              /

              ipalít"will use to buy, etc."

              /

              ipalít "use to buy, etc."
               
              HILIGAYNON:
               

              Past Progressive Contingent Future Command

              Active

              Punctual -um- -um- ma- mag-

              Durative nag- naga- mag- maga- pag-

              Distributive naN- nagapaN- maN- magapaN- magpaN-

              Potential naka- naka- maka- maka-

              Passive

              Punctual -in- -(h)on -(h)on -a

              Durative gin- gina- pag--on paga--on pag--a

              Distributive ginpaN- ginapaN- paN--on paN--on

              Potential na- na- ma- ma-

              Instrumental

              Punctual -in- i- i- i-

              Durative gin- gina- i(g)- iga- ipag-

              Distributive ginpaN--an ginapaN--an ipaN-- ipaN-

              Potential (ki)na- na- ika- ika-

              Local Passive

              Punctual -in--an -an -an -i

              Durative gin--an gina--an pag--an paga--an pag--i

              Distributive ginpaN--an ginapaN--an paN--an paN--an

              Potential na--an na--an ma--an ma--an

              Examples with the very root balígya’ ‘sell’ include: nagabalígya’ ‘is selling [active progressive],’ nagbalígya’ ‘sold [active past],’ magabalígya’ ‘will sell [active future],’ magbalígya’ ‘sell [active command],’ nakabalígya’ ‘was able to sell; could sell [active potential past],’ makabalígya’ ‘can sell [active potential future],’ nagapamalígya’ ‘sell lots [distributive active progressive],’ namalígya’ ‘sold lots [distributive active past],’ ginbalígya’ ‘was sold [instrumental past],’ ginabalígya’ ‘is being sold [instrumental progressive],’ ibalígya’ ‘will be sold [instrumental future]; sell it! [object focus command],’ ikabalígya’ ‘can be sold [instrumental potential future],’ ginabligya’án ‘is being sold to [local passive progressive],’ ginbaligya’án ‘was sold to [local passive past],’ nabaligya’án ‘was able (could) be sold to [local passive past potential].’

              The verb system also has some other frequently used affixes:

              -ánay Reciprocal patyanáy killing each other

              pa

              - Causative pakíta’ show, cause to see

              pakig

              - Mutual Activity pagpakigkíta’ meeting with someone

              nakighámbal

              talked with

              magka

              - Stative nagkabuhí’ lived one’s life out
               
                Have a happy weekend everyone!!
                Carl
               
              ----- Original Message -----
              From: Dindo Generoso <dindo@...>
              Sent: Thursday, November 29, 2001 9:19 PM
              Subject: Re: [unitednon-tagalogs] Please help: "Angry" words in Philippine languages???

              > Careful now, guys!
              >
              > To the 32 million Cebuano speakers "balungus" means "pubic hair" and it is
              > very rude to even mention it! ((:-)
              >
              > * * *
              >


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            • Carl Rubino
              Dear Dindo, Thanks so much for your input. Unfortunately, the article already went to press, but I will forward it to the author (J. Wolff) so he can see your
              Message 6 of 16 , Nov 30, 2001
                Dear Dindo,
                Thanks so much for your input. Unfortunately, the article already went to press, but I will forward it to the author (J. Wolff) so he can see your points. I will send you the whole article too as maybe some of the forms in the table are explained better in prose than their simple translations.  Let me know.
                  Best wishes,
                  Carl
                ----- Original Message -----
                Sent: Friday, November 30, 2001 1:33 AM
                Subject: Re: [unitednon-tagalogs] Visayan verbal paradigm charts

                Carl,
                 
                Correction from a native speaker:
                 
                "Nagpalit" is short for "Nagapalit"; they mean the same thing - progressive tense. "magtukod" (eg: ug balay) is the same as "magatukod" ug balay- future tense. The "maga..." is the formal way of saying it.
                 
                "Napalit" (bought) IS the past tense.
                 
                "used it to buy" is "ipalit" (not "gipalit") as in "Kini mo'y IPALIT..." .This one is confusing: "used it" is past but followed by "to buy" which is future...maybe you mean "what was used to buy it"? In that case it should be "Unsa'y gigamit pagpalit..."
                 
                "buy for him/her" is "paliti" (not "gipalit") as in "PALITI siya (him or her)".
                 
                ( (:-)  ((:-)
                 
                Regards,
                 
                Dindo
                 
                * * *
                 
              • Jason Lobel
                Jed, I don t have any research on the topic, but I would think that even without schools teaching a language, you could well preserve it if a good number of
                Message 7 of 16 , Nov 30, 2001
                  Jed,
                  I don't have any research on the topic, but I would
                  think that even without schools teaching a language,
                  you could well preserve it if a good number of native
                  speakers would insist on using and developing it in
                  written and spoken forums, and if the government or an
                  NGO would also support it even in some small way.

                  Look at Cebuano, and even Ilonggo! They have their
                  own magazines, newspapers, TV programs, sometimes even
                  movies and plays and the like. Oh, Cebuano even has a
                  few novels! Plus religious materials in both
                  languages like bibles and prayer books. I think that
                  Cebuano and Ilonggo are great examples for how
                  language can be preserved even without schools
                  teaching it. This is due in part to the Cebuanos' and
                  Ilonggos' insistence on their own language over
                  Tagalog. (Unfortunately, I hear that the younger
                  generations are moving towards preferring Tagalog...
                  :(

                  Oh, I focus on Central Philippine languages. But
                  Ilokano, too, has quite a bit of materials. And from
                  what I've seen on the web, there are even quite a few
                  Kapampangans who are doing their best to promote their
                  language.

                  Anyways, this is all just from my observations.

                  Jason
                  jasonlobel@...


                  --- Jed Pensar <jpensar@...> wrote:
                  >
                  > Dear friends,
                  > I have noticed that recent messages have been
                  > domianted by our linguist friends. I find the
                  > exchanges fascinating and novel. I have never seen
                  > anything like it. I myself have been an active
                  > participant in this linguistics discussion.
                  > Do any of you have any new ideas on how to actually
                  > protect our languages? In other words, make the
                  > Department of Education and Culture teach our
                  > languages in Philippine schools instead of killing
                  > them with Tagalog?
                  > My research indicates that the only sure way to
                  > protect a language is by requiring schools to teach
                  > it. Such a policy can even revive dead languages
                  > such as Irish or Hebrew, which were taught in
                  > schools in Ireland and Israel, and now have an
                  > increasing number of native speakers.
                  > Jed Pensar

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                • eiturla@aol.com
                  Carl, Our e-group has been configured to accept attachments and you may send those paradigm charts to everbody in just one address. I m sure most of us are
                  Message 8 of 16 , Nov 30, 2001
                    Carl,
                    Our e-group has been configured to accept attachments and you may
                    send those paradigm charts to everbody in just one address. I'm sure
                    most of us are interested in learning something in linguistics. Would it
                    be the kind that Hirako Kitano made a research on Kapampangan and
                    which you sent me a few weeks ago? There are some technical terms
                    in it which need defining to make me understand it thoroughly. Who knows,
                    I may also be able to do the same thing to the indigenous Indian languages
                    here in Oregon, ignite interest in the natives, and help prevent their
                    languages from becoming history :)
                    Have a nice trip to Philadelphia. I've not been there in years.
                    Ernie
                  • Chris S.
                    ... Don t worry.. Even I have problems with terms like aorist or contingent. But here s a short description of select terms. This is from a paper by Jason
                    Message 9 of 16 , Nov 30, 2001
                      --- In unitednon-tagalogs@y..., Jed Pensar <jpensar@y...> wrote:
                      >
                      > Dear Carl,
                      > Unfortunately I am not a linguist by profession. Can you explain to
                      > me terms such as 'voice/case', 'active volitional', 'active non-
                      > volitional', 'tenseless', 'actual', 'contingent', 'aorist', etc.. I

                      Don't worry.. Even I have problems with terms like aorist or
                      contingent.

                      But here's a short description of select terms. This is from a paper
                      by Jason Lobel, which helped me understand those terms.

                      Contingent perfective = Infinitive ex. to eat

                      Actual perfective = Past tense ex. I ate

                      Actual imperfective = Present tense ex. I eat/I'm eating

                      Contingent imperfective = Future tense ex. I will eat

                      Aorist perfective = Command ex. Eat!

                      Aorist imperfective = Future subjunctive ex. I doubt he will eat

                      Note on the subjunctive, it's usually used when there's doubt or
                      uncertainty. Like: I doubt he's eating. I think he's eating. I
                      wonder if he's eating.

                      Imperfective implies that the action is happening, without reference
                      to time.. Meaning, something is/was/will be happening continuously.

                      Perfective implies that the action has been completed. Again,
                      without reference to time. Meaning, something has/have/will have
                      happened.

                      Voice is like this:

                      I ate the chicken. (active)
                      The chicken was eaten by me. (passive)

                      In English, there is only active and passive. In Philippine
                      languages, there are more.. but there it's called "focus." What's
                      being focused is represented by AN(G) in Tagalog, Cebuano, Bikol,
                      etc. and the passive elements are usually represented by NG
                      (Tagalog), UG/SA (Cebuano), NIN/KAN (Bikol), SING/SANG (Hiligaynon),
                      HIN/HAN/HIT (Waray-Waray) etc.

                      Nagbigay AKO ng regalo = actor focus
                      Ibinigay ko ANG REGALO = object focus
                      Binigyan ko SI JOHN ng regalo = location focus

                      And there's more like beneficiary and instrument.

                      Hope this helps..

                      --Chris
                    • Ernesto C. Turla
                      ... to ... I ... paper ... Oh, I understand most of it now. Majors in English and majors in linguistics don t use the same terminology, I wonder why. Now
                      Message 10 of 16 , Nov 30, 2001
                        --- In unitednon-tagalogs@y..., "Chris S." <csundita@y...> wrote:
                        > --- In unitednon-tagalogs@y..., Jed Pensar <jpensar@y...> wrote:
                        > >
                        > > Dear Carl,
                        > > Unfortunately I am not a linguist by profession. Can you explain
                        to
                        > > me terms such as 'voice/case', 'active volitional', 'active non-
                        > > volitional', 'tenseless', 'actual', 'contingent', 'aorist', etc..
                        I
                        >
                        > Don't worry.. Even I have problems with terms like aorist or
                        > contingent.
                        >
                        > But here's a short description of select terms. This is from a
                        paper
                        > by Jason Lobel, which helped me understand those terms.
                        >
                        > Contingent perfective = Infinitive ex. to eat
                        >
                        > Actual perfective = Past tense ex. I ate
                        >
                        > Actual imperfective = Present tense ex. I eat/I'm eating
                        >
                        > Contingent imperfective = Future tense ex. I will eat
                        >
                        > Aorist perfective = Command ex. Eat!
                        >
                        > Aorist imperfective = Future subjunctive ex. I doubt he will eat

                        Oh, I understand most of it now. Majors in English and
                        majors in linguistics don't use the same terminology, I
                        wonder why. Now perhaps I would be able to understand
                        Hiroki Katano's linguistic report on Kapampangan. By the
                        way, he is a scholar from Japan and not a native Pampangan.
                      • eiturla@aol.com
                        Jason, It could not be done by just relying on the publication of vernacular materials, including books, magazines, movies, etc. Especially if your region s
                        Message 11 of 16 , Nov 30, 2001
                          Jason,
                          It could not be done by just relying on the publication of vernacular
                          materials, including books, magazines, movies, etc. Especially if
                          your region's proximity to the capital is just an hour or so away as in
                          the case of Pampanga. With the proliferation of Tagalog media materials,
                          and with Tagalog also at the helms in the schools there, your suggestion
                          is a little difficult, though yes, the Akademyang Kapampangan headed
                          by Josie Henson and the Batyawan Foundation headed by Michael
                          Pangilinan are doing their best to promote and preserve the language.
                          In Cebu and Iloilo and Catbalogan and Cagayan de Oro, it is much easier
                          to accomplish since they are already remote enough from the clutches of
                          Tagalog.

                          On 01-11-30 12:47:38 ES jasonlobel1@... (Jason Lobel)


                          Jed,
                          I don't have any research on the topic, but I would
                          think that even without schools teaching a language,
                          you could well preserve it if a good number of native
                          speakers would insist on using and developing it in
                          written and spoken forums, and if the government or an
                          NGO would also support it even in some small way.

                          Look at Cebuano, and even Ilonggo! They have their
                          own magazines, newspapers, TV programs, sometimes even
                          movies and plays and the like. Oh, Cebuano even has a
                          few novels! Plus religious materials in both
                          languages like bibles and prayer books. I think that
                          Cebuano and Ilonggo are great examples for how
                          language can be preserved even without schools
                          teaching it. This is due in part to the Cebuanos' and
                          Ilonggos' insistence on their own language over
                          Tagalog. (Unfortunately, I hear that the younger
                          generations are moving towards preferring Tagalog...
                          :(

                          Oh, I focus on Central Philippine languages. But
                          Ilokano, too, has quite a bit of materials. And from
                          what I've seen on the web, there are even quite a few
                          Kapampangans who are doing their best to promote their
                          language.

                          Anyways, this is all just from my observations.

                          Jason
                          jasonlobel@...
                        • Chris S.
                          Another person of Japanese descent (unless her husband is) wrote a book on how to speak Kapampangan and also a book about Kapampangan grammar - Leatrice
                          Message 12 of 16 , Nov 30, 2001
                            Another person of Japanese descent (unless her husband is) wrote a
                            book on how to speak Kapampangan and also a book about Kapampangan
                            grammar - Leatrice Mirikitani. She wrote those in the 1970's.

                            --Chris
                          • Jason Lobel
                            ... And not even all Linguistics majors use the same terminology. I have an M.A. in Linguistics but would not use the same terminology like aorist ,
                            Message 13 of 16 , Nov 30, 2001
                              > Oh, I understand most of it now. Majors in English
                              > and majors in linguistics don't use the same
                              > terminology, I wonder why. Now perhaps I would be
                              > able to understand Hiroki Katano's linguistic report

                              > on Kapampangan. By the way, he is a scholar from
                              > Japan and not a native Pampangan.

                              And not even all Linguistics majors use the same
                              terminology. I have an M.A. in Linguistics but would
                              not use the same terminology like "aorist",
                              "volitional", etc., mainly because I think there are
                              other terms which are easier to read and therefore
                              make a work on Philippine languages readable by both
                              Linguists and language enthusiasts (and God forbid,
                              even for native speakers of the language!) A
                              professor of mine once told me wisely that it doesn't
                              really matter what terms you use, as long as you
                              define them in your work and as long as you're
                              consistent in their use. Personally, I choose
                              vocabulary that while not too general at least makes
                              sense to the majority of people who might want to read
                              about the subject, not just people with M.A.'s and
                              Ph.D.'s.

                              Incidentally, when I brought up the point to Dr. Zorc,
                              he told me that even he, looking back, finds these
                              overly-technical terms to be an unnecessary obstacle
                              to easy reading. One of the main reasons why he chose
                              the words he did in his dissertation was that he had
                              to please his reading committee...something anybody
                              who's written a thesis or dissertation could certainly
                              appreciate, I think.

                              Jason
                              jasonlobel1@...

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                            • Manuel Lino G Faelnar
                              Hi, I speak Spanish and French and formally studied GFErman and Russian. While a student at the Ateneo de Manila and a dormitory boarder, I was asked to coach
                              Message 14 of 16 , Dec 5, 2001
                                Hi,

                                I speak Spanish and French and formally studied GFErman and Russian. While a student at the Ateneo de Manila and a dormitory boarder, I was asked to coach some American Franciscan monks on Cedbuano. They noticed that nouns and pronouns changed form: for examaple "iya", "iyang", "wala", "walay", "babaye", "babayhaina",etc. They asked if these were case declensions. At that time I only had a limited knowledge of these concepts and only understood the Latin declensions, namely subject (nominative case), direct object (accusative case), indirect object (dative case), possessive (genitive case), when something /someone is by, with, from, etc,(ablative case) and when being directly addressed ( vocative). The good friars asked me if the changes were declensions and I naively said no. They then asked a Jesuit scholastic at that time whi later on became President of Notre DAme University the same question and he said yes. Any way the forms listed above are the Latin declesnsions. Greeek has one or two lesw ( I forget now which ones). Russian has six declensions but two of these are not found in Latin: prepositional case which refers to the location of someone or something and instrumental case which refers to the instrument or manner by which something is done. In other words other languages can have declension forms not found in Latin. So the changes in Philippine nouns and pronouns are declensions. Of course the obvious ones ones are in the pronouns: ako (nominative), ako-a (genitive), nako (genitive, passive of agency), kanako (dative, ablative, accusative). the "babaihana" form seems to be a particularistic declension whjich makes something very specific. Furthermore "si", "ni", "kang" have specific declension functions. The expression "Si Maria anak nako" (Maria is my daughter) would change if you remove "si" as in "Maria anak nako!" (Maria, my daughter!). "Si Maria" in the first example is in the nominative case while "Maria" in the second example is in the vocative case. Take the form of address for a young girl, "inday". When she is spoken to directly she would be addressed as "day" which is the vocative form. Hope this helps.

                                Lino

                                ____________________________________________________________________

                                unitednon-tagalogs@yahoogroups.com wrote:

                                >--- In unitednon-tagalogs@y..., Jed Pensar <jpensar@y...> wrote:
                                >>
                                >> Dear Carl,
                                >> Unfortunately I am not a linguist by profession. Can you explain to
                                >> me terms such as 'voice/case', 'active volitional', 'active non-
                                >> volitional', 'tenseless', 'actual', 'contingent', 'aorist', etc.. I
                                >
                                >Don't worry.. Even I have problems with terms like aorist or
                                >contingent.
                                >
                                >But here's a short description of select terms. This is from a paper
                                >by Jason Lobel, which helped me understand those terms.
                                >
                                >Contingent perfective = Infinitive ex. to eat
                                >
                                >Actual perfective = Past tense ex. I ate
                                >
                                >Actual imperfective = Present tense ex. I eat/I'm eating
                                >
                                >Contingent imperfective = Future tense ex. I will eat
                                >
                                >Aorist perfective = Command ex. Eat!
                                >
                                >Aorist imperfective = Future subjunctive ex. I doubt he will eat
                                >
                                >Note on the subjunctive, it's usually used when there's doubt or
                                >uncertainty. Like: I doubt he's eating. I think he's eating. I
                                >wonder if he's eating.
                                >
                                >Imperfective implies that the action is happening, without reference
                                >to time.. Meaning, something is/was/will be happening continuously.
                                >
                                >Perfective implies that the action has been completed. Again,
                                >without reference to time. Meaning, something has/have/will have
                                >happened.
                                >
                                >Voice is like this:
                                >
                                >I ate the chicken. (active)
                                >The chicken was eaten by me. (passive)
                                >
                                >In English, there is only active and passive. In Philippine
                                >languages, there are more.. but there it's called "focus." What's
                                >being focused is represented by AN(G) in Tagalog, Cebuano, Bikol,
                                >etc. and the passive elements are usually represented by NG
                                >(Tagalog), UG/SA (Cebuano), NIN/KAN (Bikol), SING/SANG (Hiligaynon),
                                >HIN/HAN/HIT (Waray-Waray) etc.
                                >
                                >Nagbigay AKO ng regalo = actor focus
                                >Ibinigay ko ANG REGALO = object focus
                                >Binigyan ko SI JOHN ng regalo = location focus
                                >
                                >And there's more like beneficiary and instrument.
                                >
                                >Hope this helps..
                                >
                                >--Chris
                                >
                                >
                                >
                                >To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                                >unitednon-tagalogs-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
                                >
                                >
                                >
                                >Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                                >
                                >
                                >
                                >

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                              • scfchris
                                ... Well, you were right. :) IYA and IYANG are not different declensions... They re just different forms of a declension. Iya nga balay and iyang balay
                                Message 15 of 16 , Dec 5, 2001
                                  --- In unitednon-tagalogs@y..., "Manuel Lino G Faelnar"
                                  <mfaelnar@e...> wrote:


                                  > examaple "iya", "iyang", "wala", "walay", "babaye", "babayhaina",
                                  > etc. good friars asked me if the changes were declensions and I
                                  > naively said no. They then asked a Jesuit scholastic at that time
                                  > whi later

                                  Well, you were right. :)

                                  IYA and IYANG are not different declensions... They're just different
                                  forms of a declension.

                                  "Iya nga balay" and "iyang balay"

                                  WALA and WALAY. Walay is actually two words: WALA + Y. Y is
                                  the "nonspecific" form of the word "ANG." Y just attaches itself to
                                  words ending in vowels. It's only found in some set phrases now.

                                  example:

                                  Cebuano: Unsay gibuhat nimo sa iyang balay?
                                  Tagalog: Ano ang ginawa mo sa bahay niya?

                                  The Y corresponds to Tagalog's ANG and Hiligaynon's SING, but not in
                                  all cases. Bikol has ANG, but it's not used in the same way.

                                  Babay and Babayha na are the same too..It's that the latter has a
                                  demonstrative (this, that..)

                                  So what does this mean? The nouns themselves do not decline, but the
                                  pronouns do. Intead, there are case markers. (ANG, UG, etc.)

                                  > Greeek has one or two lesw ( I forget now which ones). Russian has
                                  > fix declensions but two of these are not found in Latin:

                                  Did you know Finnish has 16 (or 15, depending on who you ask)? Let's
                                  see, there's nominative, accusative, genetive, locative,
                                  instrumentive, inessive, essive, partitive, elative, illative,
                                  translative, adessive, ablative, komitative, instructive, and
                                  multiplicative.

                                  --Chris
                                • Jason Lobel
                                  ... ... Yes, such forms are NOT different declensions. When you talk about Latin or Old English, declensions are a very specific system of changes in
                                  Message 16 of 16 , Dec 5, 2001
                                    > > examaple "iya", "iyang", "wala", "walay",
                                    > > "babaye", "babayhaina", etc. good friars asked me
                                    > > if the changes were declensions and I naively said

                                    > > no. They then asked a Jesuit scholastic at that
                                    > > time whi later
                                    <snip>
                                    > IYA and IYANG are not different declensions...
                                    > They're just different forms of a declension.

                                    Yes, such forms are NOT different declensions. When
                                    you talk about Latin or Old English, declensions are a
                                    very specific system of changes in nouns based on a
                                    variety of factors. Philippine languages do NOT have
                                    declensions. There are three different CASES that are
                                    marked in Philippine pronouns and noun phrases, like
                                    "ang, ng, sa" each mark something different in
                                    Tagalog. For the pronoun "I/me" we have "ako, ko,
                                    akin", again, three different cases.

                                    > WALA and WALAY. Walay is actually two words: WALA +
                                    > Y. Y is the "nonspecific" form of the word "ANG."
                                    > Y just attaches itself to words ending in vowels.
                                    > It's only found in some set phrases now.

                                    Yes. It's like a contraction, like in English you
                                    wouldn't say that "do" and "don't" are different
                                    declensions, just that "don't" has been contracted
                                    from "do not".

                                    > Babay and Babayha na are the same too..It's that the
                                    > latter has a demonstrative (this, that..)

                                    Yes, again, not a declension. There are endings (like
                                    -ha and -a and -i) that can be found in various
                                    languages in the Philippines, and Cebuano has a very
                                    rich use of them on nouns. But they mark definiteness
                                    in a sense, sort of like a demonstrative. That is
                                    different than declensions, in which a noun's ending
                                    changes based on the role it plays in a sentence and
                                    way in which the sentence is being said.

                                    > Did you know Finnish has 16 (or 15, depending on who
                                    > you ask)? Let's see, there's nominative, accusative,

                                    > genetive, locative, instrumentive, inessive, essive,

                                    > partitive, elative, illative, translative, adessive,

                                    > ablative, komitative, instructive, and
                                    > multiplicative.

                                    Languages mark meaning in different ways. A very
                                    large part of meaning in Philippine languages is
                                    marked by verbal affixes, usually prefixes, thus
                                    they're called "agglutinative" languages. Many
                                    Philippine verbs--especially those with long
                                    prefixes--cannot be translated by just one word in
                                    English. English marks meaning often in phrases, not
                                    by adding an endless number of affixes onto a root
                                    word.

                                    Jason
                                    jasonlobel1@...


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