RE: [CreationTalk] Pioneer Anomaly & Clocks
It is also consistent with a reduction in time dilation resulting from an expanding bounded universe. Dr Russell Humphreys dealt with this about 6 years ago showing that it supports a young Earth Relativistic cosmology.
Ironically Humphreys model could also explain why the expansion of the universe seems to be accelerating since the affect would be more pronounced in distant galaxies reducing their redshift some what giving an appearance of acceleration.
Humphreys also dose a good job of refuting the heat theory of the Pioneer Anomaly.
------ Charles Creager Jr.
From: CreationTalk @yahoogroups.com [mailto: CreationTalk @yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Victor McAllister
Sent: Monday, June 17, 2013 7:38 PM
Subject: [ CreationTalk ] Pioneer Anomaly & Clocks
NASA’s Pioneers 10 and 11 were the first missions to the outer planets. Dr. John D. Anderson, of Jet Propulsion, tried to use the Doppler shifts from the Pioneers to calculate Jupiter’s gravity. He noticed that the radio signals from both spacecraft kept shifting in an unexpected way during the flight to Jupiter. After years of analysis, he calculated both craft experience an unexpected sun-ward acceleration of 8.74 ± 1.33 x 10^-10 m/s2. http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0104064v5.pdf
The Pioneers use a transponder that multiplies the received frequency by the ratio 240/211 to generate the reply frequency. NASA’s hydrogen maser clock on earth controls the up frequency (2.113 GHZ) as well as the spacecraft’s reply frequency at ~2.295 GHZ. A Doppler counter counts the difference between the transmitted and returned signals. JPL navigators calculate that the range changes by one wavelength for each Doppler count, after correcting for Earth’s motion. The Pioneer Doppler anomaly correlates with distance. It also shows sinusoidal yearly and daily (diurnal) variations. http://arxiv.org/pdf/0906.0399v1.pdf This suggests that the anomaly points toward the Earth, not the Sun. Perhaps these Earth centered effects represent gravity aberration. http://godsriddle.org/astronomy/accelerating-days-years/
Scientists proposed numerous explanations for the Pioneer anomaly, from dark matter to on board effects. Perhaps it is an actual force pulling towards the Sun. The planets do not seem to be falling towards the Sun. Perhaps the spaceships encounter drag. The density the interplanetary medium is too low. Slava Turyshev and Viktor Toth made a detailed study of heat on the Pioneers. They even wondered how the paint on the radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) might deteriorate over the decades. One part of their explanation involves infrared escaping from the electronics compartment. As the thermocouple junctions in the RTGs deteriorate, the electrical power available deteriorates. Another part of their analysis involves infrared from the RTGs reflecting off the back of the dish antenna. (Imagine sitting in a rowboat throwing bean bags against the transom. Only the ones that do not hit the boat can accelerate it). They do not claim their thermal modeling fully characterizes the anomaly but they do show it is slightly reducing, which may show at least part of it is due to heat.
Two other spin stabilized spacecraft, Ulysses and Galileo, had a similar Doppler anomaly, but neither went beyond Jupiter’s orbit. The Voyagers, Cassini and newer spacecraft use massive inertial wheels or frequent maneuvering. New Horizons is spin stabilized during its cruise phase and may someday provide useful information to supplement the Pioneer data.
Anderson proposed a fundamental explanation, that clocks everywhere accelerate. If NASA’s hydrogen maser clocks are speeding up, the frequencies that formed the uplink radio signal would have changed slightly hours latter when the downlink signal returns. His estimate for the possible acceleration of clocks is (2.92±0.44)×10^-18 s/s2. Edwin Hubble found that the farther away a galaxy, the more its light is shifted relative to the spectra of local atoms. According to Hubble, the distance to a galaxy is measurable by its Doppler shift. The Hubble ratio, H_0, is supposed to represent the rate of the universe’s expansion. As telescopes improved, astronomers discovered that all early galaxies would need to move faster than light to fit Hubble’s explanation. They now imagine that galaxies are standing still relative to their local vacuum as they move away due to the expansion of the intergalactic vacuum. As space time expands, the light is Doppler shifted by the expanding vacuum. Gravity is supposed to prevent cosmological Doppler shifts within galaxies. Yet the Hubble ratio multiplied by the speed of light is 6.7 x 10^-10 m / sec / sec. This is just slightly lower than the estimates for the Pioneer Anomaly.
The landing anomaly may support the innate acceleration of clocks. Landings on Mars always are downrange of the target. Pathfinder landed 27 km, Spirit 13.4 km, Opportunity 14.9 km, Phoenix 21 km and Curiosity 2km - all downrange. NASA used extraordinary efforts even during the descent stage, yet Curiosity still landed downrange. If clocks are speeding up as radar signals make the round trip to a planet, the orbital distances would be shorter than the clocked calculations and the spacecraft would most likely land long.
The flyby anomaly may represent another manifestation of the Pioneer Anomaly. NASA sometimes uses Doppler to navigate spacecraft back to Earth for a gravity assist. When the craft slingshots around Earth, they sometimes achieve unexpected speeds (Galileo, Cassini and Near) in the range of several mm per second. Anderson suggests that the flyby anomaly may be related to the rotational speed of the Earth. Spacecraft that slingshot along the ecliptic, rather than over the poles, experience widely varying flyby effects. http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0608087v2.pdf
Atomic clocks are really two clocks connected by a feedback circuit. The first clock radiates cesium 133 with microwaves. The second clock counts 9,192,631,770 microwave pulses from the relaxing cesium, which by definition is a second. The feedback circuit adjusts the frequency of the input clock for a maximum signal strength for the output counter. If atoms are changing relationally, all atomic clocks would keep on tracking with the changing atoms. Seconds are the primary scientific unit from which meters, velocities, accelerations, energies, and the laws of physics depend. Tens of thousands of empirical definitions, measuring techniques, mathematical formulas and “constants” were contrived on the notion that clocks measure linear time. When trying to understand the universe, one should first consider the first principle of physics. http://godsriddle.org/principles/the-first-principle/
The evidence that clocks accelerate is overwhelming. Hundreds of billions of galaxies shine from all directions, to the creation age. Not a single one of them shines with the frequencies of modern atoms. In general, the earliest galaxies shine with the lowest frequencies. The earliest galaxies, bright enough to obtain a spectrum with the current telescopes, shine at less than 7% of the frequencies of modern atoms. Early spiral galaxies, those with the chains of emerging star globs, show a difference between the core color and the spectra of the emerging arms. Is the vacuum of space time stretching the light? No one has ever detected expanding vacuums, time or space time.
The visible history of how galaxies grew from tiny naked globs of formless (low frequency) matter certifies a literal biblical creation. The stars continued to form, emerge and accelerate outwards as billions of galaxies grew into huge, dusty, growth spirals as per the Hebrew grammar for day four. http://godsriddle.org/creation-days/day-four/ We see no evidence anywhere for physical constants of any kind since all atoms are observed to change relationally with age. The Pioneer anomaly suggest that what we observe in cosmic history is real and scientific empiricism was contrived on a false principle that atoms do not change themselves relationally as they age.
The visible history of how galaxies formed will someday bring about the triumph of the Bible over empirical science. NASA gets the credit for the artistic rendering a Pioneer spaceship with the solar system in the distance. http://www.godsriddle.info/2013/06/pioneer-anomaly-clocks.html
Victor, Changing Earth Creationist