- M87 is a monster elliptical galaxy with a pulsed jet moving straight out from the nucleus to the galactic boundary. The boundary is fuzzy, since the galaxy is surrounded by 12,000 globular clusters, compared to a few hundred clusters in the Milky Way. In many examples from quasars to active galaxies, we observe bipolar jets. In the case of M87, we only see one jet probably because it is so huge that stars block the view of the counter jet. However, a hot spot is visible at radio wavelengths where a knot on a counter jet should exist.
Astronomers used a radio telescope array to observe M87's nucleus in high definition. The jet starts as an extremely thin, pulsed column. Knots in the jet move straight out at high speed without bending for the radius of the galaxy. Astronomers observed one knot, HST1, that is hundreds of light years from the core. It was dim in 1999 but by 2004 it was brighter than the core of the galaxy. The knot faded and brightened again in 2005. Evidently knots are intrinsically active, even at vast distances from the nucleus.
Astronomers explain the activity in the heart of M87 with stories about 6.8 billion suns compressed into a black hole with the volume of the solar system. They claim black holes are not visible, since their gravity is so strong that even light cannot escape. Allegedly, as matter spirals into a rotating black hole, some of it shoots out along its spin axis near the inner portion of an "accretion" disk. Allegedly the Milky Way also has a black hole but it is tiny and quiet compared to the M87 maelstrom. If the gravity is so powerful, why doesn't the jet bend? Supposedly powerful magnetic fields accelerate the jet and nullify the effects of gravity.
A biblical explanation is much simpler than black hole stories. The Bible states that first Elohim created the plural heavens and the earth but at that stage the Earth was without form. Then the wind (or Spirit) of God fluttered over the primordial formless place and continued to command light to continue to be. Evidently that is when the god particles created earlier began to have extension. Indeed, light dithers around within all matter, giving it the ability to have extension.
Half way through the Creation week, Elohim continued to form the Sun, Moon and stars and continued to place them in the spreading place, Hebrew raqiya. Raqiya is the noun form of the verb raqa; to pound out; expand (by hammering); spread forth, spread out, stretch out. We observe in visible galactic history that jets emerge from point sources (a formless state) and continue to spread out as intense light energizes the newly formed matter. Someone familiar with modern translations might claim that He finished creating the heavens in six days. The Hebrew uses the imperfect form for finishing the heavens and earth. He continues to finish. He continues to commanding light to continue to be, actions that continue (imperfect).
Isaiah 48:13 "Surely My hand founded the earth, And My right hand spread out the heavens; When I call to them, they stand together." The verb translated stand can mean to continue to arise together.
Isaiah 42:5 "Thus says God the LORD, Who created the heavens and stretched them out, Who spread out the earth and its offspring."
In Hebrew, God continues to create the plural heavens in unbroken continuity. He continues to stretch out the plural heavens and the earth, and even that which issues forth from the earth. New sea floor forms along a global expansion seam in every ocean. Two thirds of the earth's crust is young, relative to the older continents that only fit together on a tiny globe. The theory of subduction is denied by the layered undisturbed sediments in the ocean trenches.
We observe at many ranges that billions of galaxies grew from tiny naked globs as the stars continued to spread out, often in equally spaced star-glob chains. These take up more volume and accelerate outward, as countless galaxies grew into huge, local, growth spirals.
Someone might ask, how could galaxies form in only six thousand years? We observe that some ancient galaxies shine at 9% of the frequencies of modern atoms. When we sent calibrated clocks out of the solar system on the Pioneer spacecraft, their clock signals (transmitted from the past) accelerated at the Hubble ratio with respect to distance. Astronomers use the Hubble ratio to estimate the distance to a galaxy using its observed light-clock rate. In billions of examples, we observe how the orbits accelerate outwards along with the accelerating atomic clocks.
Evidently local obits have also continued to accelerate. The optical parallax to the sun has decreased for 2,000 years and has continued even since radar established the AU distance canonically. The ancients told stories about how the planets passed at close range, causing catastrophes. Job, who lived about 4,000 years ago, lists the geological ages that passed in the few days of their lives during the dinosaur age. He even explained how the sea, Hebrew west, dried as their faces deformed before they died. Indeed, drill cores show that the Mediterranean dried repeatedly, just like Job claimed. We also find the skulls of our ancestors with huge thick brows. If we lived for geological ages, our faces would grow Neanderthal but our grandchildren would have faces more like ours. This is what we find. Jacob claimed that the days and years of the son are shorter and worse than the days and years of the fathers.
What could cause orbits and clocks to continually accelerate? The Bible plainly states that the creation is enslaved to change that is intrinsic, orderly and acts together, that is relationally (Romans 8:19 - 22). Look at the universe with sight instead of trying to understand cosmic history with the first law of the last days, "that all things remain the same" (2 Peter 3:3 -6). New telescopes are even now coming on line. What we see substantiates a literal biblical creation and cosmic history. How great will be the triumph of the Word of God over western scientists.
Picture of M87 Jet
Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/MIT/H.Marshall et al., Radio: F.Zhou, F.Owen (NRAO), J.Biretta (STScI), Optical: NASA/STScI/UMBC/E.Perlman et al.)