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  • Hana Jarolímová
    Ahoj, mohl by prosim nekdo z native speakeru /navrhnout kreativne anglicke zneni na novorocni prani pro jednoho z mych klientu - viz dole. Dekuji moc. Hanka
    Message 1 of 26 , Dec 5, 2011
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      Ahoj, mohl by prosim nekdo z native speakeru /navrhnout kreativne
      anglicke zneni na novorocni prani pro jednoho z mych klientu - viz dole.

      Dekuji moc.
      Hanka

      Aby ka�d� okam�ik roku 2012 p�in��el jen spokojenost v pracovn�m i
      osobn�m �ivot�, p�eje/


      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • Melvyn
      ... The discussion in the Spravnym smerem thread is relevant, I think: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Czechlist/message/44665 Again, I feel a very literal
      Message 2 of 26 , Dec 8, 2011
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        --- In Czechlist@yahoogroups.com, Hana Jarolímová <jarolimo@...> wrote:

        > Aby ka¾dý okam¾ik roku 2012 pøiná¹el jen spokojenost v pracovním i
        > osobním ¾ivotì, pøeje/


        --- In Czechlist@yahoogroups.com, Hana Jarolímová <jarolimo@...> wrote:
        >
        > Aby ka¾dý okam¾ik roku 2012 pøiná¹el jen spokojenost v pracovním i
        > osobním ¾ivotì, pøeje/

        The discussion in the "Spravnym smerem" thread is relevant, I think:

        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Czechlist/message/44665

        Again, I feel a very literal translation might sound to many anglophones as if we are spreading it on a bit thick. I'd try to pare it down, e.g.

        May each moment of 2012 bring (??nothing but??) contentment into your life.

        Hope you can take satisfaction from each moment of 2012.

        BR

        Melvyn
        Hoping y'all DON'T get no satisfaction anytime next year.
      • Valerie Talacko
        How about: May each moment of 2012 bring you contentment both at work and home or, if you leave off the work and home bit, then could also be May each
        Message 3 of 26 , Dec 8, 2011
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          How about:

          May each moment of 2012 bring you contentment both at work and home

          or, if you leave off the "work and home" bit, then could also be "May
          each moment of 2012 bring you happiness" ("happiness at work" sounded a
          bit too much).

          Valerie


          On Thu, 2011-12-08 at 23:13 +0000, "Melvyn" wrote:
          >
          > --- In Czechlist@yahoogroups.com, Hana Jarolimova <jarolimo@...> wrote:
          >
          > > Aby kazdy okamzik roku 2012 prinasel jen spokojenost v pracovnim i
          > > osobnim zivote, preje/
          >
          >
          > --- In Czechlist@yahoogroups.com, Hana Jarolimova <jarolimo@...> wrote:
          > >
          > > Aby kazdy okamzik roku 2012 prinasel jen spokojenost v pracovnim i
          > > osobnim zivote, preje/
          >
          > The discussion in the "Spravnym smerem" thread is relevant, I think:
          >
          > http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Czechlist/message/44665
          >
          > Again, I feel a very literal translation might sound to many anglophones as if we are spreading it on a bit thick. I'd try to pare it down, e.g.
          >
          > May each moment of 2012 bring (??nothing but??) contentment into your life.
          >
          > Hope you can take satisfaction from each moment of 2012.
          >
          > BR
          >
          > Melvyn
          > Hoping y'all DON'T get no satisfaction anytime next year.
          >
          > _______________________________________________
          > Czechlist mailing list
          > Czechlist@...
          > http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist



          _______________________________________________
          Czechlist mailing list
          Czechlist@...
          http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist
        • Hana Jarolímová
          Dekuji, Valerie! H
          Message 4 of 26 , Dec 9, 2011
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            Dekuji, Valerie!
            H
          • Sabina Kralova
            Hi, Could anyone please tell me if there is any specific rule for using the definite article with the names of diseases, e.g. He/she suffered from esophageal
            Message 5 of 26 , Dec 9, 2011
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              Hi,

              Could anyone please tell me if there is any specific rule for using the
              definite article with the names of diseases, e.g. He/she suffered from
              esophageal refux disease. Should there be "the" or not?

              I am also not sure about the correct preposition in the following
              expression: "zmeny na sliznici" - changes in mucous membranes?
              Thanks a lot!
              Sabina


              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            • Valerie Talacko
              no, no preposition. Unless is kind of informal - the measles/the clap/the shakes.
              Message 6 of 26 , Dec 9, 2011
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                no, no preposition. Unless is kind of informal - the measles/the
                clap/the shakes.

                On Fri, 2011-12-09 at 11:08 +0100, Sabina Kralova wrote:
                >
                > Hi,
                >
                > Could anyone please tell me if there is any specific rule for using
                > the
                > definite article with the names of diseases, e.g. He/she suffered from
                > esophageal refux disease. Should there be "the" or not?
                >
                > I am also not sure about the correct preposition in the following
                > expression: "zmeny na sliznici" - changes in mucous membranes?
                > Thanks a lot!
                > Sabina
                >
                > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >
              • Sabina Králová
                Thanks a lot, Valerie! What about my second question regarding na sliznici ? In the mucous membrane (zmeny na sliznici - changes in the mucous membrane?).
                Message 7 of 26 , Dec 9, 2011
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                  Thanks a lot, Valerie! What about my second question regarding "na sliznici"? In the mucous membrane (zmeny na sliznici - changes in the mucous membrane?).
                  Sabina

                  -----Original Message-----
                  From: Czechlist@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Czechlist@yahoogroups.com]On Behalf Of Valerie Talacko
                  Sent: Friday, December 09, 2011 11:39 AM
                  To: Czechlist@yahoogroups.com
                  Subject: Re: [Czechlist] the + name of disease/presposition



                  no, no preposition. Unless is kind of informal - the measles/the
                  clap/the shakes.

                  On Fri, 2011-12-09 at 11:08 +0100, Sabina Kralova wrote:
                  >
                  > Hi,
                  >
                  > Could anyone please tell me if there is any specific rule for using
                  > the
                  > definite article with the names of diseases, e.g. He/she suffered from
                  > esophageal refux disease. Should there be "the" or not?
                  >
                  > I am also not sure about the correct preposition in the following
                  > expression: "zmeny na sliznici" - changes in mucous membranes?
                  > Thanks a lot!
                  > Sabina
                  >
                  > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >





                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                • James Kirchner
                  I like contentment all by itself. Jamie ... _______________________________________________ Czechlist mailing list Czechlist@czechlist.org
                  Message 8 of 26 , Dec 9, 2011
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                    I like "contentment" all by itself.

                    Jamie

                    On Dec 9, 2011, at 2:45 AM, Valerie Talacko wrote:

                    > How about:
                    >
                    > May each moment of 2012 bring you contentment both at work and home
                    >
                    > or, if you leave off the "work and home" bit, then could also be "May
                    > each moment of 2012 bring you happiness" ("happiness at work" sounded a
                    > bit too much).
                    >
                    > Valerie
                    >
                    >
                    > On Thu, 2011-12-08 at 23:13 +0000, "Melvyn" wrote:
                    >>
                    >> --- In Czechlist@yahoogroups.com, Hana Jarolimova <jarolimo@...> wrote:
                    >>
                    >>> Aby kazdy okamzik roku 2012 prinasel jen spokojenost v pracovnim i
                    >>> osobnim zivote, preje/
                    >>
                    >>
                    >> --- In Czechlist@yahoogroups.com, Hana Jarolimova <jarolimo@...> wrote:
                    >>>
                    >>> Aby kazdy okamzik roku 2012 prinasel jen spokojenost v pracovnim i
                    >>> osobnim zivote, preje/
                    >>
                    >> The discussion in the "Spravnym smerem" thread is relevant, I think:
                    >>
                    >> http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Czechlist/message/44665
                    >>
                    >> Again, I feel a very literal translation might sound to many anglophones as if we are spreading it on a bit thick. I'd try to pare it down, e.g.
                    >>
                    >> May each moment of 2012 bring (??nothing but??) contentment into your life.
                    >>
                    >> Hope you can take satisfaction from each moment of 2012.
                    >>
                    >> BR
                    >>
                    >> Melvyn
                    >> Hoping y'all DON'T get no satisfaction anytime next year.
                    >>
                    >> _______________________________________________
                    >> Czechlist mailing list
                    >> Czechlist@...
                    >> http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > _______________________________________________
                    > Czechlist mailing list
                    > Czechlist@...
                    > http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist


                    _______________________________________________
                    Czechlist mailing list
                    Czechlist@...
                    http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist
                  • James Kirchner
                    I agree with Valerie: No the except in some slang terms for diseases. In the phrase you gave, changes in can be used, and in other cases changes to . I
                    Message 9 of 26 , Dec 9, 2011
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                      I agree with Valerie: No "the" except in some slang terms for diseases.

                      In the phrase you gave, "changes in" can be used, and in other cases "changes to". I can't discern any pattern or rule, and sometimes they're interchangeable.

                      Jamie

                      On Dec 9, 2011, at 5:08 AM, Sabina Kralova wrote:

                      > Hi,
                      >
                      > Could anyone please tell me if there is any specific rule for using the
                      > definite article with the names of diseases, e.g. He/she suffered from
                      > esophageal refux disease. Should there be "the" or not?
                      >
                      > I am also not sure about the correct preposition in the following
                      > expression: "zmeny na sliznici" - changes in mucous membranes?
                      > Thanks a lot!
                      > Sabina
                      >
                      >
                      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      >
                      > _______________________________________________
                      > Czechlist mailing list
                      > Czechlist@...
                      > http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist


                      _______________________________________________
                      Czechlist mailing list
                      Czechlist@...
                      http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist
                    • Sabina Kralova
                      Thanks, Jamie. As far as my second question is concerned I need to know how to say na sliznici - mikroorganizmy na slinici, anything na sliznici. I have
                      Message 10 of 26 , Dec 9, 2011
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                        Thanks, Jamie. As far as my second question is concerned I need to know how
                        to say "na sliznici" - mikroorganizmy na slinici, anything na sliznici. I
                        have perhaps included a wrong example.
                        Could you please tell me what would be correct preposition?
                        Sabina
                        -----Original Message-----
                        From: Czechlist@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Czechlist@yahoogroups.com]On
                        Behalf Of James Kirchner
                        Sent: Friday, December 09, 2011 4:39 PM
                        To: czechlist@...
                        Subject: Re: [Czechlist] the + name of disease/presposition



                        I agree with Valerie: No "the" except in some slang terms for diseases.

                        In the phrase you gave, "changes in" can be used, and in other cases
                        "changes to". I can't discern any pattern or rule, and sometimes they're
                        interchangeable.

                        Jamie

                        On Dec 9, 2011, at 5:08 AM, Sabina Kralova wrote:

                        > Hi,
                        >
                        > Could anyone please tell me if there is any specific rule for using the
                        > definite article with the names of diseases, e.g. He/she suffered from
                        > esophageal refux disease. Should there be "the" or not?
                        >
                        > I am also not sure about the correct preposition in the following
                        > expression: "zmeny na sliznici" - changes in mucous membranes?
                        > Thanks a lot!
                        > Sabina
                        >
                        >
                        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                        >
                        > _______________________________________________
                        > Czechlist mailing list
                        > Czechlist@...
                        > http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist

                        _______________________________________________
                        Czechlist mailing list
                        Czechlist@...
                        http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist





                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      • James Kirchner
                        The right preposition depends on what is happening: - treatment for ( na + accusative) - changes in (if the changes are spontaneous) - changes to or in (if
                        Message 11 of 26 , Dec 9, 2011
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                          The right preposition depends on what is happening:

                          - treatment for ("na" + accusative)
                          - changes in (if the changes are spontaneous)
                          - changes to or in (if the changes are caused by something outside the membranes)

                          Prepositions are a can of worms.

                          Jamie

                          On Dec 9, 2011, at 10:48 AM, Sabina Kralova wrote:

                          > Thanks, Jamie. As far as my second question is concerned I need to know how
                          > to say "na sliznici" - mikroorganizmy na slinici, anything na sliznici. I
                          > have perhaps included a wrong example.
                          > Could you please tell me what would be correct preposition?
                          > Sabina
                          > -----Original Message-----
                          > From: Czechlist@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Czechlist@yahoogroups.com]On
                          > Behalf Of James Kirchner
                          > Sent: Friday, December 09, 2011 4:39 PM
                          > To: czechlist@...
                          > Subject: Re: [Czechlist] the + name of disease/presposition
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          > I agree with Valerie: No "the" except in some slang terms for diseases.
                          >
                          > In the phrase you gave, "changes in" can be used, and in other cases
                          > "changes to". I can't discern any pattern or rule, and sometimes they're
                          > interchangeable.
                          >
                          > Jamie
                          >
                          > On Dec 9, 2011, at 5:08 AM, Sabina Kralova wrote:
                          >
                          >> Hi,
                          >>
                          >> Could anyone please tell me if there is any specific rule for using the
                          >> definite article with the names of diseases, e.g. He/she suffered from
                          >> esophageal refux disease. Should there be "the" or not?
                          >>
                          >> I am also not sure about the correct preposition in the following
                          >> expression: "zmeny na sliznici" - changes in mucous membranes?
                          >> Thanks a lot!
                          >> Sabina
                          >>
                          >>
                          >> [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                          >>
                          >> _______________________________________________
                          >> Czechlist mailing list
                          >> Czechlist@...
                          >> http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist
                          >
                          > _______________________________________________
                          > Czechlist mailing list
                          > Czechlist@...
                          > http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                          >
                          > _______________________________________________
                          > Czechlist mailing list
                          > Czechlist@...
                          > http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist


                          _______________________________________________
                          Czechlist mailing list
                          Czechlist@...
                          http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist
                        • Sabina Kralova
                          Thanks a lot, but I still do not get how to translate na - leze na sliznici, narust na sliznici - cokoli na sliznici - microbial growth on, at? the mucous
                          Message 12 of 26 , Dec 9, 2011
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                            Thanks a lot, but I still do not get how to translate "na" - leze na
                            sliznici, narust na sliznici - cokoli na sliznici - microbial growth on, at?
                            the mucous membrane?
                            Sorry for being so persistent:)) but this expressions hunts me!
                            Sabina
                            -----Original Message-----
                            From: Czechlist@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Czechlist@yahoogroups.com]On
                            Behalf Of James Kirchner
                            Sent: Friday, December 09, 2011 4:53 PM
                            To: czechlist@...
                            Subject: Re: [Czechlist] the + name of disease/presposition



                            The right preposition depends on what is happening:

                            - treatment for ("na" + accusative)
                            - changes in (if the changes are spontaneous)
                            - changes to or in (if the changes are caused by something outside the
                            membranes)

                            Prepositions are a can of worms.

                            Jamie

                            On Dec 9, 2011, at 10:48 AM, Sabina Kralova wrote:

                            > Thanks, Jamie. As far as my second question is concerned I need to know
                            how
                            > to say "na sliznici" - mikroorganizmy na slinici, anything na sliznici.
                            I
                            > have perhaps included a wrong example.
                            > Could you please tell me what would be correct preposition?
                            > Sabina
                            > -----Original Message-----
                            > From: Czechlist@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Czechlist@yahoogroups.com]On
                            > Behalf Of James Kirchner
                            > Sent: Friday, December 09, 2011 4:39 PM
                            > To: czechlist@...
                            > Subject: Re: [Czechlist] the + name of disease/presposition
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            > I agree with Valerie: No "the" except in some slang terms for diseases.
                            >
                            > In the phrase you gave, "changes in" can be used, and in other cases
                            > "changes to". I can't discern any pattern or rule, and sometimes they're
                            > interchangeable.
                            >
                            > Jamie
                            >
                            > On Dec 9, 2011, at 5:08 AM, Sabina Kralova wrote:
                            >
                            >> Hi,
                            >>
                            >> Could anyone please tell me if there is any specific rule for using the
                            >> definite article with the names of diseases, e.g. He/she suffered from
                            >> esophageal refux disease. Should there be "the" or not?
                            >>
                            >> I am also not sure about the correct preposition in the following
                            >> expression: "zmeny na sliznici" - changes in mucous membranes?
                            >> Thanks a lot!
                            >> Sabina
                            >>
                            >>
                            >> [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                            >>
                            >> _______________________________________________
                            >> Czechlist mailing list
                            >> Czechlist@...
                            >> http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist
                            >
                            > _______________________________________________
                            > Czechlist mailing list
                            > Czechlist@...
                            > http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                            >
                            > _______________________________________________
                            > Czechlist mailing list
                            > Czechlist@...
                            > http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist

                            _______________________________________________
                            Czechlist mailing list
                            Czechlist@...
                            http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist





                            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                          • James Kirchner
                            I would say that if something s growing there, it s growing on it. Jamie ... _______________________________________________ Czechlist mailing list
                            Message 13 of 26 , Dec 9, 2011
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                              I would say that if something's growing there, it's growing "on" it.

                              Jamie

                              On Dec 9, 2011, at 12:28 PM, Sabina Kralova wrote:

                              > Thanks a lot, but I still do not get how to translate "na" - leze na
                              > sliznici, narust na sliznici - cokoli na sliznici - microbial growth on, at?
                              > the mucous membrane?
                              > Sorry for being so persistent:)) but this expressions hunts me!
                              > Sabina
                              > -----Original Message-----
                              > From: Czechlist@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Czechlist@yahoogroups.com]On
                              > Behalf Of James Kirchner
                              > Sent: Friday, December 09, 2011 4:53 PM
                              > To: czechlist@...
                              > Subject: Re: [Czechlist] the + name of disease/presposition
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              > The right preposition depends on what is happening:
                              >
                              > - treatment for ("na" + accusative)
                              > - changes in (if the changes are spontaneous)
                              > - changes to or in (if the changes are caused by something outside the
                              > membranes)
                              >
                              > Prepositions are a can of worms.
                              >
                              > Jamie
                              >
                              > On Dec 9, 2011, at 10:48 AM, Sabina Kralova wrote:
                              >
                              >> Thanks, Jamie. As far as my second question is concerned I need to know
                              > how
                              >> to say "na sliznici" - mikroorganizmy na slinici, anything na sliznici.
                              > I
                              >> have perhaps included a wrong example.
                              >> Could you please tell me what would be correct preposition?
                              >> Sabina
                              >> -----Original Message-----
                              >> From: Czechlist@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Czechlist@yahoogroups.com]On
                              >> Behalf Of James Kirchner
                              >> Sent: Friday, December 09, 2011 4:39 PM
                              >> To: czechlist@...
                              >> Subject: Re: [Czechlist] the + name of disease/presposition
                              >>
                              >>
                              >>
                              >> I agree with Valerie: No "the" except in some slang terms for diseases.
                              >>
                              >> In the phrase you gave, "changes in" can be used, and in other cases
                              >> "changes to". I can't discern any pattern or rule, and sometimes they're
                              >> interchangeable.
                              >>
                              >> Jamie
                              >>
                              >> On Dec 9, 2011, at 5:08 AM, Sabina Kralova wrote:
                              >>
                              >>> Hi,
                              >>>
                              >>> Could anyone please tell me if there is any specific rule for using the
                              >>> definite article with the names of diseases, e.g. He/she suffered from
                              >>> esophageal refux disease. Should there be "the" or not?
                              >>>
                              >>> I am also not sure about the correct preposition in the following
                              >>> expression: "zmeny na sliznici" - changes in mucous membranes?
                              >>> Thanks a lot!
                              >>> Sabina
                              >>>
                              >>>
                              >>> [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                              >>>
                              >>> _______________________________________________
                              >>> Czechlist mailing list
                              >>> Czechlist@...
                              >>> http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist
                              >>
                              >> _______________________________________________
                              >> Czechlist mailing list
                              >> Czechlist@...
                              >> http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist
                              >>
                              >>
                              >>
                              >>
                              >>
                              >> [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                              >>
                              >> _______________________________________________
                              >> Czechlist mailing list
                              >> Czechlist@...
                              >> http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist
                              >
                              > _______________________________________________
                              > Czechlist mailing list
                              > Czechlist@...
                              > http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                              >
                              > _______________________________________________
                              > Czechlist mailing list
                              > Czechlist@...
                              > http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist


                              _______________________________________________
                              Czechlist mailing list
                              Czechlist@...
                              http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist
                            • Sabina Kralova
                              Great! Thanks a lot! Sabina ... From: Czechlist@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Czechlist@yahoogroups.com]On Behalf Of James Kirchner Sent: Friday, December 09, 2011
                              Message 14 of 26 , Dec 9, 2011
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                                Great! Thanks a lot!
                                Sabina

                                -----Original Message-----
                                From: Czechlist@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Czechlist@yahoogroups.com]On
                                Behalf Of James Kirchner
                                Sent: Friday, December 09, 2011 6:35 PM
                                To: czechlist@...
                                Subject: Re: [Czechlist] the + name of disease/presposition



                                I would say that if something's growing there, it's growing "on" it.

                                Jamie

                                On Dec 9, 2011, at 12:28 PM, Sabina Kralova wrote:

                                > Thanks a lot, but I still do not get how to translate "na" - leze na
                                > sliznici, narust na sliznici - cokoli na sliznici - microbial growth on,
                                at?
                                > the mucous membrane?
                                > Sorry for being so persistent:)) but this expressions hunts me!
                                > Sabina
                                > -----Original Message-----
                                > From: Czechlist@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Czechlist@yahoogroups.com]On
                                > Behalf Of James Kirchner
                                > Sent: Friday, December 09, 2011 4:53 PM
                                > To: czechlist@...
                                > Subject: Re: [Czechlist] the + name of disease/presposition
                                >
                                >
                                >
                                > The right preposition depends on what is happening:
                                >
                                > - treatment for ("na" + accusative)
                                > - changes in (if the changes are spontaneous)
                                > - changes to or in (if the changes are caused by something outside the
                                > membranes)
                                >
                                > Prepositions are a can of worms.
                                >
                                > Jamie
                                >
                                > On Dec 9, 2011, at 10:48 AM, Sabina Kralova wrote:
                                >
                                >> Thanks, Jamie. As far as my second question is concerned I need to know
                                > how
                                >> to say "na sliznici" - mikroorganizmy na slinici, anything na sliznici.
                                > I
                                >> have perhaps included a wrong example.
                                >> Could you please tell me what would be correct preposition?
                                >> Sabina
                                >> -----Original Message-----
                                >> From: Czechlist@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Czechlist@yahoogroups.com]On
                                >> Behalf Of James Kirchner
                                >> Sent: Friday, December 09, 2011 4:39 PM
                                >> To: czechlist@...
                                >> Subject: Re: [Czechlist] the + name of disease/presposition
                                >>
                                >>
                                >>
                                >> I agree with Valerie: No "the" except in some slang terms for diseases.
                                >>
                                >> In the phrase you gave, "changes in" can be used, and in other cases
                                >> "changes to". I can't discern any pattern or rule, and sometimes
                                they're
                                >> interchangeable.
                                >>
                                >> Jamie
                                >>
                                >> On Dec 9, 2011, at 5:08 AM, Sabina Kralova wrote:
                                >>
                                >>> Hi,
                                >>>
                                >>> Could anyone please tell me if there is any specific rule for using
                                the
                                >>> definite article with the names of diseases, e.g. He/she suffered from
                                >>> esophageal refux disease. Should there be "the" or not?
                                >>>
                                >>> I am also not sure about the correct preposition in the following
                                >>> expression: "zmeny na sliznici" - changes in mucous membranes?
                                >>> Thanks a lot!
                                >>> Sabina
                                >>>
                                >>>
                                >>> [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                >>>
                                >>> _______________________________________________
                                >>> Czechlist mailing list
                                >>> Czechlist@...
                                >>> http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist
                                >>
                                >> _______________________________________________
                                >> Czechlist mailing list
                                >> Czechlist@...
                                >> http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist
                                >>
                                >>
                                >>
                                >>
                                >>
                                >> [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                >>
                                >> _______________________________________________
                                >> Czechlist mailing list
                                >> Czechlist@...
                                >> http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist
                                >
                                > _______________________________________________
                                > Czechlist mailing list
                                > Czechlist@...
                                > http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist
                                >
                                >
                                >
                                >
                                >
                                > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                >
                                > _______________________________________________
                                > Czechlist mailing list
                                > Czechlist@...
                                > http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist

                                _______________________________________________
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                                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                              • Valerie Talacko
                                Yes - on it. (re. the first question - I meant to say article, not preposition, but you knew what I meant!)
                                Message 15 of 26 , Dec 9, 2011
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                                  Yes - on it.

                                  (re. the first question - I meant to say article, not preposition, but
                                  you knew what I meant!)


                                  On Fri, 2011-12-09 at 12:35 -0500, James Kirchner wrote:
                                  > I would say that if something's growing there, it's growing "on" it.
                                  >
                                  > Jamie
                                  >
                                  > On Dec 9, 2011, at 12:28 PM, Sabina Kralova wrote:
                                  >
                                  > > Thanks a lot, but I still do not get how to translate "na" - leze na
                                  > > sliznici, narust na sliznici - cokoli na sliznici - microbial growth on, at?
                                  > > the mucous membrane?
                                  > > Sorry for being so persistent:)) but this expressions hunts me!
                                  > > Sabina
                                  > > -----Original Message-----
                                  > > From: Czechlist@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Czechlist@yahoogroups.com]On
                                  > > Behalf Of James Kirchner
                                  > > Sent: Friday, December 09, 2011 4:53 PM
                                  > > To: czechlist@...
                                  > > Subject: Re: [Czechlist] the + name of disease/presposition
                                  > >
                                  > >
                                  > >
                                  > > The right preposition depends on what is happening:
                                  > >
                                  > > - treatment for ("na" + accusative)
                                  > > - changes in (if the changes are spontaneous)
                                  > > - changes to or in (if the changes are caused by something outside the
                                  > > membranes)
                                  > >
                                  > > Prepositions are a can of worms.
                                  > >
                                  > > Jamie
                                  > >
                                  > > On Dec 9, 2011, at 10:48 AM, Sabina Kralova wrote:
                                  > >
                                  > >> Thanks, Jamie. As far as my second question is concerned I need to know
                                  > > how
                                  > >> to say "na sliznici" - mikroorganizmy na slinici, anything na sliznici.
                                  > > I
                                  > >> have perhaps included a wrong example.
                                  > >> Could you please tell me what would be correct preposition?
                                  > >> Sabina
                                  > >> -----Original Message-----
                                  > >> From: Czechlist@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Czechlist@yahoogroups.com]On
                                  > >> Behalf Of James Kirchner
                                  > >> Sent: Friday, December 09, 2011 4:39 PM
                                  > >> To: czechlist@...
                                  > >> Subject: Re: [Czechlist] the + name of disease/presposition
                                  > >>
                                  > >>
                                  > >>
                                  > >> I agree with Valerie: No "the" except in some slang terms for diseases.
                                  > >>
                                  > >> In the phrase you gave, "changes in" can be used, and in other cases
                                  > >> "changes to". I can't discern any pattern or rule, and sometimes they're
                                  > >> interchangeable.
                                  > >>
                                  > >> Jamie
                                  > >>
                                  > >> On Dec 9, 2011, at 5:08 AM, Sabina Kralova wrote:
                                  > >>
                                  > >>> Hi,
                                  > >>>
                                  > >>> Could anyone please tell me if there is any specific rule for using the
                                  > >>> definite article with the names of diseases, e.g. He/she suffered from
                                  > >>> esophageal refux disease. Should there be "the" or not?
                                  > >>>
                                  > >>> I am also not sure about the correct preposition in the following
                                  > >>> expression: "zmeny na sliznici" - changes in mucous membranes?
                                  > >>> Thanks a lot!
                                  > >>> Sabina
                                  > >>>
                                  > >>>
                                  > >>> [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                  > >>>
                                  > >>> _______________________________________________
                                  > >>> Czechlist mailing list
                                  > >>> Czechlist@...
                                  > >>> http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist
                                  > >>
                                  > >> _______________________________________________
                                  > >> Czechlist mailing list
                                  > >> Czechlist@...
                                  > >> http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist
                                  > >>
                                  > >>
                                  > >>
                                  > >>
                                  > >>
                                  > >> [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                  > >>
                                  > >> _______________________________________________
                                  > >> Czechlist mailing list
                                  > >> Czechlist@...
                                  > >> http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist
                                  > >
                                  > > _______________________________________________
                                  > > Czechlist mailing list
                                  > > Czechlist@...
                                  > > http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist
                                  > >
                                  > >
                                  > >
                                  > >
                                  > >
                                  > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                  > >
                                  > > _______________________________________________
                                  > > Czechlist mailing list
                                  > > Czechlist@...
                                  > > http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > _______________________________________________
                                  > Czechlist mailing list
                                  > Czechlist@...
                                  > http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist
                                • Melvyn
                                  ... Here I am nit-picking, but Practical English Usage describes usage of the before some common illnesses as informal , which is not necessarily the same
                                  Message 16 of 26 , Dec 9, 2011
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                                    --- In Czechlist@yahoogroups.com, James Kirchner <czechlist@...> wrote:
                                    >
                                    > I agree with Valerie: No "the" except in some slang terms for diseases.

                                    Here I am nit-picking, but Practical English Usage describes usage of "the" before some common illnesses as "informal", which is not necessarily the same as slang in my view. Slang is very informal (e.g. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5WZaZRWih0E 0.7 in). "He has got the measles" is just mildly informal. Just saying.

                                    It also mentions that "American usage is different in some cases" here, but does not specify, except to mention "US a toothache".

                                    "He's got the flu" and "she's come down with the measles" sound pretty common and everyday to my British ears. But otherwise I agree - no definite article required in standard usage.

                                    BR

                                    M.
                                  • Melvyn
                                    ... Again, I am nit-picking dreadfully and have clearly been watching far too much Just a Minute (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jDHWZYc6l6E - will take
                                    Message 17 of 26 , Dec 9, 2011
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                                      >
                                      > On Dec 9, 2011, at 2:45 AM, Valerie Talacko wrote:

                                      > > May each moment of 2012 bring you contentment both at work and home

                                      Again, I am nit-picking dreadfully and have clearly been watching far too much Just a Minute (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jDHWZYc6l6E - will take anybody on at this game in any language within reason), :-O but many people work from home and might not differentiate the two so readily.


                                      --- In Czechlist@yahoogroups.com, James Kirchner <czechlist@...> wrote:
                                      >
                                      > I like "contentment" all by itself.

                                      My thoughts exactly. Anything extra might be gilding the lily.

                                      BR

                                      M.
                                      May the content of each moment content you.
                                    • Valerie Talacko
                                      Yes - the measles is informal (or maybe just a turn of phrase), the clap is slang. Beatrix Potter writes She told her friend that they were in bed with
                                      Message 18 of 26 , Dec 9, 2011
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                                        Yes - "the measles" is informal (or maybe just a turn of phrase), "the
                                        clap" is slang.

                                        Beatrix Potter writes "She told her friend that they were in bed with
                                        the measles" but a doctor will ask "Has this child been vaccinated
                                        against measles?" rather than "against the measles". But arguably, now
                                        that measles is pretty rare, you wouldn't even say "the measles" these
                                        days - there's not enough of it around for it to be "the." "The"
                                        suggests somehow that the disease is both nasty and a common occurrence
                                        (q.v. flu).


                                        On Fri, 2011-12-09 at 18:22 +0000, Melvyn wrote:
                                        >
                                        >
                                        >
                                        > --- In Czechlist@yahoogroups.com, James Kirchner <czechlist@...>
                                        > wrote:
                                        > >
                                        > > I agree with Valerie: No "the" except in some slang terms for
                                        > diseases.
                                        >
                                        > Here I am nit-picking, but Practical English Usage describes usage of
                                        > "the" before some common illnesses as "informal", which is not
                                        > necessarily the same as slang in my view. Slang is very informal (e.g.
                                        > http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5WZaZRWih0E 0.7 in). "He has got the
                                        > measles" is just mildly informal. Just saying.
                                        >
                                        > It also mentions that "American usage is different in some cases"
                                        > here, but does not specify, except to mention "US a toothache".
                                        >
                                        > "He's got the flu" and "she's come down with the measles" sound pretty
                                        > common and everyday to my British ears. But otherwise I agree - no
                                        > definite article required in standard usage.
                                        >
                                        > BR
                                        >
                                        > M.
                                        >
                                        >
                                        >
                                        >
                                        >
                                      • Valerie Talacko
                                        That s true, plus it sounds as if you can only be content at one or the other. I was trying to find an alternative to in your personal life without getting
                                        Message 19 of 26 , Dec 9, 2011
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                                          That's true, plus it sounds as if you can only be content at one or the
                                          other. I was trying to find an alternative to "in your personal life"
                                          without getting rid of it altogether. I know anglophones go for
                                          pared-down greetings, but I quite like the phrases/wishes in Czech
                                          greetings cards. It's just the expression "personal life" that doesn't
                                          sound good, IMO.


                                          On Fri, 2011-12-09 at 19:05 +0000, Melvyn wrote:
                                          >
                                          >
                                          >
                                          > >
                                          > > On Dec 9, 2011, at 2:45 AM, Valerie Talacko wrote:
                                          >
                                          > > > May each moment of 2012 bring you contentment both at work and
                                          > home
                                          >
                                          > Again, I am nit-picking dreadfully and have clearly been watching far
                                          > too much Just a Minute (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jDHWZYc6l6E -
                                          > will take anybody on at this game in any language within reason), :-O
                                          > but many people work from home and might not differentiate the two so
                                          > readily.
                                          >
                                          > --- In Czechlist@yahoogroups.com, James Kirchner <czechlist@...>
                                          > wrote:
                                          > >
                                          > > I like "contentment" all by itself.
                                          >
                                          > My thoughts exactly. Anything extra might be gilding the lily.
                                          >
                                          > BR
                                          >
                                          > M.
                                          > May the content of each moment content you.
                                          >
                                          >
                                          >
                                          >
                                          >
                                        • Sabina Králová
                                          Thanks Jamie, Valerie and Melvyn! I really appreciate your help. I tried to find some rules for this but could not find any. Sabina ... From:
                                          Message 20 of 26 , Dec 9, 2011
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                                            Thanks Jamie, Valerie and Melvyn! I really appreciate your help. I tried to find some rules for this but could not find any.
                                            Sabina

                                            -----Original Message-----
                                            From: Czechlist@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Czechlist@yahoogroups.com]On Behalf Of Valerie Talacko
                                            Sent: Friday, December 09, 2011 9:12 PM
                                            To: Czechlist@yahoogroups.com
                                            Subject: Re: [Czechlist] Re: the + name of disease/presposition



                                            Yes - "the measles" is informal (or maybe just a turn of phrase), "the
                                            clap" is slang.

                                            Beatrix Potter writes "She told her friend that they were in bed with
                                            the measles" but a doctor will ask "Has this child been vaccinated
                                            against measles?" rather than "against the measles". But arguably, now
                                            that measles is pretty rare, you wouldn't even say "the measles" these
                                            days - there's not enough of it around for it to be "the." "The"
                                            suggests somehow that the disease is both nasty and a common occurrence
                                            (q.v. flu).

                                            On Fri, 2011-12-09 at 18:22 +0000, Melvyn wrote:
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            > --- In Czechlist@yahoogroups.com, James Kirchner <czechlist@...>
                                            > wrote:
                                            > >
                                            > > I agree with Valerie: No "the" except in some slang terms for
                                            > diseases.
                                            >
                                            > Here I am nit-picking, but Practical English Usage describes usage of
                                            > "the" before some common illnesses as "informal", which is not
                                            > necessarily the same as slang in my view. Slang is very informal (e.g.
                                            > http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5WZaZRWih0E 0.7 in). "He has got the
                                            > measles" is just mildly informal. Just saying.
                                            >
                                            > It also mentions that "American usage is different in some cases"
                                            > here, but does not specify, except to mention "US a toothache".
                                            >
                                            > "He's got the flu" and "she's come down with the measles" sound pretty
                                            > common and everyday to my British ears. But otherwise I agree - no
                                            > definite article required in standard usage.
                                            >
                                            > BR
                                            >
                                            > M.
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >





                                            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                          • Melvyn
                                            ... Sure, the doctor will omit the article e.g. in official documents. But s/he might still speak in the vernacular with patients to put them at their ease.
                                            Message 21 of 26 , Dec 11, 2011
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                                              --- In Czechlist@yahoogroups.com, Valerie Talacko <valerie@...> wrote:
                                              >
                                              > Beatrix Potter writes "She told her friend that they were in bed with
                                              > the measles" but a doctor will ask "Has this child been vaccinated
                                              > against measles?" rather than "against the measles".

                                              Sure, the doctor will omit the article e.g. in official documents. But s/he might still speak in the vernacular with patients to put them at their ease. All a matter of style IMO. But then IMO the majority of awkward language issues raised by students can be explained in terms of style: very formal, formal, neutral, informal and very informal, as Randolph Quirk has schematized things.

                                              But arguably, now
                                              > that measles is pretty rare, you wouldn't even say "the measles" these
                                              > days - there's not enough of it around for it to be "the."

                                              277,000 people "have come down with the measles" on Google, while only 12,000 "have come down with measles". :-) And it seems we still refer to bubonic plague more with the article than without.

                                              "The"
                                              > suggests somehow that the disease is both nasty and a common occurrence
                                              > (q.v. flu).


                                              Hmm, I see all this in terms of familiarity, and familiarity is often expressed by stylistic means. I feel the article here implies that this is a disease we all know and hate, but at least we do know it. It is a part of the landscape, and so perhaps when convention permits we subconsciously choose the article in order to suggest the disease is nothing to get unduly perturbed about.

                                              Just speculating here and admittedly this argument will probably not stretch to bubonic plague.

                                              Perhaps it is a bit like some main roads in London. ;-) You might formally address your mail to Holloway Road, but if you live in the manor or thereabouts then informally you might well go dahn the Holloway Road. All a matter of what we are familiar with IMHO.

                                              Or maybe I should stop seeking to explain everything in terms of a grand scheme of things and just see this as a turn of phrase.

                                              BR

                                              M.
                                            • Valerie Talacko
                                              But you re more likely to find the in conjuction with come down with because come down with is itself an informal turn of phrase. ... That s what I m
                                              Message 22 of 26 , Dec 11, 2011
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                                                But you're more likely to find "the" in conjuction with "come down with"
                                                because "come down with" is itself an informal turn of phrase.

                                                >I see all this in terms of familiarity

                                                That's what I'm saying - we're no longer very familiar with measles in
                                                Europe, for all that there have been outbreaks of it as the result of
                                                reduced vaccination rates...

                                                V


                                                On Sun, 2011-12-11 at 17:48 +0000, Melvyn wrote:
                                                >
                                                >
                                                > --- In Czechlist@yahoogroups.com, Valerie Talacko <valerie@...> wrote:
                                                > >
                                                > > Beatrix Potter writes "She told her friend that they were in bed
                                                > with
                                                > > the measles" but a doctor will ask "Has this child been vaccinated
                                                > > against measles?" rather than "against the measles".
                                                >
                                                > Sure, the doctor will omit the article e.g. in official documents. But
                                                > s/he might still speak in the vernacular with patients to put them at
                                                > their ease. All a matter of style IMO. But then IMO the majority of
                                                > awkward language issues raised by students can be explained in terms
                                                > of style: very formal, formal, neutral, informal and very informal, as
                                                > Randolph Quirk has schematized things.
                                                >
                                                > But arguably, now
                                                > > that measles is pretty rare, you wouldn't even say "the measles"
                                                > these
                                                > > days - there's not enough of it around for it to be "the."
                                                >
                                                > 277,000 people "have come down with the measles" on Google, while only
                                                > 12,000 "have come down with measles". :-) And it seems we still refer
                                                > to bubonic plague more with the article than without.
                                                >
                                                > "The"
                                                > > suggests somehow that the disease is both nasty and a common
                                                > occurrence
                                                > > (q.v. flu).
                                                >
                                                > Hmm, I see all this in terms of familiarity, and familiarity is often
                                                > expressed by stylistic means. I feel the article here implies that
                                                > this is a disease we all know and hate, but at least we do know it. It
                                                > is a part of the landscape, and so perhaps when convention permits we
                                                > subconsciously choose the article in order to suggest the disease is
                                                > nothing to get unduly perturbed about.
                                                >
                                                > Just speculating here and admittedly this argument will probably not
                                                > stretch to bubonic plague.
                                                >
                                                > Perhaps it is a bit like some main roads in London. ;-) You might
                                                > formally address your mail to Holloway Road, but if you live in the
                                                > manor or thereabouts then informally you might well go dahn the
                                                > Holloway Road. All a matter of what we are familiar with IMHO.
                                                >
                                                > Or maybe I should stop seeking to explain everything in terms of a
                                                > grand scheme of things and just see this as a turn of phrase.
                                                >
                                                > BR
                                                >
                                                > M.
                                                >
                                                >
                                                >
                                                >
                                                >
                                              • Melvyn
                                                I find the whole business of phrasal verbs rather interesting, so forgive me for going on (in the pejorative sense) a bit. It is true that traditionally
                                                Message 23 of 26 , Dec 13, 2011
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                                                  I find the whole business of phrasal verbs rather interesting, so forgive me for going on (in the pejorative sense) a bit. It is true that traditionally phrasal verbs in general have been considered rather informal, but it was impressed on me in TEFL training classes and elsewhere* that nowadays they are often stylistically neutral (in the sense of "language that does not call attention to itself") and thus can be found aplenty in standard "broadsheet" newspaper articles. Indeed thousands of examples of this phrasal verb can be found in stylistically neutral contexts in the Telegraph and Guardian. Here is one random example:

                                                  Last October, just a month after arriving in Delhi, Lucie Flach-Siebenlist came down with dengue fever
                                                  http://www.guardian.co.uk/money/2011/jul/24/mature-au-pairs

                                                  where I ask myself what the alternatives actually are. "Contracted" is pretty clinical and formal, whereas "caught" strikes me as being rather blunt and unrefined in comparison to "come down with", which seems to me to be the Goldilocks expression here and in other standard journalistic texts.

                                                  BTW a bit further on in the article we find she "came across" an agency. This is a phrasal verb that I teach students early on. Totally standard and stylistically neutral here IMHO. Others may disagree.

                                                  In any case, a quick search of "with measles" and "with the measles" suggests to me we have some way to go worldwide before we eradicate the "the". :-)

                                                  BR

                                                  M.
                                                  *
                                                  is.muni.cz/th/104745/ff_m/diplomova_prace.doc
                                                  "It is often claimed that phrasal verbs are used in informal register. Fletcher states that phrasal verbs are encountered even in quite formal texts and are the most natural-sounding choice."
                                                  According to Fletcher (2005: LS14), "there is a large number of phrasal verbs that native speakers use in all registers, including formal and technical".
                                                  Fletcher, Bryan (2005). `Register and Phrasal Verbs'.In: Rundell, Michael (ed.) (2005) Macmillan Phrasal Verbs Plus. Oxford : Macmillan Education, LS13-LS15.

                                                  --- In Czechlist@yahoogroups.com, Valerie Talacko <valerie@...> wrote:
                                                  >
                                                  > But you're more likely to find "the" in conjuction with "come down with"
                                                  > because "come down with" is itself an informal turn of phrase.
                                                • James Kirchner
                                                  What do you folks do with jednatel in a contract? None of the dictionary definitions that I find seem to make much sense. I usually think of something to
                                                  Message 24 of 26 , Dec 13, 2011
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                                                    What do you folks do with "jednatel" in a contract?

                                                    None of the dictionary definitions that I find seem to make much sense. I usually think of something to use, but I'd like to hear how other people translate it.

                                                    Jamie


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                                                    Czechlist@...
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                                                  • Jenny Gordon
                                                    Good question, Jamie! I choose from a variety of words depending on my mood, the information I have (e.g. LinkedIn profile, company website, the agency s
                                                    Message 25 of 26 , Dec 13, 2011
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                                                      Good question, Jamie! I choose from a variety of words depending on my mood, the information I have (e.g. LinkedIn profile, company website, the agency's preferences, etc.). I wish I could just stick with one but I'm not sure it's ever going to happen!

                                                      Jenny


                                                      On 13 Dec 2011, at 12:20, James Kirchner wrote:

                                                      > What do you folks do with "jednatel" in a contract?
                                                      >
                                                      > None of the dictionary definitions that I find seem to make much sense. I usually think of something to use, but I'd like to hear how other people translate it.
                                                      >
                                                      > Jamie
                                                      >
                                                      > _______________________________________________
                                                      > Czechlist mailing list
                                                      > Czechlist@...
                                                      > http://www.czechlist.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/czechlist
                                                      >



                                                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                    • Melvyn
                                                      ... http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Czechlist/message/46797 http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Czechlist/message/46826 BR M.
                                                      Message 26 of 26 , Dec 13, 2011
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                                                        --- In Czechlist@yahoogroups.com, James Kirchner <czechlist@...> wrote:
                                                        >
                                                        > What do you folks do with "jednatel" in a contract?

                                                        :-) Perhaps you were off on holiday in summer when we were last discussing this subject:

                                                        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Czechlist/message/46797

                                                        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Czechlist/message/46826

                                                        BR

                                                        M.
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