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1367File - almhirat

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  • Countries_Italy@yahoogroups.com
    Mar 30, 2014
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      Geography

      Location: Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia

      Geographic coordinates: 42 50 N, 12 50 E

      Map references: Europe

      Area:
      total: 301,230 sq km
      land : 294,020 sq km
      water: 7,210 sq km
      note: includes Sardinia and Sicily

      Area - comparative: slightly larger than Arizona

      Land boundaries:
      total: 1,932.2 km
      border countries: Austria 430 km, France 488 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3.2 km, San Marino 39 km, Slovenia 232 km, Switzerland 740 km

      Coastline: 7,600 km

      Maritime claims:
      continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
      territorial sea: 12 nm

      Climate: predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south

      Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point : Mediterranean Sea 0 m
      highest point: Mont Blanc 4,807 m

      Natural resources: mercury, potash, marble, sulfur, dwindling natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, coal

      Land use:
      arable land: 31%
      permanent crops: 10%
      permanent pastures: 15%
      forests and woodland: 23%
      other : 21% (1998 est.)

      Irrigated land:26,980 sq km (1998 est.)

      Natural hazards: regional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice

      Environment - current issues: air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to : Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling
      signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Desertification, Tropical Timber 94

      Geography - note: strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe


      People

      Population: 57,715,625 (July 2002 est.)

      Age structure:
      0-14 years : 14.1% (male 4,198,569; female 3,954,159)
      15-64 years:67.3% (male 19,334,208; female 19,492,048)
      65 years and over: 18.6% (male 4,436,073; female 6,300,568) (2002 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.05% (2002 est.)

      Birth rate: 8.93 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

      Death rate: 10.13 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

      Net migration rate: 1.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

      Sex ratio:
      at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
      under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
      15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
      65 years and over:0.7 male(s)/female
      total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

      Infant mortality rate: 5.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:
      total population: 79.25 years
      male:76.08 years
      female: 82.63 years (2002 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2002 est.)

      Nationality:
      noun: Italian(s)
      adjective: Italian

      Ethnic groups: Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south)

      Religions: Roman Catholic 98%, other 2%

      Languages: Italian, German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)

      Literacy:
      definition : age 15 and over can read and write
      total population: 98% (1998)
      male: NA%
      female: NA%


      Government

      Country name:
      conventional long form: Italian Republic
      conventional short form: Italy
      local long form: Repubblica Italiana
      local short form : Italia
      former: Kingdom of Italy

      Data code: IT

      Government type: republic

      National capital: Rome

      Administrative divisions: 20 regions (regioni, singular - regione); Abruzzi, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Lazio, Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte, Puglia, Sardegna, Sicilia, Toscana, Trentino-Alto Adige, Umbria, Valle d'Aosta, Veneto

      Independence: 17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed)

      National holiday: Anniversary of the Republic, 2 June (1946)

      Constitution: 1 January 1948

      Legal system: based on civil law system, with ecclesiastical law influence; appeals treated as trials de novo; judicial review under certain conditions in Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

      Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (except in senatorial elections, where minimum age is 25)

      Executive branch:
      chief of state: President Carlo Azeglio CIAMPI (since 13 May 1999)
      head of government : Prime Minister (referred to in Italy as the president of the Council of Ministers) Silvio BERLUSCONI (since 10 June 2001)
      cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and approved by the president
      elections:president elected by an electoral college consisting of both houses of Parliament and 58 regional representatives for a seven-year term; election last held 13 May 1999 (next to be held NA May 2006); prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by Parliament
      election results:Carlo Azeglio CIAMPI elected president; percent of electoral college vote - 70%
      note: a five-party government coalition includes Forza Italia, National Alliance, Northern League, Democratic Christian Center, United Christian Democrats

      Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlamento consists of the Senate or Senato della Repubblica (326 seats, 315 popularly elected of which 232 are directly elected and 83 by regional proportional representation, 11 appointed senators-for-life; members serve five-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera dei Deputati (630 seats; 475 are directly elected, 155 by regional proportional representation; members serve five-year terms)
      elections: SSenate - last held 13 May 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); Chamber of Deputies - last held 13 May 2001 (next to be held NA 2006)
      election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - House of Liberties 177 (Forza Italia 82, National Alliance 46, CCD-CDU 29, Northern League 17, others 3), Olive Tree 128 (Democrats of the Left 62, Daisy Alliance 42, Sunflower Alliance 16, Italian Communist Party 3, independents 5), non-affiliated with either coalition 10, senators for life 9; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - House of Liberties 367 (Forza Italia 189, National Alliance 96, CCD-CDU 40, Northern League 30, others 12), Olive Tree 248 (Democrats of the Left 138, Daisy Alliance 76, Sunflower Alliance 18, Italian Communist Party 9, independents 7), non-affiliated with either coalition 15

      Judicial branch: Constitutional Court or Corte Costituzionale, composed of 15 judges (one-third appointed by the president, one-third elected by Parliament, one-third elected by the ordinary and administrative supreme courts)

      Political parties and leaders: Center-Left Olive Tree Coalition [Francesco RUTELLI] - Democrats of the Left, Daisy Alliance (including Italian Popular Party, Italian Renewal, Union of Democrats for Europe, The Democrats), Sunflower Alliance (including Green Federation, Italian Democratic Socialists), Italian Communist Party; Center-Right Freedom House Coalition [Silvio BERLUSCONI] (formerly House of Liberties and Freedom Alliance) - Forza Italia, National Alliance, The Whiteflower Alliance (includes Christian Democratic Center, United Christian Democrats), Northern League; Christian Democratic Center or CCD [Marco FOLLINI]; Communist Party or PdCI [Oliviero DILIBERTO]; Democrats of the Left or DS [Piero FASSINO]; Forza Italia or FI [Silvio BERLUSCONI]; Green Federation [Alfonso Pecoraro SCANIO]; Italian Communist Party or PdCI [Oliviero DILIBERTO]; Italian Popular Party or PPI [Pierluigi CASTAGNETTI]; Italian Renewal or RI [Lamberto DINI]; Italian Social Democrats or SDI [Enrico BOSELLI]; Socialist Movement-Tricolor Flame or MS-Fiamma [Pino RAUTI]; National Alliance or AN [Gianfranco FINI]; Northern League or NL [Umberto BOSSI]; Southern Tyrols People's Party or SVP (German speakers) [Siegfried BRUGGER]; Sunflower Alliance (includes Green Federation, Italian Social Democrats); The Daisy Alliance (includes Italian Popular Party, Italian Renewal, Union of Democrats for Europe, The Democrats); The Democrats [Arturo PARISI]; The Radicals (formerly Pannella Reformers and Autonomous List) [Marco PANNELLA]; The Whiteflower Alliance (includes Christian Democratic Center, United Christian Democrats); Union of Democrats for Europe or UDEUR [Clemente MASTELLA]; United Christian Democrats or CDU [Rocco BUTTIGLIONE]

      Political pressure groups and leaders: Italian manufacturers and merchants associations (Confindustria, Confcommercio); organized farm groups (Confcoltivatori, Confagricoltura); Roman Catholic Church; three major trade union confederations (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL [Sergio COFFERATI] which is left wing, Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL [Savino PEZZOTTA] which is Roman Catholic centrist, and Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL [Pietro LARIZZA] which is lay centrist)

      International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CE (observer), CEI, CERN, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

      Diplomatic representation in the US:
      chief of mission: Ambassador Ferdinando SALLEO
      chancery: 1601 Fuller Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 and 2700 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
      telephone: [1] (202) 328-5500
      FAX: [1] (202) 483-2187
      consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, San Francisco
      consulate(s): Detroit and New Orleans

      Diplomatic representation from the US:
      chief of mission: Ambassador Melvin SEMBLER
      embassy : Via Veneto 119/A, 00187-Rome
      mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100, APO AE 09624
      telephone: [39] (6) 46741
      FAX: [39] (6) 488-2672
      consulate(s) general : Florence, Milan, Naples

      Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and is green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of the Cote d'Ivoire, which has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green


      Economy

      Economy - overview: Italy has a diversified industrial economy with roughly the same total and per capita output as France and the UK. This capitalistic economy remains divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less developed agricultural south, with 20% unemployment. Most raw materials needed by industry and more than 75% of energy requirements are imported. Over the past decade, Italy has pursued a tight fiscal policy in order to meet the requirements of the Economic and Monetary Unions and has benefited from lower interest and inflation rates. Italy's economic performance has lagged behind that of its EU partners, and the current government has enacted numerous short-term reforms aimed at improving competitiveness and long-term growth. Rome has moved slowly, however, on implementing needed structural reforms, such as lightening the high tax burden and overhauling Italy's rigid labor market and expensive pension system, because of the current economic slowdown and opposition from labor unions

      GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.402 trillion (2001 est.)

      GDP - real growth rate: 1.8% (2001 est.)

      GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $24,300 (2001 est.)

      GDP - composition by sector:
      agriculture: 2.4%
      industry : 30%
      services: 67.6% (2001 est.)

      Inflation rate - consumer price index: 2.7% (2001)

      Labor force:
      total: 23.6 million (2001 est.)
      by occupation: services 63%, industry 32%, agriculture 5% (2001)

      Unemployment rate:10% (2001 est.)

      Budget:
      revenues: $504 billion
      expenditures : $517 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

      Industries: tourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics

      Industrial production growth rate: -0.4% (2001)

      Electricity - capacity: 57.19 million kW (1994)

      Electricity - production: 257.408 billion kWh (2000)

      Electricity - consumption per capita: 283.737 billion kWh (2000)

      Agriculture - products: fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives; meat and dairy products; fish catch of 525,000 metric tons in 1990

      Exports:
      total value: $243 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
      commodities: metals, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transportation equipment, chemicals
      partners : EU 54.9% (Germany 15.1%, France 12.6%, UK 6.9%, Spain 6.2%), US 10.4% (2000)

      Imports:
      total value: $226 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
      commodities : industrial machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, petroleum, metals, food, agricultural products
      partners:EU 56.3% (Germany 17.5%, France 11.4%, Netherlands 5.9%, UK 5.4%), US 5.3% (2000)

      Debt - external: $NA

      Economic aid:
      donor: ODA, $1 billion (2002 est.)

      Currency:euro (EUR); 1 Italian lira (ITL) = 100 centesimi
      note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries

      Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.1324 (January 2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); Italian lire per US dollar - 1,688.7 (January 1999), 1,736.2 (1998), 1,703.1 (1997)

      Fiscal year: calendar year


      Communications

      Telephones: 25 million (1999)

      Telephone system: modern, well-developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data services
      domestic: high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks
      international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 for Atlantic Ocean and 2 for Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean Region), and NA Eutelsat; 21 submarine cables

      Radio broadcast stations:AM about 100, FM about 4,600, shortwave 9 (1998)

      Radios: 50.5 million (1997)

      Television broadcast stations: 358 (plus 4,728 repeaters) (1995)

      Televisions: 30.3 million (1997)


      Transportation

      Railways:
      total : 19,786 km
      standard gauge: 18,761 km 1.435-m gauge (11,251 km electrified)
      narrow gauge: 113 km 1.000-m gauge (113 km electrified); 912 km 0.950-m gauge (192 km electrified) (2001)

      Highways:
      total: 668,669 km
      paved: 668,669 km (including 6,460 km of expressways)
      unpaved:0 km (2001)

      Waterways: 2,400 km for various types of commercial traffic, although of limited overall value

      Pipelines: crude oil 1,703 km; petroleum products 2,148 km; natural gas 19,400 km

      Ports and harbors: Ancona, Augusta (Sicily), Bari, Cagliari (Sardinia), Catania (Sicily), Gaeta, Genoa, La Spezia, Livorno, Naples, Oristano (Sardinia), Palermo (Sicily), Piombino, Porto Torres (Sardinia), Ravenna, Savona, Trieste, Venice

      Merchant marine:
      total : 467 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 8,499,248 GRT/10,383,988 DWT
      note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Croatia 1, Denmark 4, France 1, Greece 3, Man, Isle of 1, Monaco 7, Netherlands 6, Norway 1, Panama 2, Spain 1, Switzerland 1, Taiwan 15, Turkey 1, United Kingdom 6, United States 12 (2002 est.)
      ships by type:bulk 45, cargo 41, chemical tanker 91, combination ore/oil 4, container 24, liquefied gas 37, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger 15, petroleum tanker 80, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 70, short-sea passenger 27, specialized tanker 12, vehicle carrier 16

      Airports: 135 (2001)

      Airports - with paved runways:
      total: 97
      over 3,047 m :5
      2,438 to 3,047 m: 33
      1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
      914 to 1,523 m: 30
      under 914 m: 12 (2001)

      Airports - with unpaved runways:
      total : 38
      1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
      914 to 1,523 m: 18
      under 914 m:18 (2001)

      Heliports: 4 (2001)


      Military

      Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Carabinieri

      Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

      Military manpower - availability:
      males age 15-49: 14,184,307 (2002 est.)

      Military manpower - fit for military service:
      males: 12,157,753 (2002 est.)

      Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
      males: 304,369 (2002 est.)

      Military expenditures - dollar figure:$20.2 billion (2002)

      Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.64% (2002)


      Transnational Issues

      Disputes - international: Italy is negotiating with Slovenia over property and minority rights issues dating from World War II; Croatia and Italy have not resolved a bilateral issue dating from WWII over property and ethnic minority rights

      Illicit drugs: important gateway for and consumer of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market




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