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Fw:Re: [C/A] Fw: [CE News] Clean Energy NEWS-Vol. 5, Number 46, 26 October 2005

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  • Pat Neuman
    Forwarded Message ---------- Thank you for the information. (Prof) C G Pandya Ahmedabad India ... For discussion of articles posted to ClimateArchive, go to:
    Message 1 of 1 , Nov 5, 2005
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      Forwarded Message ----------

      Thank you for the information.

      (Prof) C G Pandya
      Ahmedabad
      India

      "mtneuman@..." <mtneuman@...> wrote:


      ---

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      ---

      THE WORLD IS IN CRISIS DUE TO GLOBAL WARMING!

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      Clean Energy NEWS

      Vol. 5, Number 46, 26 October 2005

      CE News is published weekly by Clean Energy Nepal. For more
      information on our campaign and back issues of CE News please log on
      to http://www.cen.org.np/

      Headlines

      · Nepal can learn from Brazil experience of electrification

      · NOC asks additional 3 b from government

      · Kathmandu's Air Quality (16-22 October 2005)

      · Flood experts warn Tibet of dangers from global warming

      · Electric Charge Stations may kick off by 2006-end

      · Japan struggling to meet CO2 emissions target

      · World's first biogas train makes maiden voyage in Sweden

      · Warmer climate produces less rain

      · Link Of The Week

      · Did You Know?

      · Media Watch

      · QUIZ Of The Week # 218

      · Answer Of Quiz Of The Week # 217

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      Local News

      Nepal Can Learn from Brazil Experience of Electrification

      By Shree Ram Subedi, Brasilia, Brazil

      As Nepal, ranked second in hydroelectric potential in world, is
      struggling to electrify the rural households, the number one country
      in terms of hydroelectric potential, Brazil is bracing to
      universalize the access to electric energy by 2008.

      The ambitious plan, entitled Luz Para Todos, meaning "Light for all"
      in Portuguese, is an initiative to reduce poverty and hunger using
      energy as a development vector. It seeks to guarantee access and use
      of energy for all Brazilian citizens until 2008.

      "We are working to provide energy services to 12.5 million people
      by 2008, said , Nelson Jose Hubner Moreira, Executive secretary of
      the Ministry of Miners and Energy, addressing the first Global
      village Energy Partnership(GVEP) Assembly and global village energy
      conference, that kicked of here on Thursday.

      "We need to establish the fact that electric energy as right of
      citizens," he said. Till 1992, only 11 per cent Brazilian homes were
      not covered by the electricity service. By the end of the 2003, the
      percentage of people has been reduced to 3 percent thanks to the
      reforms in the power sector and growing participation of the private
      sector. Brazil has almost electrified its urban areas as 99.6
      percent of urban households had access to electricity. In case of
      rural homes, access level is only 75 percent. The total installed
      capacity of Brazil electric system is 96,799 MW.

      Of the 182 million populations, 12 million lack access to electric
      energy, and of them 10 million lives in rural areas in Brazil.

      "Luz Para Todos encourages the rural folks to get electrified as the
      government provides 75 percent of the total electrification costs,"
      said Jose Ribamer Loboto Santana, who is the Programme Director for
      Luz Para Todos. "With the need of additional 3.8 US dollar, the
      programme is expected to accelerate the process of social inclusion
      of this enormous fraction of the population," he added.

      GVEP was launched at the World Summit on Sustainable Development
      (WSSD) in August 2002, in Johannesburg, in South Africa . Its goal
      is to increase modern energy services in a manner that enhances
      economic and social development and reduces poverty. GVEP work is
      carried out under a 10-year "implementation based" programme.

      Today, GVEP boasts over 700 partners from a broad range of
      stakeholders group including developed and industrialized country
      governments, the private sector, NGOs, the academia.

      GVEP is active in 26 partner countries, developing and implementing
      energy poverty reductions programs targeting millions of people
      without energy access. Though Nepal is not a GVEP member country,
      senior officials with GVEP secretariat here says that Nepal can be
      included in the GVEP network if she formally requests. "Nepal should
      make a formal request to include in the GVEP network and we will
      consider the proposal, Abeeku Brew Hammond, GVEP Programme manager
      said.

      Once Nepal is included it will further ensure investments in rural
      electrification and promote alternative energy in the country. Also
      at the conference, participants representing Asia region applauded
      the success of Biogas, solar and micro hydro in Nepal.

      NOC Asks Additional 3 b from Government

      Nepal Oil Corporation (NOC) has sought Rs. 3 billion from the
      government to clear October's import bill, settle past arrears and
      service urgent loan liabilities of the commercial banks.

      The corporation, which has been solely shouldering the country's oil
      deficit emanting out of a huge import-sales price disparity, has a
      total loan worth Rs. 4.53 billion. Of the total outstanding loan,
      the NOC has to pay around Rs. 2.50 billion to the government and
      remaining Rs. 2.03 billion to the different lending agencies. The
      daily interest liability alone stands at about Rs. 1 million.

      As the loss figure of NOC mounts, it has become dependent on loans
      to finance the importation of petroleum products. The lack of
      governments' timely action in adjusting the domestic prices and to
      cut down duties to share the loss burden among the state, NOC and
      consumers has made the situation more critical.

      Source: The Kathmandu Post, 25 October 2005 (Summarized by CE News)

      Kathmandu's Air Quality (16-22 October 2005)

      It may have happened due to the few days of unexpected rains last
      week or the holiday season, but whatever the reasons may be we
      Kathmandu's air was a little easier to breathe last week. The
      average PM10 concentration throughout the Valley was within national
      standards of 120 micrograms per cubic meter, which is quite unusual
      for this time of the year. As the winter sets in, the pollution
      level in the air is bound to increase. So enjoy the fresh air while
      it lasts.



      Date (Day)
      PM10 (micrograms per cubic meter)

      (SUN to SAT)
      Putalisadak
      Patan Hospital
      Thamel
      T.U. Kirtipur
      Bhaktapur
      Matsyagaun
      Kathmandu Average

      Oct 16
      135
      108
      82
      N/A
      75
      16
      83

      Oct 17
      136
      133
      94
      N/A
      66
      17
      89

      Oct 18
      145
      85
      89
      N/A
      70
      21
      82

      Oct 19
      99
      110
      67
      12
      40
      25
      59

      Oct 20
      36
      55
      36
      10
      27
      8
      29

      Oct 21
      N/A
      75
      40
      11
      27
      11
      32

      Oct 22
      79
      53
      37
      8
      20
      10
      34

      Avg.
      105
      88
      64
      10
      46
      15


      55


      Data Source: www.mope.gov.np; Analysis by Clean Energy Nepal

      International News

      Flood Experts Warn Tibet of Dangers from Global Warming

      The threat of floods from global warming-related glacial melting in
      the Himalayan highlands was the subject of a conference held in
      Lhasa Sunday, state-run media reported.

      More than 60 experts from the International Center for Integrated
      Mountain Development, the World Meteorological Organization, China's
      National Meteorological Bureau and eight countries are discussing
      ways to improve flood forecasting, risk management and assessment
      and disaster control, as well as regional flood management.

      Gabriel Campbell, director of the ICIMOD, was quoted by Xinhua as
      saying flooding may cause serious losses in Tibet and the lower
      reaches of the rivers originating from the Himalayas if measures
      aren't taken. Rivers at risk include China's Yangtze and Yellow
      Rivers, as well as the Indus, Salween, Mekong and Brahmaputra.

      The sensitive ecosystem of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau is threatened
      by a variety of problems, including overgrazing and road building,
      which have accelerated glacial retreat and increased runoff. In
      June, China's National Climate Center warned warmer winters and
      summers are having a serious impact on the fragile environment of
      the region.

      A vice chairman of the Tibet Autonomous Region, Dorji Cering, said
      mountain flooding is one of the major natural disasters plaguing the
      region. He said the Chinese government is cognizant of the problem
      and is drafting a plan on flood prevention and control.

      Source: UPI, 25 October 2005

      Electric Recharge Stations May Kick off by 2006-End

      At least three Indian states will have electric recharge stations
      for recharging of electric vehicles by the end of 2006. Mahindra &
      Mahindra (M&M) is in talks with state governments of Pondicherry,
      Uttaranchal and Andhra Pradesh for setting up around 200 electric
      recharge points as it is planning to launch a fully electric three
      wheeler by the end of 2005.

      Apart from M&M, Bajaj and TVS Motor Company are also working on
      hybrid three wheelers, that run on both petrol and
      electricity. "Alternate fuel technology is not new in India. Earlier
      it was considered a technological prowess. Today it is a new
      business opportunity," says Pawan Goenka, president, M&M-Automotive
      sector. With rising fuel prices, vehicle manufacturers are forced to
      work on development of alternative fuel technology. "Manufacturers
      are constantly working on new technology and hybrid is one such.
      These vehicles are less polluting and cost effective," says CK Rao,
      GM, three wheelers, Bajaj Auto.

      A three wheeler with a fully charged 72 volt battery can run for
      80km with an average running cost of 50 paise as compared to a few
      rupees for petrol vehicles. But why electric three wheelers alone
      and not motorcycles or cars? Electric vehicles would be priced
      higher than petrol vehicles and so the higher cost is justified only
      when the vehicle runs for a longer period of time. This is ensured
      only in commercial vehicles. Also, these vehicles are less
      polluting, with lower speed levels making them ideally suited for
      intra-city travel.

      Source: KEVA

      Japan Struggling To Meet CO2 Emissions Target

      By Hiroko Tabuchi,

      Japan's greenhouse gas emissions fell slightly last fiscal year, but
      the country is far from achieving its target for reducing carbon
      dioxide emissions, a government report said Friday.

      Japan released about 1.329 billion tons of greenhouse gases in the
      year ending March 31, down 0.8 percent from the previous year,
      according to the Environment Ministry. Japan must speed up
      reductions if it intends to meet targets set in the Kyoto Protocol,
      which went into effect in February this year.

      Under the U.N.-brokered agreement, Tokyo is committed to cutting
      collective emissions of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse
      gases to 6 percent below 1990 levels by 2012.


      Although the Japanese government has been aggressively pushing
      nuclear power as an alternative source of energy, many of the
      country's reactors have been running at under capacity after a
      series of safety violations, reactor malfunctions and accidents.
      Public confidence in nuclear energy was badly shaken after an
      accident at a reprocessing plant outside Tokyo in 1999, which killed
      two workers and exposed hundreds of people to radioactivity.

      Then in August 2004, a corroded pipe carrying boiling water and
      superheated steam burst at a reactor in Mihama, west of Tokyo,
      killing five workers. No radiation was released in that accident.

      Source: Associated Press, 24 October 2005



      World's First Biogas Train Makes Maiden Voyage in Sweden

      The world's first train to run on biogas, made its maiden voyage in
      Sweden, a country that has high hopes for biofuels.

      Consisting of a single carriage that seats about 60 passengers, the
      vehicle consists of a converted old Fiat train whose diesel engines
      have been replaced by two Volvo gas engines. While the replacement
      of the engine has made it more environment friendly, it has also
      reduced a dependence on import of fuels from other countries.

      The train links the city of Linkoeping, just south of Stockholm, to
      the east coast of Vaestervik some 80 kms away, and is scheduled to
      make one trip a day to begin with, which will eventually be two or
      more.

      The train is equipped with 11 canisters containing enough gas to run
      for 600 kms before needing a refill, and can a reach a maximum speed
      of 130 kms per hour.

      Source: AFP, 24 October 2005

      Warmer Climate Produces Less Rain

      New climate simulations from NASA show that under the warmer global
      temperatures of the 20th century, water vapor in the atmosphere took
      longer than normal to fall out of the sky fall as rain, snow and
      other precipitation. With a few exceptions, the amount decreased
      over land but increased over oceans.

      The simulations are the first to take into consideration a part of
      Earth's water cycle that until now has been overlooked—the storage
      of water vapor in the atmosphere. These findings could play an
      important role in climate models used to provide short-term weather
      forecasts critical to water resource managers as well as models used
      to predict long-term climate trends.

      "Going back and looking at a time where we know what happened helps
      give us confidence that the models can do a good job of predicting
      the future," says meteorologist Michael Bosilovich, lead author of
      the study, published online in the American Meteorological Society's
      Journal of Climate.

      When modeling the exchange of moisture that occurs among the land,
      poles, oceans and atmosphere, scientists typically use sea surface
      temperature data to predict how much water vapor will evaporate from
      the earth and how much of it will turn into precipitation. And
      although researchers have cautioned that warmer global temperatures
      could increase the atmosphere's ability to hold moisture, no one has
      modeled the extent to which this could occur.

      Bosilovich and his team, from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in
      Greenbelt, Md., decided that rather than create climate models that
      predicted the future, they would create models of the past using
      historic information. Simulations were necessary because satellite
      observations are nonexistent for most of South America, Africa and
      huge gaps in Eurasia. Using available data, the team produced two
      climate simulations. One was based on two 20-year sets of sea
      surface temperature data gathered by satellites from 1902 to 1921
      and 1979 to 1998. The other model was created from sea surface
      temperature measured from 1948 to 1998.

      Both simulations showed that along with a .25 to .5 percent increase
      in global temperatures during these periods came a rise in
      evaporation and precipitation. The higher temperatures also improved
      the atmosphere's ability to retain water vapor and although
      precipitation was significant, it was not as great as the potential
      amount held in the clouds. "Water passing through the atmosphere was
      taking longer to evaporate, and then find its way back out as
      precipitation," Bosilovich says.

      The study also found that, in general, the water cycle slowed over
      tropical land masses and sped up over oceans. But the trend was not
      equal across all regions. For example, precipitation increased over
      land in the central U.S., while decreasing over the Gulf of Mexico.
      According to the team, although global averages show significant
      trends, further studies that take a regional focus must be conducted
      in order to refine the models.

      Source: WWF, 24 October 2005

      Link of the Week

      http://www.epa.gov/globalwarming/kids/greenhouse.html

      This is a very useful site especially for school kids, teachers and
      trainers interested in global warming and green house effect. It has
      an interactive demonstration that relates air pollution, global
      warming and climate change.



      Did You Know?

      Improved water quality reduces childhood diarrhoea by 15-20%, but
      better hygiene through hand washing and safe food handling reduces
      it by 35% and safe disposal of children's faeces leads to a
      reduction of nearly 40%.

      Media Watch

      Every Saturday at 7:00 am on Radio Sagarmatha 102 "Chittika"

      Every Sunday at 7:30 am on Radio Sagarmatha 102 "Batabaran Dabali"

      Every Wednesday at 7:30 am on Kantipur FM 96.1 - "Down to Earth"



      QUIZ of the Week # 218

      Earlier, leaded petrol used to be the most widespread, though easily
      preventable, source of urban air pollution in the world. According
      to WHO (World Health Organization), 15–18 million children in the
      developing countries are already suffering from permanent brain
      damage due to lead poisoning. Why is tetra-ethyl lead added to
      petrol?

      a) It prevents engine knocking

      b) Reduces vehicular emissions

      c) Increases life of motor tyres

      d) None of the above

      Send your answers to cen@..., within a week. Please
      mention "Answer to Quiz # 218" the subject of your e-mail.

      One lucky winner will get a T-Shirt with an Environmental Message
      from Clean Energy Nepal. Please note that, we will not be able to
      send prize to the winners outside Kathmandu valley. However, we
      still encourage all participants to send in their answer. Best of
      luck!!!

      Answer Of Quiz Of The Week # 217

      Emissions trading have become a key concept in reducing greenhouse
      gases worldwide. Which country invented it?

      U.S.A

      Out of answers received the following gave the correct answer (The
      names are listed here on the "first come - first name" basis)

      Tri Ratna Tuladhar

      Chakra Gurung

      Prasamsa Singh

      Nawa Raj Dhakal

      Sugandha Gurung

      Prashant Pant

      Yuri Nakamoto

      Sanjeeb Upadhyaya

      Ngamindra Dahal

      Mr. Chakra Gurung is the lucky winner for this week. Please contact
      the CEN office within a week with your identity card. Congratulation
      to the Winner and thanks to all participants!!!

      Edited by: Bhushan Tuladhar and Eliza Sthapit

      Clean Energy Nepal (CEN) is an independent, not-for-profit
      organization working in the field of Energy and Environment. We
      encourage you to send your articles on relevant subjects to expand
      our campaign.

      CEN: 254 Sahayog Marg, Anamnagar, Kathmandu, Nepal. Tel: 977-1-
      4242381

      Fax: 977-1-4248392



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