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Re: [Czechlist] zvlastni zakon

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  • Michael Trittipo
    ... and Alena Ryskova wrote:
    Message 1 of 5 , Mar 4, 2009
      Charlie Stanford wrote:
      > Hope I am not asking an "evergreen" but can someone tell me please if there is a difference between a zvlastni zakon, a zakon and a zvlastni pravni predpis . . .?
      and Alena Ryskova wrote:

      << IMHO, vsechno jsou to "jen" zakony a predpisy a slovo zvlastni se vyskytuje
      ve spojeni "pokud tak nestanovi zvlastni zakon", cili nejaky jiny, nez ten,
      ktery prave cteme. >>

      Souhlasim s Alenou, ze kazdy "zvlastni zakon" je "jen" zakon. Ale rekl bych ze "zvlastni zakon" neni jenom "nejaky jiny." Aby jeden zakon byl ve vztahu ke druhemu "zvlastni," musi byt nejenom jiny, ale taky uzsi, specifictejsi. Musi pusobit vice mene jako vyjimka nebo jak doplnek. Duvod pro pridavne jmeno "zvlastni" lezi v zasade "lex specialis derogat generali". To znamena, ze v zasade zakon "A" muze byt "zvlastni" zakon ve vztahu k zakonu "B," ale tentyz zakon "A" muze byt soucasne "obecny" ve vztahu ke "zvlastnejsimu" zakonu "C". Vsechny jsou jen zakony. Ale uzsi zakon je "zvlastni" ve vztahu ke sirsimu.

      In English, you might say that the more specialized, particular, narrower, or more specific statute takes precedence over the more general or broader statute. In the typical Czech legislative phrase Alena cites and its analogues, "more specific" might often be a better translation than "special." In short, it's a _relative_ term (always involving a comparison of its field of application to some other statute's), not a _categorical_ (typing in isolation) one.

      By way of example, there might be a statute about contract terms. _In relation to it_, a provision in the the copyright law that certain rights cannot be contracted away would be a "zvlastni zakon" -- a narrow, more specific one. Or there might be a statute about contracts for renting living units, that would require additional terms that the general contracts statute didn't, or might forbid some terms. Again, the more specific, more focused, more particularized law would (as a general rule) take precedence.

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