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Evidence points to the scriptures

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  • flubber1947
    In reality fossils support the scripture-and refute darwin here are a few questions and answers 1. How are fossils formed, according to the theory of
    Message 1 of 382 , Apr 5, 2006
    • 0 Attachment
      In reality fossils support the scripture-and refute darwin
      here are a few questions and answers

      1. How are fossils formed, according to the theory of uniformitarian
      historical geology?
      Answer: The traditional accepted view is that fossils were the
      result of processes pretty much like those taking place on earth
      today.
      The term "uniformitarian" refers to the idea that geological
      processes such as erosion, sedimentation, and earth movements have
      remained pretty much the same in character and rate for most of
      earth history. Fossils are generally found encased in sedimentary
      rock, rock which was deposited by water in the form of loose
      sediments which were then compressed and cemented to form solid
      stone. Since in the traditional theory most sediments were laid down
      very slowly, those plants and animals which left fossils must for
      the most part have been covered and fossilized slowly. Also, the
      vast deposits of the fossil fuel, coal, supposedly were formed from
      forests and peat bogs which grew slowly, died, were covered with
      sediments slowly in the same location in which they grew, and were
      finally compressed to make coal.

      2. Where can fossils be seen being formed today?
      Answer: Present earth conditions are not producing fossils such
      as
      are found in abundance in fossil bearing rocks.
      Fossils like those found in the rocks are not today observed being
      formed anywhere on the earth by the gradual processes just
      described. When plants and animals die they are immediately attacked
      by scavengers, fungi, and bacteria, which destroy them before they
      can be buried by sediments and fossilized. Any appreciable formation
      of fossils apparently requires sudden entrapment and rapid burial, a
      catastrophic process.1

      3. Do fossils generally give the appearance of having been formed by
      slow or by rapid processes?
      Answer: A great many facts point to rapid, catastrophic burial of
      the plants and animals which are found as fossils today.
      a. Fossil caves, fissures, mass burial sites, and sedimentary strata
      discovered in Europe and America were jammed with masses of mixed
      bones of many sorts of animals from widely separated and differing
      climatic zones, for example:2 (1) Cumberland Cavern in Maryland,
      containing remains of animals from cold northern regions, warm, damp
      semi-tropical regions, and from more arid environments, (2) Norfolk
      forest-beds in England, which contain remains of temperate zone
      plants, and large numbers of both northern cold-climate and tropical
      warm-climate animals, all mixed together, (3) rock fissures in
      England and France contain masses of broken bones of many kinds of
      animals from both cold and temperate zones.

      b. The Baltic amber deposits and the Geisaltal lignite seams in
      Germany contain fossil insect, plant and animal remains which must
      have been collected by some cataclysmic process from different areas
      all over the earth, from near arctic to tropical zones, and
      transported from Africa, the East Indies, and South America to be
      dumped in northern Europe.3

      c. Numerous fossil graveyards contain stupendous quantities of
      fossilized bones of many different kinds of animals thrown together
      in jumbled masses so as to be explainable only in terms of
      catastrophic water action of vast proportions. These include the
      Agate Spring Quarry in Nebraska, the Siwalik Hills fossil beds in
      India, and the fossil fish graveyard strata of Lompoc, California,
      the Old Red sandstone in Scotland, and many other fish graveyards in
      Italy, Germany, Switzerland, etc.4

      d. In many locations in the world are found extensive rock strata
      containing sometimes billions of fossilized animals, frequently
      densely packed together. They often display evidence of terror and
      struggle. These facts seem to suggest anything but slow, calm
      conditions of formation.

      e. The vast coal deposits of the world generally do not give
      evidence of having been fossilized in the same location in which the
      plants originally grew. Instead they appear to have been dumped into
      place by flood action.5 Usually there is no evidence of a soil layer
      in which the supposed forest once grew. There are also many examples
      of "polystrate fossils," fossilized tree trunks which extend through
      a number of layers of sedimentary rock and coal, some of them up to
      one hundred or more feet in length.6 These surely must have been
      covered up very rapidly in order to be fossilized into coal before
      the termites got to them. Sometimes up to one hundred layers of coal
      separated by rock layers have been found at one location. It is not
      uncommon to find marine tube worms embedded in coal, attached to the
      coalified wood. Also not uncommon are pairs of coal layers separated
      by sedimentary rock, which over a distance of some miles are found
      to merge into a single coal layer. Thus, the rock layer cannot
      represent a long period of time. These data strongly indicate that
      the vegetation was rafted in from other locations by great ocean
      currents, dumped, covered with sediments, and rapidly converted to
      coal by the pressure of deep overlying sediments. Finally, pressure
      and heat can convert wood to coal in days,7 and garbage can be
      changed to oil in less than an hour by a recently developed
      commercial process.

      The entire fossil record is much more easily understood to be the
      result of global flood action of great rapidity and violence, rather
      than of the relatively slow processes mostly observed today. British
      paleontologist Derek V. Ager believes that most fossils were
      produced in short periods of catastrophic activity separated by long
      periods of relative quiet.8 However, as we shall see, there is much
      evidence that the sediments which he believes to represent slow
      deposition were also laid down rapidly.

      4. Are sixty-five petrified forests stacked one on top of the other
      at Specimen Ridge in Yellowstone Park? Does this famous geological
      formation represent a vast span of time?
      Answer: Much evidence shows that the Specimen Ridge "fossil
      forests" are not the remains of forests which grew one on top of the
      other during long periods of time. Rather, it appears that trees
      from distant forests were ripped up and transported by water to be
      dumped at Specimen Ridge. The facts strongly indicate that the
      standard view long held by geologists is completely wrong.
      The traditional view held by geologists is that the Yellowstone
      petrified tree formations represent many forests which grew one
      after the other. Each took hundreds of years to grow before it was
      buried by volcanic ash and slides of volcanic breccia (sharp-edged
      chunks of volcanic rock cemented to form a solid rock). Then another
      forest grew on top of it, only to suffer a similar fate, until
      perhaps as many as fifty to sixty-five forests had been buried and
      petrified. This explanation has been accepted without question for
      almost a century. However, recent detailed research has brought to
      light much evidence that contradicts this traditional view.

      Dr. Harold Coffin has conducted careful studies over a number of
      years on all aspects of the Specimen Ridge formations. Some of the
      facts that do not fit the picture of forests' being buried where
      they grew are as follows:9

      a. Tree roots abruptly terminating or broken.

      b. Almost all trees completely stripped of bark and limbs.

      c. Small trees upright, unbroken (a breccia flow would push them
      over).

      d. Ring patterns of neighboring trees do not match.

      e. Both upright and prone trees lined up as if by water current.

      f. No valid evidence of soil layers where trees grew.

      g. Absolutely no evidence of animals found where soil layers should
      be; also, very few cones found.

      h. Many examples of trees overlapping with roots on one located at a
      level part-way up the trunk of another.

      i. Broad leaves found where tree trunks are only conifers.

      j. Pollen scarce and not of same kind as the tree trunks.

      These and other facts strongly contradict the uniformitarian view.
      The evidence better fits the view that trees were ripped up and
      transported from another location by water and dumped in place at
      the same time that repeated volcanic eruptions were layering the
      area with ash and breccia. The evidence supports the view that this
      happened rapidly, not slowly over periods of tens of thousands or
      hundreds of thousands of years.

      5. Do the erosion and deposition of sediments seen today explain how
      sedimentary rock layers could have been formed in the past?
      Answer: The major features of the sedimentary rock strata cannot
      be
      explained in terms of the processes seen on the earth today. Two
      excellent reviews of this subject have been published by Dr. Steve
      Austin of the Institute for Creation Research, to whom we are
      heavily indebted for much of what follows.10
      a. Vast horizontal strata point to a global flood.

      In our southwestern states, where they are well exposed by erosion,
      but also across the continent and everywhere in the world, thousands
      to hundreds of thousands of square miles of flat, horizontal strata,
      from a few feet to hundreds of feet thick are found. At no location
      on the earth may the production of similar sedimentary deposits of
      like extent be observed today. These formations are composed of
      sandstone, graywacke, shale, conglomerate, limestone and other types
      of rock. Some of them extend for thousands of miles, spanning whole
      continents. For example, the St. Peter sandstone, composed of clean
      quartz grains, has been traced in twenty states from California to
      Vermont.11 The Shinarump conglomerate in the Southwest covers some
      125,000 square miles,12 and another conglomerate blanket is reported
      to extend from New Mexico to Saskatchewan and Alberta.13

      A continental blanket of clean sandstone, before being deposited,
      required a steadily flowing current traversing a great distance to
      separate the sand from silt and gravel. A continental blanket of
      conglomerate required a continent-sized maelstrom of water in
      violent, chaotic motion to dump an ungraded mixture of material of
      all sizes across thousands of miles of terrain. Tremendous water
      action such as that which would be produced by a global flood seems
      to offer the only reasonable explanation for the observed facts.

      b. Sedimentary rock strata have features which suggest continuous
      and simultaneous deposition.14

      If the contact surface between two successive parallel sedimentary
      rock layers is smooth and regular, showing no signs of erosion, the
      two layers are said to be "conformable." If there is evidence of
      erosion of the lower surface before the upper layer was deposited,
      the contact is called a "disconformity." Since erosion begins as
      soon as a land surface is exposed, conformable contact surfaces
      indicate uninterrupted deposition of sediments. What is found
      through the greater part of the world's sedimentary rocks,
      conformable surfaces or disconformities? Conformable surfaces are
      the general rule, whereas disconformities are relatively rare.

      Thus, the sedimentary rock strata appear to have been laid down
      rapidly, without large periods of time between them. In fact, it is
      not uncommon for two layers with a conforemable contact surface to
      grade into a single layer, without a definite contact line. Also, in
      some cases a disconformity at one point becomes a conformable
      contact some distance away. The combined effect of these facts is to
      do away with the vast time scale assumed for geological history. A
      catastrophic global flood may be the correct explanation after all.

      A striking example of missing time has recently been studied in the
      Grand Canyon.15 Along the North Kaibab Trail the Mississippian
      Redwall Limestone is seen to intertongue with the lower and
      supposedly much older Cambrian Muav Limestone. There is no evidence
      of a disconformity. It appears that the two strata were deposited
      almost simultaneously. Yet according to the evolutionary time scale
      a period of 200 million years separates these two limestone deposits.

      c. Finer structure of strata is explained in terms of the flood.

      The finer structure of sedimentary strata, called stratification, is
      also difficult to explain satisfactorily in terms of the more or
      less gradual processes observed in action today. The four common
      types of stratification seem to be more easily explained in terms of
      the kind of very rapid water action which a global flood would have
      produced. Simple lamination,16 cross lamination and cross bedding,16
      ripple lamination,17 and graded bedding18 all are equally well or
      better explained in terms of the global flood hypothesis than they
      are in terms of the uniformitarian principle.

      d. Many massive sedimentary rock formations contain thousands of
      thin, horizontal laminations. Traditional interpretation takes these
      to be annual layers or "varves" laid down over multiplied thousands
      of years in lakes and seas. Thus these laminated formations are
      adduced as evidence for long time spans required to accumulate the
      many layers. However a large body of information in the recent
      geological literature has undermined this view. In the excellent
      1994 book, Grand Canyon -- Monument to Catastrophe, edited by Steven
      Austin of the Institute for Creation Research, reviews this evidence
      at some length.19 There are numerous examples of sediments composed
      of many thin lamminae that were laid down rapidly in short periods
      of time, even in minutes. For example, such a thinly laminated
      deposit was formed in a few hours during the catastrophic flows of
      water and volcanic ash released by the explosion in 1982 of Mount
      St. Helens in Washington. Similar laminated sedimentary deposits
      have also been produced experimentally by moving, silt laden water
      in a hydraulic tank. In addition, such laminae have also been
      deposited from stationary water in a laboratory by French scientist,
      Guy Berthault.20 In addition, there are finely laminated sediments
      up to hundreds of feet thick that are now known to have been
      deposited rapidly under catastrophic conditions in mere hours. An
      important type of evidence for geologic time has thus become highly
      questionable.

      e. Composition of many sedimentary rock strata is to a large extent
      still unexplained.

      Not only the structure, but also the composition of sedimentary rock
      formations bears witness to catastrophic deposition of most of the
      sedimentary rocks in the earth's crust. Limestone,21 dolostone
      (limestone containing much magnesium carbonate),22 cherts (flint-
      like stone),23 graywacke,24 and "evaporites" (such as gypsum or rock
      salt)25 cannot be suitably explained in terms of processes observed
      on the earth today. In fact, they apparently were formed by water
      currents and oceanic chemical reactions on a scale which is
      incomprehensible in terms of present earth activities. Geologists
      cannot agree on the explanations for these facts, and there is much
      mystery still. One thing is certain: a global flood seems to offer
      the best possibility ultimately of explaining all of the facts.

      f. Vast volcanic lava outpourings.

      In the states of the Pacific Northwest, in India and elsewhere,
      hundreds of thousands of square miles of territory were engulfed by
      floods of basaltic lava which must have flowed like rivers and
      stacked up layers thousands of feet thick. Volcanic action on this
      scale is unheard of in the modern world.26

      g. Earth's crust violently altered.

      Many other characteristics of the rock structures of the earth's
      crust suggest catastrophic activity on a giant scale not seen today.
      Large scale folding, faulting, and uplifting and sinking are
      examples. Great river canyons in the ocean bottoms and shallow water
      deposits on the sea floor indicate that the oceans may have been
      thousands of feet lower than at present.27 Striking evidence from
      archaeology indicates that the Andes and Himalaya mountain chains
      were pushed up thousands of feet in historic times.28

      h. Mount Ararat submerged.

      On Mount Ararat, a volcanic mountain complex, pillow lava is found
      at the 14,000 foot level.29 Pillow lava has been extruded under
      water and is recognized by its high glass content caused by very
      rapid cooling. All of the igneous rocks examined on Ararat by
      geologist Clifford Burdick were highly glassy. Ararat apparently was
      submerged in water to above the present 14,000 foot level. It
      probably was built up under the water during the flood. The entire
      world must have been inundated at the same time.

      All of these evidences from geology and many more point to a
      violent, catastrophic past history of the earth. They imply global
      flood with associated volcanic and mountain building activity which
      changed the face of the earth.

      6. Are the rock layers and their embedded fossils always found in
      the same order, with simple fossils on the bottom and complex ones
      on the top, in the same order in which evolution is said to have
      occurred?
      Answer: There are many places on the earth where rock strata and
      fossils are found in the reverse order from that predicted by
      evolutionary theory. Many of these are very difficult for geologists
      to explain. If they cannot be explained, the evolutionary history
      gets turned around backwards, which is embarrassing for the theory
      ofhistorical geology.
      Dr. Walter Lammerts has compiled references in the scientific
      literature to hundreds of such reversals of evolutionary geology.30
      Sometimes a reversal can be shown to be caused by the overturning of
      a fold in intensely deformed sediments. But in other cases folding
      cannot explain it. The stock explanation in such cases is that
      a "thrust fault" allowed older strata containing simple fossils to
      be slid out on top of younger rocks contain complex fossils.

      The most famous example of a so-called thrust fault is the Lewis
      Overthrust, covering some 13,000 square miles of mountain ranges in
      Montana and British Columbia. However, the physical evidence that an
      entire system of mountain ranges slid thirty to sixty miles out on
      top of underlying strata is absent. A thick layer of ground-up mixed
      rock from the two layers should be found between the upper and lower
      members of the supposed overthrust structure. It is nowhere to be
      found, not at any of the known exposures of the contact surface. The
      rock layers appear to have been conformably deposited one on the
      other in the normal manner. If the simple algae fossils in the upper
      layers (rocks classified as Precambrian dolomite) were not
      supposedly a billion years older than the complex marine fossils in
      the lower layers (classified as Cretaceous shale), the idea of a
      thrust fault in that area would never have occurred to geologists.
      but the theory of evolution must be saved at any cost, so heroic
      feats of geological imagination are performed to explain away the
      obvious facts.31

      Another related type of evidence which is embarrassing to the
      defenders of the traditional geological claims is the discovery of
      many different kinds of pollen in Precambrian rocks.32 This
      information would have flowering plants appearing on the earth up to
      a half billion years too early to fit in the theory of evolution.
      Perhaps the evolution and the years are really imagination.

      7. What is the biblical picture of earth history?
      Answer: While the Bible does not give a detailed picture of earth
      history, it does provide a framework for interpreting the fossils
      and rock strata. The opening verses of the Bible indicate that in
      its original form the earth was surrounded by water, perhaps in
      violent activity. Thus the earliest sedimentary rocks formed would
      be devoid of fossils, for life had not yet been created. This was on
      the first day of creation, ten thousand or so years ago. On the
      third day of creation God lifted the original continental mass from
      beneath the waters. Probably until the Flood, thousands of years
      later, the level of the dry land was generally lower and more even
      than today, the mountains much lower than today's mountain ranges.
      Sea level was considerably lower and the land surface therefore
      greater than at present. When God judged the sinful human race with
      the Flood of Noah, rain fell and perhaps additional water was
      brought to earth by special divine provision, and juvenile waters
      poured out through fissures in the crust of the earth in tremendous
      volume. In addition, the ocean bottoms and the land surface may have
      changed their relative levels, the former rising and the latter
      sinking.
      The effect was to cover the land surface totally and subject the
      entire earth to the action of global water currents and wave action
      of cataclysmic violence. The land surface was deeply eroded and
      every living thing swept away. The sediments with the dead plants
      and animals were deposited to form the strata observed today with
      their content of fossils. Great earth upheavals, volcanic activity,
      vast lava outpourings, and rapid mountain building accompanied the
      latter part of the Flood and continued for centuries afterwards on a
      diminishing scale. Perhaps in the centuries after the Flood the
      original land mass began to separate into the present continents.
      Genesis 10:25 may refer to a crucial stage in this separation, as
      well as to the division of the nations at Babel. In the post-flood
      period glaciers advanced and retreated. Gradually the conditions on
      the earth stabilized, the land and seas were filled again with
      living creatures, and the descendants of Noah spread around the
      world.
    • tinroad6g
      In reality fossils support the scripture-and refute darwin here are a few questions and answers 1. How are fossils formed, according to the theory of
      Message 382 of 382 , Oct 18, 2008
      • 0 Attachment
        In reality fossils support the scripture-and refute darwin
        here are a few questions and answers

        1. How are fossils formed, according to the theory of uniformitarian
        historical geology?
        Answer: The traditional accepted view is that fossils were
        the
        result of processes pretty much like those taking place on earth
        today.
        The term "uniformitarian" refers to the idea that geological
        processes such as erosion, sedimentation, and earth movements have
        remained pretty much the same in character and rate for most of
        earth history. Fossils are generally found encased in sedimentary
        rock, rock which was deposited by water in the form of loose
        sediments which were then compressed and cemented to form solid
        stone. Since in the traditional theory most sediments were laid down
        very slowly, those plants and animals which left fossils must for
        the most part have been covered and fossilized slowly. Also, the
        vast deposits of the fossil fuel, coal, supposedly were formed from
        forests and peat bogs which grew slowly, died, were covered with
        sediments slowly in the same location in which they grew, and were
        finally compressed to make coal.

        2. Where can fossils be seen being formed today?
        Answer: Present earth conditions are not producing fossils
        such
        as
        are found in abundance in fossil bearing rocks.
        Fossils like those found in the rocks are not today observed being
        formed anywhere on the earth by the gradual processes just
        described. When plants and animals die they are immediately attacked
        by scavengers, fungi, and bacteria, which destroy them before they
        can be buried by sediments and fossilized. Any appreciable formation
        of fossils apparently requires sudden entrapment and rapid burial, a
        catastrophic process.1

        3. Do fossils generally give the appearance of having been formed by
        slow or by rapid processes?
        Answer: A great many facts point to rapid, catastrophic
        burial
        of
        the plants and animals which are found as fossils today.
        a. Fossil caves, fissures, mass burial sites, and sedimentary strata
        discovered in Europe and America were jammed with masses of mixed
        bones of many sorts of animals from widely separated and differing
        climatic zones, for example:2 (1) Cumberland Cavern in Maryland,
        containing remains of animals from cold northern regions, warm, damp
        semi-tropical regions, and from more arid environments, (2) Norfolk
        forest-beds in England, which contain remains of temperate zone
        plants, and large numbers of both northern cold-climate and tropical
        warm-climate animals, all mixed together, (3) rock fissures in
        England and France contain masses of broken bones of many kinds of
        animals from both cold and temperate zones.

        b. The Baltic amber deposits and the Geisaltal lignite seams in
        Germany contain fossil insect, plant and animal remains which must
        have been collected by some cataclysmic process from different areas
        all over the earth, from near arctic to tropical zones, and
        transported from Africa, the East Indies, and South America to be
        dumped in northern Europe.3

        c. Numerous fossil graveyards contain stupendous quantities of
        fossilized bones of many different kinds of animals thrown together
        in jumbled masses so as to be explainable only in terms of
        catastrophic water action of vast proportions. These include the
        Agate Spring Quarry in Nebraska, the Siwalik Hills fossil beds in
        India, and the fossil fish graveyard strata of Lompoc, California,
        the Old Red sandstone in Scotland, and many other fish graveyards in
        Italy, Germany, Switzerland, etc.4

        d. In many locations in the world are found extensive rock strata
        containing sometimes billions of fossilized animals, frequently
        densely packed together. They often display evidence of terror and
        struggle. These facts seem to suggest anything but slow, calm
        conditions of formation.

        e. The vast coal deposits of the world generally do not give
        evidence of having been fossilized in the same location in which the
        plants originally grew. Instead they appear to have been dumped into
        place by flood action.5 Usually there is no evidence of a soil layer
        in which the supposed forest once grew. There are also many examples
        of "polystrate fossils," fossilized tree trunks which extend through
        a number of layers of sedimentary rock and coal, some of them up to
        one hundred or more feet in length.6 These surely must have been
        covered up very rapidly in order to be fossilized into coal before
        the termites got to them. Sometimes up to one hundred layers of coal
        separated by rock layers have been found at one location. It is not
        uncommon to find marine tube worms embedded in coal, attached to the
        coalified wood. Also not uncommon are pairs of coal layers separated
        by sedimentary rock, which over a distance of some miles are found
        to merge into a single coal layer. Thus, the rock layer cannot
        represent a long period of time. These data strongly indicate that
        the vegetation was rafted in from other locations by great ocean
        currents, dumped, covered with sediments, and rapidly converted to
        coal by the pressure of deep overlying sediments. Finally, pressure
        and heat can convert wood to coal in days,7 and garbage can be
        changed to oil in less than an hour by a recently developed
        commercial process.

        The entire fossil record is much more easily understood to be the
        result of global flood action of great rapidity and violence, rather
        than of the relatively slow processes mostly observed today. British
        paleontologist Derek V. Ager believes that most fossils were
        produced in short periods of catastrophic activity separated by long
        periods of relative quiet.8 However, as we shall see, there is much
        evidence that the sediments which he believes to represent slow
        deposition were also laid down rapidly.

        4. Are sixty-five petrified forests stacked one on top of the other
        at Specimen Ridge in Yellowstone Park? Does this famous geological
        formation represent a vast span of time?
        Answer: Much evidence shows that the
        Specimen
        Ridge "fossil
        forests" are not the remains of forests which grew one on top of the
        other during long periods of time. Rather, it appears that trees
        from distant forests were ripped up and transported by water to be
        dumped at Specimen Ridge. The facts strongly indicate that the
        standard view long held by geologists is completely wrong.
        The traditional view held by geologists is that the Yellowstone
        petrified tree formations represent many forests which grew one
        after the other. Each took hundreds of years to grow before it was
        buried by volcanic ash and slides of volcanic breccia (sharp-edged
        chunks of volcanic rock cemented to form a solid rock). Then another
        forest grew on top of it, only to suffer a similar fate, until
        perhaps as many as fifty to sixty-five forests had been buried and
        petrified. This explanation has been accepted without question for
        almost a century. However, recent detailed research has brought to
        light much evidence that contradicts this traditional view.

        Dr. Harold Coffin has conducted careful studies over a number of
        years on all aspects of the Specimen Ridge formations. Some of the
        facts that do not fit the picture of forests' being buried where
        they grew are as follows:9

        a. Tree roots abruptly terminating or broken.

        b. Almost all trees completely stripped of bark and limbs.

        c. Small trees upright, unbroken (a breccia flow would push them
        over).

        d. Ring patterns of neighboring trees do not match.

        e. Both upright and prone trees lined up as if by water current.

        f. No valid evidence of soil layers where trees grew.

        g. Absolutely no evidence of animals found where soil layers should
        be; also, very few cones found.

        h. Many examples of trees overlapping with roots on one located at a
        level part-way up the trunk of another.

        i. Broad leaves found where tree trunks are only conifers.

        j. Pollen scarce and not of same kind as the tree trunks.

        These and other facts strongly contradict the uniformitarian view.
        The evidence better fits the view that trees were ripped up and
        transported from another location by water and dumped in place at
        the same time that repeated volcanic eruptions were layering the
        area with ash and breccia. The evidence supports the view that this
        happened rapidly, not slowly over periods of tens of thousands or
        hundreds of thousands of years.

        5. Do the erosion and deposition of sediments seen today explain how
        sedimentary rock layers could have been formed in the past?
        Answer: The major features of the sedimentary rock strata
        cannot
        be
        explained in terms of the processes seen on the earth today. Two
        excellent reviews of this subject have been published by Dr. Steve
        Austin of the Institute for Creation Research, to whom we are
        heavily indebted for much of what follows.10
        a. Vast horizontal strata point to a global flood.

        In our southwestern states, where they are well exposed by erosion,
        but also across the continent and everywhere in the world, thousands
        to hundreds of thousands of square miles of flat, horizontal strata,
        from a few feet to hundreds of feet thick are found. At no location
        on the earth may the production of similar sedimentary deposits of
        like extent be observed today. These formations are composed of
        sandstone, graywacke, shale, conglomerate, limestone and other types
        of rock. Some of them extend for thousands of miles, spanning whole
        continents. For example, the St. Peter sandstone, composed of clean
        quartz grains, has been traced in twenty states from California to
        Vermont.11 The Shinarump conglomerate in the Southwest covers some
        125,000 square miles,12 and another conglomerate blanket is reported
        to extend from New Mexico to Saskatchewan and Alberta.13

        A continental blanket of clean sandstone, before being deposited,
        required a steadily flowing current traversing a great distance to
        separate the sand from silt and gravel. A continental blanket of
        conglomerate required a continent-sized maelstrom of water in
        violent, chaotic motion to dump an ungraded mixture of material of
        all sizes across thousands of miles of terrain. Tremendous water
        action such as that which would be produced by a global flood seems
        to offer the only reasonable explanation for the observed facts.

        b. Sedimentary rock strata have features which suggest continuous
        and simultaneous deposition.14

        If the contact surface between two successive parallel sedimentary
        rock layers is smooth and regular, showing no signs of erosion, the
        two layers are said to be "conformable." If there is evidence of
        erosion of the lower surface before the upper layer was deposited,
        the contact is called a "disconformity." Since erosion begins as
        soon as a land surface is exposed, conformable contact surfaces
        indicate uninterrupted deposition of sediments. What is found
        through the greater part of the world's sedimentary rocks,
        conformable surfaces or disconformities? Conformable surfaces are
        the general rule, whereas disconformities are relatively rare.

        Thus, the sedimentary rock strata appear to have been laid down
        rapidly, without large periods of time between them. In fact, it is
        not uncommon for two layers with a conforemable contact surface to
        grade into a single layer, without a definite contact line. Also, in
        some cases a disconformity at one point becomes a conformable
        contact some distance away. The combined effect of these facts is to
        do away with the vast time scale assumed for geological history. A
        catastrophic global flood may be the correct explanation after all.

        A striking example of missing time has recently been studied in the
        Grand Canyon.15 Along the North Kaibab Trail the Mississippian
        Redwall Limestone is seen to intertongue with the lower and
        supposedly much older Cambrian Muav Limestone. There is no evidence
        of a disconformity. It appears that the two strata were deposited
        almost simultaneously. Yet according to the evolutionary time scale
        a period of 200 million years separates these two limestone deposits.

        c. Finer structure of strata is explained in terms of the flood.

        The finer structure of sedimentary strata, called stratification, is
        also difficult to explain satisfactorily in terms of the more or
        less gradual processes observed in action today. The four common
        types of stratification seem to be more easily explained in terms of
        the kind of very rapid water action which a global flood would have
        produced. Simple lamination,16 cross lamination and cross bedding,16
        ripple lamination,17 and graded bedding18 all are equally well or
        better explained in terms of the global flood hypothesis than they
        are in terms of the uniformitarian principle.

        d. Many massive sedimentary rock formations contain thousands of
        thin, horizontal laminations. Traditional interpretation takes these
        to be annual layers or "varves" laid down over multiplied thousands
        of years in lakes and seas. Thus these laminated formations are
        adduced as evidence for long time spans required to accumulate the
        many layers. However a large body of information in the recent
        geological literature has undermined this view. In the excellent
        1994 book, Grand Canyon -- Monument to Catastrophe, edited by Steven
        Austin of the Institute for Creation Research, reviews this evidence
        at some length.19 There are numerous examples of sediments composed
        of many thin lamminae that were laid down rapidly in short periods
        of time, even in minutes. For example, such a thinly laminated
        deposit was formed in a few hours during the catastrophic flows of
        water and volcanic ash released by the explosion in 1982 of Mount
        St. Helens in Washington. Similar laminated sedimentary deposits
        have also been produced experimentally by moving, silt laden water
        in a hydraulic tank. In addition, such laminae have also been
        deposited from stationary water in a laboratory by French scientist,
        Guy Berthault.20 In addition, there are finely laminated sediments
        up to hundreds of feet thick that are now known to have been
        deposited rapidly under catastrophic conditions in mere hours. An
        important type of evidence for geologic time has thus become highly
        questionable.

        e. Composition of many sedimentary rock strata is to a large extent
        still unexplained.

        Not only the structure, but also the composition of sedimentary rock
        formations bears witness to catastrophic deposition of most of the
        sedimentary rocks in the earth's crust. Limestone,21 dolostone
        (limestone containing much magnesium carbonate),22 cherts (flint-
        like stone),23 graywacke,24 and "evaporites" (such as gypsum or rock
        salt)25 cannot be suitably explained in terms of processes observed
        on the earth today. In fact, they apparently were formed by water
        currents and oceanic chemical reactions on a scale which is
        incomprehensible in terms of present earth activities. Geologists
        cannot agree on the explanations for these facts, and there is much
        mystery still. One thing is certain: a global flood seems to offer
        the best possibility ultimately of explaining all of the facts.

        f. Vast volcanic lava outpourings.

        In the states of the Pacific Northwest, in India and elsewhere,
        hundreds of thousands of square miles of territory were engulfed by
        floods of basaltic lava which must have flowed like rivers and
        stacked up layers thousands of feet thick. Volcanic action on this
        scale is unheard of in the modern world.26

        g. Earth's crust violently altered.

        Many other characteristics of the rock structures of the earth's
        crust suggest catastrophic activity on a giant scale not seen today.
        Large scale folding, faulting, and uplifting and sinking are
        examples. Great river canyons in the ocean bottoms and shallow water
        deposits on the sea floor indicate that the oceans may have been
        thousands of feet lower than at present.27 Striking evidence from
        archaeology indicates that the Andes and Himalaya mountain chains
        were pushed up thousands of feet in historic times.28

        h. Mount Ararat submerged.

        On Mount Ararat, a volcanic mountain complex, pillow lava is found
        at the 14,000 foot level.29 Pillow lava has been extruded under
        water and is recognized by its high glass content caused by very
        rapid cooling. All of the igneous rocks examined on Ararat by
        geologist Clifford Burdick were highly glassy. Ararat apparently was
        submerged in water to above the present 14,000 foot level. It
        probably was built up under the water during the flood. The entire
        world must have been inundated at the same time.

        All of these evidences from geology and many more point to a
        violent, catastrophic past history of the earth. They imply global
        flood with associated volcanic and mountain building activity which
        changed the face of the earth.

        6. Are the rock layers and their embedded fossils always found in
        the same order, with simple fossils on the bottom and complex ones
        on the top, in the same order in which evolution is said to have
        occurred?
        Answer: There are many places on the earth where rock strata
        and
        fossils are found in the reverse order from that predicted by
        evolutionary theory. Many of these are very difficult for geologists
        to explain. If they cannot be explained, the evolutionary history
        gets turned around backwards, which is embarrassing for the theory
        ofhistorical geology.
        Dr. Walter Lammerts has compiled references in the scientific
        literature to hundreds of such reversals of evolutionary geology.30
        Sometimes a reversal can be shown to be caused by the overturning of
        a fold in intensely deformed sediments. But in other cases folding
        cannot explain it. The stock explanation in such cases is that
        a "thrust fault" allowed older strata containing simple fossils to
        be slid out on top of younger rocks contain complex fossils.

        The most famous example of a so-called thrust fault is the Lewis
        Overthrust, covering some 13,000 square miles of mountain ranges in
        Montana and British Columbia. However, the physical evidence that an
        entire system of mountain ranges slid thirty to sixty miles out on
        top of underlying strata is absent. A thick layer of ground-up mixed
        rock from the two layers should be found between the upper and lower
        members of the supposed overthrust structure. It is nowhere to be
        found, not at any of the known exposures of the contact surface. The
        rock layers appear to have been conformably deposited one on the
        other in the normal manner. If the simple algae fossils in the upper
        layers (rocks classified as Precambrian dolomite) were not
        supposedly a billion years older than the complex marine fossils in
        the lower layers (classified as Cretaceous shale), the idea of a
        thrust fault in that area would never have occurred to geologists.
        but the theory of evolution must be saved at any cost, so heroic
        feats of geological imagination are performed to explain away the
        obvious facts.31

        Another related type of evidence which is embarrassing to the
        defenders of the traditional geological claims is the discovery of
        many different kinds of pollen in Precambrian rocks.32 This
        information would have flowering plants appearing on the earth up to
        a half billion years too early to fit in the theory of evolution.
        Perhaps the evolution and the years are really imagination.

        7. What is the biblical picture of earth history?
        Answer: While the Bible does not give a detailed picture of
        earth
        history, it does provide a framework for interpreting the fossils
        and rock strata. The opening verses of the Bible indicate that in
        its original form the earth was surrounded by water, perhaps in
        violent activity. Thus the earliest sedimentary rocks formed would
        be devoid of fossils, for life had not yet been created. This was on
        the first day of creation, ten thousand or so years ago. On the
        third day of creation God lifted the original continental mass from
        beneath the waters. Probably until the Flood, thousands of years
        later, the level of the dry land was generally lower and more even
        than today, the mountains much lower than today's mountain ranges.
        Sea level was considerably lower and the land surface therefore
        greater than at present. When God judged the sinful human race with
        the Flood of Noah, rain fell and perhaps additional water was
        brought to earth by special divine provision, and juvenile waters
        poured out through fissures in the crust of the earth in tremendous
        volume. In addition, the ocean bottoms and the land surface may have
        changed their relative levels, the former rising and the latter
        sinking.
        The effect was to cover the land surface totally and subject the
        entire earth to the action of global water currents and wave action
        of cataclysmic violence. The land surface was deeply eroded and
        every living thing swept away. The sediments with the dead plants
        and animals were deposited to form the strata observed today with
        their content of fossils. Great earth upheavals, volcanic activity,
        vast lava outpourings, and rapid mountain building accompanied the
        latter part of the Flood and continued for centuries afterwards on a
        diminishing scale. Perhaps in the centuries after the Flood the
        original land mass began to separate into the present continents.
        Genesis 10:25 may refer to a crucial stage in this separation, as
        well as to the division of the nations at Babel. In the post-flood
        period glaciers advanced and retreated. Gradually the conditions on
        the earth stabilized, the land and seas were filled again with
        living creatures, and the descendants of Noah spread around the
        world*
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