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Computing Generations, 5/9/2009, 3:00 pm

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  • CyberClone@yahoogroups.com
    Reminder from: Artificial-Awakening Yahoo! Group http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Artificial-Awakening/cal Computing Generations Saturday May 9, 2009 3:00 pm -
    Message 1 of 1 , May 9 7:40 AM
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      Reminder from: Artificial-Awakening Yahoo! Group
      Title: Computing Generations
      Date: Saturday May 9, 2009
      Time: 3:00 pm - 4:00 pm
      Repeats: This event repeats every year.
      Notes: Computing Generations
      The balance of the history of computing has been divided into
      generations. The First Generation (1951-1959), was brought about by
      the needs of the military during World War II to calculate the
      trajectories of new weapons systems. John Eckert and John Mauchly
      invented the ENIAC, (Electrical Numerical Integrator And Calculator)
      It required 18,000 vacuum tubes and occupied 1,800 square feet. Its
      main drawback was that in order to reprogram it for a different task
      required rewiring its hardware. John von Neumann, a professor of
      mathematics at Princeton described a method where new programs could
      be stored electronically, and not require rewiring of the hardware.
      This brought about the concept of software as something distinct
      from hardware and greatly enhanced the efficiency and commercial
      viability of computers.

      The Second Generation (1959-1963) was brought about by the use of
      transistors instead of vacuum tubes as the basic switching devices
      in computers. Transistors were faster, more reliable and more
      efficient than vacuum tubes and made computers practical for
      business use.

      The Third Generation (1963-1975) was characterized by the use of
      integrated circuits which were many transistors produced on one
      small circuit. These made complicated computers easier and more
      practical to produce and brought the cost down to the point where
      computers were beginning to be affordable to the average person.

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