An article in Nature claims the earliest galaxy yet detected. Wei Zhang calculated that the galaxy, MACS 1149-JD, is 13.2 billion light years away. How do astronomers know that the light from this ancient galaxy came from 500 million years after the big bang?
Philosophical knowledge is built on general, elementary assumptions, which the Greeks called first principles. What broad assumption do astronomers use in calculating the distance to an ancient galaxy? A fisherman disciple of Jesus predicted that in the last days mockers will come with a first law (arche ktiseous) that "all things remain the same." They will obfuscate the age of the plural heavens (the galaxies?) with this law. Where did the law come from - that the properties of matter are fixed?
Aristotle claimed that all things change form, like a baby growing in the womb. Plato wrote genesis ka phthora, from the beginning things change. None of the pagan philosophers found a way to invent an empirical science because the general law accepted by everyone in that era was: everything changes. The Bible agrees with the ancient way of reasoning. It states that the creation is enslaved to change (Romans 8:21 - 22). Fifteen hundred years later, Catholic friars adjusted Aristotle's system to fit their concept of God. The friars invented new ideas about being and essence, that eventually morphed into "the essence of substance is changeless." Over the last few centuries, scientists defined a symbolical version of reality using their general principle that matter is not continually changing itself.
The primary measuring unit in science is the time-second, defined using atomic clocks. All atomic clocks use two clocks that tune each by means of feed back. If cesium atoms are changing relationally, the atomic clocks would keep tuning themselves to the changing atomic frequencies. Almost every empirical measuring unit, mathematical constant, scientific method and cosmological theory depends on the notion that matter is not changing itself. A first law is so basic that it forms the basis for learning from kindergarten on. Once molded by schooling, the mind sees in every object only the traits that favor the prime assumption.
How can we test the first law of science? Such a test cannot use the symbolical representations of reality that were contrived with the premise in question, so we will use light as the standard of truth. The Bible says light reveals the truth and exposes error because everything that is visible is light (Ephesians 5:13). Indeed, light dithers around within all matter giving it its various properties.
In hundreds of billions of examples, at many ranges (eras), all ancient galaxies shine with different frequencies than modern atoms. The farther the galaxy, usually the redder the light. MACS 1149-JD shines at 9.4% of the frequencies emitted by modern atoms. If scientists are controlled by a "first law," they will obfuscate the astronomical evidence, as Peter predicted. All clusters contain one or more large elliptical galaxies surrounded by clouds of X-rays and streams of small galaxies. Scientists claim this particular galaxy is visible because the cluster is packed full of invisible matter that amplifies distant light like a lens. No one has seen a ray of light from invisible matter. Clusters have gas wakes following streams of small galaxies packed around the central giants. The reason why MAC 1149-JD shines at such low frequencies is supposedly because the vacuum of space-time is stretching itself. As the vacuum expands, it stretches light passing through the void. The expanding vacuum is also said to push galaxies away at ever increasing speeds. What caused all this magic? A tiny spec of vacuum exploded and created everything out of nothing. In the history of myths, no cosmologies are as mythical as scientific stories about beginnings.
Does matter change itself as it ages? The Bible says that the Earth spreads out in unbroken continuity above the waters. Indeed, a global expansion seam keeps forming new crust and the continents only fit together on a tiny globe, without major surface seas. The theory of subduction is denied by the layered undisturbed sediments in the ocean trenches. The Earth could not have grown from a tiny planet to a huge spread out one unless matter is changing itself as it ages.
Can we detect modern matter changing? NASA sent two space craft, Pioneer 10 and 11, out of the solar system in different directions. Their clock signals, transmitted yesterday, kept on changing frequency with distance at the Hubble ratio. Scientists estimate the distance to an ancient galaxy by multiplying the Hubble ratio with the differences between the ancient light and modern atomic light. Evidently clocks, local and distant, are continually accelerating.
The only history that we observe as it happened is galactic history. We observe that the atomic clocks from different eras clock different frequencies than modern atoms. We also observe how the space matter takes up increases and the orbits continue to accelerate outwards as billions of galaxies intrinsically grew into huge growth spirals. What we observe is a clear contradiction of the first law.
The Creator says that He is the One who calls the stars to emerge and come out in unbroken continuity. Clearly and visibly the first law of science is false. How devastatingly complete will be the triumph of the word of God over scientific reasoning.
Credit for the photo of MACS 1149-JD goes to NASA's Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes.
You might notice that many galaxies are arranged in equally spaced chains. In the upper inset you can see a very distant red galaxy chain.