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TEMPERATURES RISING IN THE NORTHEAST, MIDWEST, & NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS

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  • npat1@juno.com
    We are already witness to conclusive evidence that human activities of the past have caused rapid increases in temperatures in the United States and the world.
    Message 1 of 2 , Oct 16, 2003
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      We are already witness to conclusive evidence that human activities of
      the past have caused rapid increases in temperatures in the United States
      and the world.

      Despite an unusually cold air flow pattern in January and February of
      2003 in northern major U.S. regions (Northeast, Midwest, and Northern
      Great Plains), new evidence presented here shows that the average
      temperatures for the last six year period (1998 to 2003 for January &
      February) at climatological stations were much warmer than historical
      average temperatures for the stations.

      Historical average temperatures as used in this analysis were determined
      using average mean daily temperatures by month for each station from the
      beginning date of observation at each station through 1997).

      Daily climatological observations in the Midwest and Northern Great
      Plains began in the late 1800s, and have provided us with over 100 years
      of high quality daily temperature data. In the Northeast, climatological
      observations began in 1926, having provided over 75 years of high quality
      temperature data. Mean daily temperatures have been
      determined by taking the average of the daily maximum and minimum
      temperatures.

      Of the three major regions studied in this report, the largest
      temperature change took place within the Northern Great Plains (North
      Dakota, South Dakota, northeast Wyoming, and eastern Montana), with the
      greatest increase in temperatures taking place in FEBRUARY. The average
      February temperature for 1998 to 2003 near the small community of
      Forestburg, South Dakota was 7.9 deg F above the 102 year (1896-1997)
      historical average temperature for February at that station.

      As shown on Table 1 below, 1998 to 2003 February mean daily temperatures
      were much warmer than historical averages for the Northern Great Plains,
      averaging 4.7 to 7.9 deg F above historical averages.

      The Northeast and Midwest also experienced large FEBRUARY temperature
      change, as indicated by average mean daily temperatures for the 1998 to
      2003 period in comparison to the historical average temperatures. 1998 to
      2003 February mean daily temperatures were 2.4 to 4.3 deg F above
      historical averages in the Northeast, and 3.5 to 7.6 deg F above
      historical averages in the Midwest.

      JANUARY mean daily temperatures for the period 1998 to 2003 were also
      warmer than historical averages, with temperatures above historical
      averages by as much as 3.4 deg F in the Northeast, 5.3 deg F above
      historical averages in the Midwest, and 5.9 deg F above historical
      averages in the Northern Great Plains.

      ANNUAL (all months) mean daily temperatures for the period 1998 to 2003
      were warmer than historical averages by 1.1 to 2.8 deg F in the
      Northeast, 0.3 to 3.6 deg F in the Midwest, and 1.0 to 3.0 deg F in the
      Northern Great Plains.

      In 2003, the Northeast, Midwest, and Northern Great Plains experienced
      below historical average temperatures in January and February, due to an
      unusually stubborn upper level low pressure system near Hudson Bay that
      funnelled down cold air from the Arctic. The unusually stubborn air flow
      pattern resulted in cold weather conditions in January and February of
      2003 that were not indicative of what is to come in the years ahead (as
      global warming continues to build). Ocean temperatures and global
      temperatures are continuing their relentless upward trend, as the worlds
      glaciers and sea ice continue to shrink.

      ------------------
      TABLES 1 - 3
      ------------------

      Average Mean Daily Temperatures(MDT) were computed for each temperature
      station for two periods:

      1) AVE.MDT1 = (Average MDT from beginning of record through 1997)
      2) AVE.MDT2 = (Average MDT for 1998 to 2003).

      MDT differences between AVE.MDT2 and AVE.MDT1 were
      calculated for each station. Average differences for each
      region (Northeast, Midwest, and Northern Great Plains)
      were determined by equal weighting of stations within each
      region. Stations used in the analysis were selected based
      on having high quality data - away from urban areas. The
      analysis was based on 11 stations in the Northeast, 19 in
      the Midwest, and 8 in the Northern Great Plains.

      ------------
      TABLE 1: Summary of Temperature Differences
      ------------

      NORTHEAST
      Jan / Feb /Annual
      0.0 / 2.4 / 1.1 / Lowest
      3.4 / 4.3 / 2.8 / Highest

      MIDWEST
      Jan / Feb /Annual
      -0.4 / 3.5 / 0.3 / Lowest
      5.6 / 7.6 / 3.6 / Highest

      NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS
      Jan / Feb /Annual
      3.3 / 4.7 / 1.0 / Lowest
      5.9 / 7.9 / 3.0 / Highest

      ------------
      TABLE 2: Monthly Station Temperature Summary
      ------------
      NORTHEAST STATIONS:

      Jan _Feb _Mar _Apr _May _Jun _Jul _Aug _Sep _Oct _Nov _Dec _Ann
      EASTPORT, ME 1998-2003
      23.3 25.7 33.3 42.4 52.1 59.1 64.2 65.3 59.6 48.3 39.9 30.0 45.4
      EASTPORT, ME 1925-1997
      22.3 23.0 30.8 40.2 49.2 56.8 62.2 62.5 56.8 48.3 38.9 27.2 43.1
      EASTPORT, ME
      1.0 _2.7 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 2.3

      BERLIN, NH 1998-2003
      17.4 20.0 29.7 41.7 54.8 63.0 66.2 65.9 59.2 45.8 36.5 24.8 44.0
      BERLIN, NH 1926-1997
      15.5 17.0 27.2 40.2 52.5 61.9 66.6 64.3 56.2 45.7 34.3 20.6 41.9
      BERLIN, NH
      1.9 _3.0 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 2.1

      BRIDGEHAMPTON, NY 1998-2003
      31.9 33.9 39.7 48.1 57.5 66.7 71.5 72.0 65.1 53.8 45.4 36.4 52.0
      BRIDGEHAMPTON, NY 1929-1997
      31.1 31.5 37.9 46.7 56.2 65.5 71.5 70.8 64.3 54.4 45.0 35.1 50.9
      0.8 _2.4 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 1.1
      BRIDGEHAMPTON, NY

      CANTON_3_SE, NY 1998-2003
      16.9 21.2 30.2 43.7 57.2 64.8 68.6 68.0 60.9 47.6 38.1 25.4 45.5
      CANTON_3_SE, NY 1922-1997
      15.9 17.3 28.5 42.3 54.6 64.1 68.8 66.7 58.7 47.5 36.1 21.7 43.6
      CANTON_3_SE, NY
      1.0 _3.9 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 1.9

      COOPERSTOWN, NY 1998-2003
      22.3 25.7 32.2 44.3 56.4 64.8 66.7 68.1 60.3 48.0 39.2 27.8 46.6
      COOPERSTOWN, NY 1926-1997
      21.5 22.5 31.6 43.8 54.9 63.6 68.1 66.2 59.1 48.8 37.8 26.0 45.4
      COOPERSTOWN, NY
      0.8 _3.2 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 1.2

      LITTLE_FALLS_CITY_RSVR, NY 1998-2003
      21.5 24.1 31.1 44.2 55.1 64.5 68.2 69.1 60.9 48.0 38.9 27.3 46.6
      LITTLE_FALLS_CITY_RSVR, NY 1926-1997
      19.7 21.2 30.3 43.3 55.5 64.5 69.4 67.3 59.7 48.9 37.2 24.4 45.4
      LITTLE_FALLS_CITY_RSVR, NY
      1.8 _3.1 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 1.2

      LOWVILLE, NY 1998-2003
      18.0 21.7 29.3 42.5 55.7 63.8 66.9 66.5 59.4 46.6 37.3 24.5 44.6
      LOWVILLE, NY 1926-1997
      17.5 19.0 28.9 42.4 54.5 63.7 68.1 66.2 58.4 47.7 36.0 22.7 43.8
      LOWVILLE, NY
      0.5 _2.7 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 2.8

      NORWICH, NY 1998-2003
      23.4 27.2 34.6 45.9 57.5 65.5 68.3 68.5 61.7 48.9 39.9 27.7 47.3
      NORWICH, NY 1926-1997
      21.2 22.0 31.5 43.6 54.8 63.6 68.1 66.3 59.0 48.2 37.6 25.8 45.1
      NORWICH, NY
      2.2 _5.2 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 2.2

      PORT_JERVIS, NY 1998-2003
      27.8 30.7 39.3 50.2 60.4 68.7 72.1 71.8 64.4 51.3 42.3 31.5 51.3
      PORT_JERVIS, NY 1925-1997
      26.3 28.2 37.2 48.6 59.5 67.9 72.5 70.5 63.0 52.0 41.4 30.1 49.8
      PORT_JERVIS,
      1.5 _2.5 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 1.5

      RIDGWAY, PA 1998-2003
      25.2 28.7 33.5 45.7 55.9 64.0 66.6 66.6 59.8 48.2 39.3 28.3 47.1
      RIDGWAY, PA 1925-1997
      23.7 24.4 32.9 44.3 55.0 63.5 67.4 66.1 59.4 48.6 38.0 27.7 45.9
      RIDGWAY, PA
      1.5 _4.3 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 1.2

      ST_JOHNSBURY, VT 1998-2003
      20.6 22.4 32.6 44.4 57.3 65.7 68.3 68.2 61.2 47.3 37.8 25.6 46.1
      ST_JOHNSBURY, VT 1925-1997
      17.2 19.4 29.9 42.9 55.6 64.9 69.3 67.1 59.1 48.1 35.9 22.0 44.3
      ST_JOHNSBURY, VT
      3.4 _3.0 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 1.8

      MIDWEST STATIONS:

      MINONK, IL
      20.5 23.4 2003
      24.4 31.1 37.8 51.8 63.3 70.9 76.3 73.2 66.7 54.0 43.6 28.5 52.5
      MINONK, IL 1896-1997
      23.4 26.8 38.2 50.3 61.3 70.9 74.8 72.9 65.8 54.3 39.9 27.8 50.6
      MINONK, IL
      1.0 _4.3 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 1.9

      MARION_2_N, IN 1998-2003
      26.9 32.6 37.8 51.9 62.3 70.5 74.3 72.1 66.1 53.6 43.4 30.4 52.1
      MARION_2_N, IN 1901-1997
      25.8 28.0 38.4 49.5 60.4 69.9 74.0 71.9 65.3 53.7 41.0 29.7 50.7
      MARION_2_N, IN
      1.1 _4.6 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 1.4

      ATLANTIC_1_NE, IA 1998-2003
      23.3 29.2 35.4 51.4 62.5 70.6 76.7 73.5 65.6 51.7 40.0 25.5 50.7
      ATLANTIC_1_NE, IA 1893-1997
      20.3 24.5 36.3 49.7 60.8 70.3 74.9 72.8 64.4 52.6 37.3 24.9 49.1
      ATLANTIC_1_NE, IA
      3.0 _4.7 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 1.6

      CARROLL, IA 1998-2003
      21.5 26.6 33.5 49.1 61.4 69.3 75.4 72.6 64.5 50.8 39.9 24.7 49.3
      CARROLL, IA 1896-1997
      18.8 22.7 34.6 48.5 60.0 69.5 74.2 71.9 63.4 51.8 36.0 23.5 47.9
      CARROLL, IA
      2.7 _3.9 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 1.4

      FAYETTE, IA 1998-2003
      18.0 24.0 31.0 47.1 58.6 66.1 71.8 68.8 60.4 48.1 37.2 22.0 46.3
      FAYETTE, IA 1896-1997
      16.1 20.3 32.5 46.7 58.4 67.7 72.2 69.9 61.6 50.1 34.6 21.3 46.0
      FAYETTE, IA
      1.9 _3.7 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 0.3

      HAMPTON, IA 1998-2003
      19.1 24.9 31.8 47.6 59.9 67.6 73.8 70.4 62.7 49.7 38.3 23.2 47.6
      HAMPTON, IA 1893-1997
      16.2 20.4 32.6 47.4 59.3 68.8 73.0 70.9 62.7 51.1 34.7 21.7 46.5
      HAMPTON, IA
      2.9 4.5 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 1.1

      IOWA_FALLS, IA 1998-2003
      19.5 25.5 32.5 47.9 60.0 67.6 73.8 70.7 63.0 49.7 38.8 23.4 47.9
      IOWA_FALLS, IA 1896-1997
      16.8 20.9 33.5 47.7 59.4 68.6 73.0 70.5 62.4 51.1 35.2 21.9 46.8
      IOWA_FALLS, IA
      2.7 _4.6 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 1.1

      WILLIAMSTOWN_5_WSW, KY 1998-2003
      26.5 30.1 2003
      34.3 39.4 44.8 57.5 66.5 73.2 77.1 76.3 70.6 58.7 48.5 36.4 57.3
      WILLIAMSTOWN_5_WSW, KY 1902-1997
      32.1 34.5 43.9 54.3 63.9 72.1 76.0 74.6 68.7 57.6 45.1 35.1 54.8
      WILLIAMSTOWN_5_WSW, KY
      2.2 _4.9 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 2.5

      BIG_RAPIDS_WATERWORKS, MI 1998-2003
      23.3 26.5 32.8 46.1 57.6 66.3 70.8 68.4 60.7 47.9 38.7 26.7 47.3
      BIG_RAPIDS_WATERWORKS, MI 1896-1997
      20.8 21.3 30.8 43.9 55.4 64.9 69.3 67.0 59.4 48.5 36.4 25.5 45.3
      BIG_RAPIDS_WATERWORKS, MI
      2.5 _5.2 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 2.0

      MARYVILLE_2_E, MO 1998-2003
      26.3 32.0 37.3 52.6 63.6 71.5 77.6 75.5 67.0 53.9 42.5 28.5 52.5
      MARYVILLE_2_E, MO 1897-1997
      23.0 27.2 38.5 51.1 62.0 71.4 76.4 74.3 65.9 54.3 39.6 27.3 50.9
      MARYVILLE_2_E, MO
      3.3 _4.8 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 1.6

      BELLEFONTAINE, OH 1998-2003
      20.3 22.8 2003
      26.4 31.8 37.8 51.3 62.0 70.1 73.1 71.5 65.6 53.1 43.0 30.4 51.6
      BELLEFONTAINE, OH 1896-1997
      26.3 28.3 38.3 49.0 59.9 69.1 73.1 71.4 65.2 53.8 41.0 30.0 50.5
      BELLEFONTAINE, OH
      0.1 _3.5 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 1.1

      CIRCLEVILLE, OH 1998-2003
      30.2 35.7 40.7 54.1 63.4 71.8 74.6 73.4 67.0 55.6 44.7 33.8 54.0
      CIRCLEVILLE, OH 1896-1997
      30.6 32.1 42.3 52.4 62.8 71.3 75.3 73.4 67.2 55.7 43.7 33.5 53.3
      CIRCLEVILLE, OH
      -0.4 _3.6 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 0.7

      LEECH_LAKE_FEDERAL_DAM, MN 1998-2003
      10.8 17.6 26.1 42.0 54.9 63.3 69.7 67.6 57.6 43.2 32.2 19.9 42.3
      LEECH_LAKE_FEDERAL_DAM, MN 1888-1997
      6.0 10.9 24.3 40.3 53.2 62.9 68.0 65.4 56.3 44.9 27.8 12.7 39.5
      LEECH_LAKE_FEDERAL_DAM, MN
      1.5 _6.6 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 2.8

      ALBERT_LEA_3_SE, MN 1998-2003
      16.6 21.8 30.2 46.6 59.5 67.2 73.3 70.0 61.9 47.9 37.2 21.3 46.3
      ALBERT_LEA_3_SE, MN 1889-1997
      13.7 18.2 30.5 45.8 58.2 68.0 72.6 70.3 61.4 49.6 32.9 19.3 45.2
      ALBERT_LEA_3_SE, MN
      2.9 _3.6 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 1.1

      BRODHEAD_1_SW, WI 1998-2003
      20.9 27.5 34.7 48.6 60.2 68.1 73.8 70.9 62.6 50.5 40.0 24.9 48.8
      BRODHEAD_1_SW, WI 1898-1997
      18.4 21.6 33.6 47.1 58.6 68.1 72.8 70.4 62.4 50.9 36.4 23.2 47.1
      BRODHEAD_1_SW, WI
      2.5 _5.9 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 1.7

      OCONTO_4_W, WI 1998-2003
      18.3 22.6 31.4 44.5 56.2 64.7 69.7 67.6 59.5 47.1 37.7 23.1 45.4
      OCONTO_4_W, WI 1896-1997
      16.2 18.2 29.1 42.6 54.4 64.6 69.7 67.4 59.5 48.5 34.4 21.6 43.8
      OCONTO_4_W, WI
      2.1 _4.4 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 1.6

      PORTAGE, WI 1998-2003
      20.2 26.3 34.0 48.3 59.8 67.7 73.1 70.8 62.2 49.4 39.9 24.9 48.3
      PORTAGE, WI 1896-1997
      17.6 21.0 32.6 47.0 58.7 67.9 72.5 70.1 62.0 50.8 36.2 22.8 46.6
      PORTAGE, WI
      2.6 _5.3 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 1.7

      SPOONER_EXPERMNT_FARM, WI 1998-2003
      16.1 22.1 30.7 46.1 58.4 65.2 71.1 69.1 60.6 47.6 36.7 20.8 45.6
      SPOONER_EXPERMNT_FARM, WI 1896-1997
      10.5 14.5 27.3 43.0 55.3 64.4 69.3 66.7 58.1 47.0 30.7 16.5 42.0
      SPOONER_EXPERMNT_FARM, WI
      5.6 _7.6 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 3.6

      WATERTOWN, WI 1996-2003
      20.9 27.1 34.2 48.1 59.5 67.9 73.2 70.7 62.8 50.2 40.1 25.4 48.6
      WATERTOWN, WI 1895-1997
      18.5 21.5 32.7 46.2 57.8 67.4 72.1 70.0 62.0 50.8 36.5 23.6 46.7
      WATERTOWN, WI
      1.4 _5.6 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 1.9

      NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS STATIONS:

      CULBERTSON, MT 1998-2003
      14.8 21.7 29.2 45.0 56.0 62.9 72.3 70.9 60.4 44.6 31.9 18.5 44.2
      CULBERTSON, MT 1900-1997
      9.4 14.9 27.5 43.2 54.7 63.2 69.5 67.7 56.5 44.9 27.9 15.7 41.2
      CULBERTSON, MT
      5.4 _6.8 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 3.0

      EKALAKA, MT 1998-2003
      23.5 26.6 31.3 43.7 53.8 61.5 72.7 70.9 60.2 45.2 34.0 23.5 45.7
      EKALAKA, MT 1897-1997
      18.0 21.9 30.7 43.5 53.9 63.2 70.9 69.3 58.3 46.2 31.8 22.2 44.2
      EKALAKA, MT
      5.5 _4.7 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 1.5

      BOTTINEAU, ND 1998-2003
      7.1 14.3 22.9 41.1 53.6 61.0 68.9 67.2 56.4 40.3 28.4 12.1 39.8
      BOTTINEAU, ND 1898-2003
      2.4 7.3 21.2 39.3 52.7 62.1 67.5 65.6 54.8 42.2 23.8 9.0 37.4
      BOTTINEAU, ND
      4.7 _7.0 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 2.4


      CROSBY, ND 1998-2003
      11.4 18.3 25.2 42.9 54.6 61.7 69.7 68.2 57.5 42.3 29.3 15.4 41.5
      CROSBY, ND 1909-1997
      6.2 11.9 24.5 41.0 53.6 62.6 68.4 66.3 55.4 43.7 26.0 13.1 39.5
      CROSBY, ND
      5.2 _6.4 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 2.0

      JAMESTOWN_ST_HOSPITAL, ND 1998-2003
      12.4 18.1 27.4 43.9 56.8 65.2 72.0 70.1 59.7 43.8 32.0 17.1 43.5
      JAMESTOWN_ST_HOSPITAL, ND 1900-1997
      7.9 12.5 26.3 42.4 55.2 64.5 70.3 68.4 57.6 45.6 28.0 14.1 41.0
      JAMESTOWN_ST_HOSPITAL, ND
      4.5 _5.6 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 2.5

      FORESTBURG_3_NE, SD 1998-2003
      20.0 27.1 31.4 48.5 60.1 68.3 76.1 73.4 64.5 49.0 36.1 22.7 48.3
      FORESTBURG_3_NE, SD 1896-1997
      14.6 19.2 31.8 46.8 58.4 67.8 73.7 71.9 62.2 49.9 33.0 19.8 45.8
      FORESTBURG_3_NE, SD
      5.4 _7.9 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 2.5

      MITCHELL, SD 1998-2003
      19.7 26.0 30.5 47.1 59.5 68.6 76.2 73.2 63.7 48.2 36.4 23.3 47.9
      MITCHELL, SD 1896-1997
      16.4 20.7 32.9 47.8 59.3 68.9 74.7 72.6 63.0 50.7 34.3 21.6 46.9
      MITCHELL, SD
      3.3 _5.3 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 1.0

      CAMP_CROOK, SD 1998-2003
      23.1 27.2 31.9 44.3 54.4 62.5 73.3 71.2 60.8 44.9 34.3 24.8 46.2
      CAMP_CROOK, SD 1896-1997
      17.2 21.4 30.2 43.6 54.2 63.6 71.1 69.4 58.5 46.2 31.3 21.6 44.1
      CAMP_CROOK, SD
      5.9 _5.8 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 2.1

      CODY, WY 1998-2003 (not considered part of Northern Plains)
      29.0 30.8 36.7 45.2 54.6 61.3 71.7 69.7 60.8 47.4 37.7 28.2 47.8
      CODY, WY 1915-1997
      23.8 28.0 34.7 43.8 53.0 61.8 69.4 67.4 57.4 47.6 34.2 26.7 45.7
      CODY, WY
      5.2 _2.8 Jan & Feb Change includes 2003. Annual thru 2002: 2.1

      ------------
      TABLE 3: Summary of Average Temperature Differences by Region
      ------------

      NORTHEAST
      Jan / Feb /Annual
      1.1 / 2.9 / 1.8 / Average

      MIDWEST
      Jan / Feb /Annual
      2.2 / 4.8 / 1.6 / Average

      NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS
      Jan / Feb /Annual
      5.0 / 6.2 / 2.1 / Average

      END

      Pat Neuman
      Chanhassen, Minnesota
      npat1@j...

      Article shown above was posted on Tue Mar 4, 2003, available in archives
      of ClimateConcern Group (CCG) message 6175, at:

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ClimateConcern/message/6175

      Other reports by same author (P. Neuman) include:

      16 April 2003 article: "Special Report � Air Temperatures & Dew Points �
      Great Lakes States" at:
      http://www.mnforsustain.org/mn_dewpoints_neuman_p_special_report.htm

      and

      11 Sep 2003 article: "Earlier in the Year Snowmelt Runoff & Increasing
      Dewpoints for Rivers in Minnesota, Wisconsin and North Dakota" at:
      //www.mnforsustain.org/climate_snowmelt_dewpoints_minnesota_neuman.htm

      Additional data and articles by this author and
      by Michael Neuman,
      Environmental Specialist,
      Madison, Wisconsin

      can be found at:
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ClimateArchive/

      Pat Neuman
      Chanhassen, Minnesota




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