Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

Mike's plan to " Conserve, NOW! "

Expand Messages
  • npat1@juno.com
    Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Other Environmental Costs by Offering Financial Incentives that Reward Less Driving, Flying and Home Energy Use By
    Message 1 of 1 , Jul 8 10:40 AM
    • 0 Attachment
      Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Other Environmental Costs by
      Offering Financial Incentives that Reward Less Driving, Flying and Home
      Energy Use
      By
      Michael T. Neuman
      November 1, 2000

      �For all practical purposes, there is today only one world suitable for
      man. Measured by nature�s standards rather than by those of historical
      man, it is at present a delicately balanced, highly perishable world that
      has evolved over long geologic epochs of environmental change. And man,
      acting as if he owned this world, or at least had come into leasehold
      possession of it, has played his role as lessee very indifferently��
      (Lyton Caldwell, 1971)

      Entire text of Conserve, NOW! (CN) on pdf & below.

      Best to view tables in Appendix A of CN on pdf, at:
      http://danenet.danenet.org/bcp/neuman_gw.pdf

      Text of CN also given below, beginning with "Summary".

      Summary

      This paper provides the framework for offering temporary positive
      voluntary financial incentives for reducing automobile driving, airplane
      travel, and annual home energy use. While the paper is mostly focused on
      reducing energy use in the State of Wisconsin, the methodology could be
      applied nationally, or even worldwide.

      In general, the main source of funding for the financial incentives would
      be the savings in user fee revenue generated by not having to build the
      additional highway, airport and energy plant capacity expansion projects.
      The federal transportation fund, the aviation trust fund and public and
      private energy utility accounts would fund the program.

      After significant reductions in public motorized travel and home energy
      use occur, �transportation fees�, as defined in this paper, could be
      charged on commercial and industrial goods shipped long distances (by
      truck, air or plane - thus burning up considerable fossil fuels), and the
      revenue generated from that source could also be used to fund the
      program, if necessary.

      Finally, and ideally, it would be good, and right, if all investments in
      military preparedness, throughout the world, could be phased out, and
      eventually eliminated. This �phase out�, should begin no later than the
      end of 2001. Complete abandonment of national militaries should be
      scheduled for January 1, 2005.

      The money generated by the phase out of military operations throughout
      the world should be used to fund the Conserve, NOW! Program; thus
      providing ample world financial resources to eliminate all world hunger,
      world poverty, disease and ignorance (due to limited family funds for
      education), for all the world�s citizens, and the world society as a
      complete whole.

      Offering world citizens and families �financial incentives� for low
      annual driving miles traveled on highways, whether they choose to drive
      at all or not, and for low (or no) annual flying miles traveled, and for
      using less than typical therms of energy in their households, as defined
      in this paper, would greatly reduce worldwide greenhouse gas emissions to
      the atmosphere, by at least 25%, on a yearly basis.

      Bringing into fruition a worldwide environmental mitigation strategy,
      such as the strategy outlined in the text below, would help humankind
      deal not just with one problem, but with many problems. The problems are
      interrelated, to some degree, but not so much by the commonality of the
      trouble they cause; but more importantly by the commonality of the
      solution needed to abate them. Rather, than deal with each particular
      problem and issue by itself, the Conserve, NOW! proposal would bring
      forth a multifaceted, but uniform, attack on the many interrelated
      problems that have grown and grown over time in the world, and now
      threaten to annihilate the world, in its entirety.

      Rapid Global Heating

      Global warming of the Earth is now a certainty. Earth�s temperatures are
      rising, faster and faster each year. The reason is too much fossil fuel
      burning by a growing and ever more energy-dependent human population.

      Burning fossil fuels for energy releases greenhouse gases (carbon
      dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, others) to the air, which contributes to
      the growing stockpiling of those gases in the Earth�s atmosphere. The
      increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere
      ultimately increase the ability of the Earth�s atmosphere to capture and
      hold the Sun�s heat. And since many of the greenhouse gases remain in
      the atmosphere for centuries, their concentrations continue to increase
      as more and more fossil fuels are burned on Earth, resulting in a
      stronger and stronger �greenhouse effect� in the Earth�s atmosphere, over
      time.

      Each gallon of gasoline (or diesel fuel) combusted either in cars,
      trucks, boats, planes, recreational vehicles, equipment, etc., adds 22
      additional pounds of carbon dioxide to the Earth�s atmosphere�s stockpile
      of greenhouse gases, where it will remain upwards of 120 years (Worrest,
      2000).

      Each ton of coal combusted in power plants or other furnaces adds 7,320
      pounds of carbon dioxide to the Earth�s stockpile of atmospheric
      greenhouse gases, where it also will remain upwards of 120 years.

      Each therm of natural gas combusted in furnaces or appliances adds 11
      pounds of carbon dioxide to the Earth�s stockpile of greenhouse gases,
      where it, too, will remain upwards of 120 years.

      Scientists now say global warming has actually been in progress for
      several decades already, but that various measurement complexities have
      prevented them from actually proving it. The rate of global warming has
      accelerated since the mid-1950s when it was first predicted. The
      continuously growing stockpile of greenhouse gases being added to the
      Earth�s atmosphere is making Earth�s atmosphere much more effective in
      �trapping� the Sun�s energy.

      And scientists now say the rate at which Earth�s atmosphere is heating up
      is reason for worldwide concern; they are sounding the alarm for urgent,
      major action to slow global warming down, because the ultimate effect of
      continued global warming could conceivably be catastrophic to all Earth�s
      life forms.

      There is only one widely known and currently available method for slowing
      global warming down, immediately. That method is energy conservation.
      Energy conservation methods might include driving less; flying less,
      buying more energy efficient (and smaller) homes, automobiles and
      appliances; buying locally produced goods whenever, and wherever,
      possible; and greatly reducing (or eliminating) participation in
      recreational sports or activities that burn fossil fuels for energy.

      Many energy conservation methods were employed by the public, with
      considerable success, in the-mid 1970�s and early 1980�s, in response to
      the �energy crisis� and relatively high fuel prices. Energy conservation
      was also successful during time of World War II, when conservation of
      fuel was necessary for the war effort. Energy conservation was
      successful then, and it can be successful now, to reduce the threat of
      continued global warming.

      Energy conservation is the only realistic and economically feasible
      option for conserving energy in the next several years. The risk of
      humans failing to successfully slow global warming today far exceeds any
      imaginable or real economic or convenience losses that might have to be
      borne in the short term by today�s populous.

      In time, alternative technologies are likely to be developed and
      available that will allow humans to use energy, without emitting
      dangerous levels of greenhouse gases to the Earth�s atmosphere. But that
      time has not yet arrived. Consequently, conservation of energy must
      begin immediately.

      The effects of continuing to release substantial quantities of greenhouse
      gases to the atmosphere, by burning fossil fuels or consuming electricity
      produced through fossil fuel burning, are cumulative and irreversible.
      �Reducing emissions is the most important action we can take now to
      minimize damage to people, ecosystems, and economies� (Bloomfield, 2000).


      Increases in Automobile Driving in Wisconsin and U.S.

      The population of the State of Wisconsin increased from 4.4 million in
      1970 to 5.2 million in 1998, an 18% increase (Wisconsin Legislative
      Reference Bureau, 1999). The number of vehicle miles traveled (VMT) on
      Wisconsin highways increased from 21.9 billion VMT in 1970 to 50.4
      billion VMT 1998, a 132% increase. (Wisconsin Department of
      Transportation (DOT), 1999) (Appendix A: Table 1).

      The average family of 4 in Wisconsin traveled 19,880 miles in 1970. In
      1998, they traveled 39,000 total miles, a 96% increase.

      The per capita vehicle mileage that Wisconsin residents traveled in 1980
      (including children and adults choosing not to drive) was 6,358 miles per
      capita. By 1998, this had increased to 9,680 miles per capita (excluding
      heavy trucks). Result: the average Wisconsin resident traveled 52
      percent more miles in a vehicle in 1998 than the average Wisconsin
      resident traveled by auto in 1980.

      The total highway vehicle passenger miles traveled in the U.S., excluding
      miles counted for heavy truck and bus travel, is estimated to be 3.8
      trillion miles per year. The total VMT in the U.S. is estimated to be
      2.36 trillion miles per year. (U.S. Department of Transportation (1997).


      Costs of Providing for Increased Automobile Driving in Wisconsin and the
      U.S.

      In 1999, the Wisconsin Department of Transportation proposed a plan to
      provide for the projected motor vehicle driving needs in Wisconsin
      through 2020 called Wisconsin State Highway Plan 2020 (WisDOT, 1999).
      The plan recommends $20 billion be spent on new state highway
      construction, reconstruction, rehabilitation and maintenance through
      2020. The plan proposes approximately one third of the $20 billion ($7.3
      billion) be used for new highway capacity expansion projects, for the
      purpose of accommodating increased driving by Wisconsin residents.

      The cost of the plan is to be paid by users of the state and local
      highway system through fuel taxes and annual vehicle license fees.

      The $7.3 billion is the monetary cost of building the new highway
      capacity expansion projects. It does not cover the cost of maintaining
      those new highways, nor does it cover the non-monetary �environmental
      cost� of building the new highways. The environmental cost of new
      highway development can be substantial.

      New highway building generally creates a direct environmental cost as
      highway corridors often must be built through farmland, wildlife habitat,
      wetlands and other valuable natural and productive landscape. Indirect
      costs from improving travel on the highway are many and diffuse. They
      include: more air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions (from increased
      auto emissions); more vehicle travel noise, roadkills and possibly more
      human injuries and fatalities (because of increasing traffic levels),
      and, of course, more urban sprawl development.

      Urban sprawl development is really nothing more than misplaced urban
      development. It is facilitated by improved highways because the added
      auto accessibility the improved highways provide makes longer auto
      commutes simpler, safer, and, of course, quicker.

      Improved highways make it easier and safer for people to live outside of
      cities, yet retain reasonable access to the amenities and the services
      that cities traditionally provide (jobs, entertainment, shopping, etc.).
      In essence, improved highways enable commuters to take advantage of the
      city�s benefits, regardless of whether they reside or pay property taxes
      in the city, and irrespective of the environmental costs their automobile
      driving has on others in the afflicted communities along the way, or the
      Earth�s environment in general.

      The quantity of carbon dioxide emitted to the atmosphere by automobiles
      traveling in Wisconsin was 17.6 million tons in 1970 (Table 2). In
      1998, it was 26.0 million tons, an increase of 47%. For the foreseeable
      future, it will continue to increase with increasing levels of traffic.


      The increased use and expansion of Wisconsin�s highway system through
      2020, as approved by the Wisconsin DOT, will increase the quantity of
      greenhouse gas emitted to the atmosphere even more, since it removes
      impediments to driving more miles on the highway system. This method of
      addressing travel �needs� (building in more highway capacity) has
      traditionally been the most popular approach to dealing with increasing
      traffic problems in the United States (and elsewhere). But it clearly
      has come at considerable economic, social and environmental cost.

      In contrast, providing incentives to bring about reductions in automobile
      travel would reduce traffic levels (estimated by up to 25%), negating the
      need to build more highway infrastructure, and reducing the environmental
      and social costs of continuously increasing automobile and SUV driving
      throughout the state.

      Financial Incentives for Reducing Vehicle Miles Traveled in Wisconsin

      Rather than spend $7.3 billion on highway capacity expansion over the
      next 20 years, the State of Wisconsin could establish a program that
      provides financial incentives to Wisconsin households who voluntarily
      limit their motor vehicle travel in a year. The source of funding for
      the financial incentives program would be the portion of the gas taxes
      and annual vehicle license fees that would have otherwise been paid for
      the $7.3 billion worth of new highways. Since the projected number of
      vehicles operating on the highway system will have been reduced by less
      driving, the need for building more capacity into the highway system will
      have been effectively eliminated, making it possible to return those
      funds to the public.

      Following is an example of how the VMT reduction plan would work:
      A family of four with two drivers voluntarily enrolls in the program by
      driving its car(s) into the local Department of Motor Vehicles office,
      paying $30 in administrative fees, and getting the mileage on their
      vehicle�s odometer(s) officially recorded. Alternatively, DOT offices
      could be staffed with employees or volunteers who would travel to
      neighborhoods to officially record the participating households�
      vehicle(s) odometer mileage. [Technology also is now available, patented
      through the auto insurance industry, that enables vehicle mileage of many
      vehicles to be monitored, and recorded, from a central location. This
      would eliminate the need for manual checking of vehicle odometers.]

      After a year goes by, (based on participant�s day of choice), the
      participant(s) would receive a $400 check if the participant�s
      odometer(s) showed less than 13,500 miles for the preceding year (Table
      3). If the family participant managed to lower the household vehicle
      mileage traveled to 9,000 miles over the year, they would earn $1,200.

      The fewer miles the family drives in a year, the more money it could earn
      as a reward for �driving less� for that year. Households not owning or
      driving personally registered cars would be eligible to receive a maximum
      of $2,800 for that year, as a payment, (or reward), for not contributing
      to the financial, social, or environmental costs of automobile driving
      borne by everybody.

      Methodology for Calculating Financial Incentives for Reducing Total VMT

      The methodology used for computing the financial incentives for low
      annual VMT is as follows:

      Total Household Mileage Threshold/Year

      = x + Dx + Px

      Where x = 1,000 (1�6) household vehicle(s) miles;
      D = Number of Additional Drivers (.75)
      P = Number of Persons in Household (.25)
      A 25% reduction in vehicular travel is postulated with full
      implementation of the plan, at a cost of $810 million a year. Using an
      average reward of $400 for each Wisconsin household each year: $400 X
      2,026,000 HH (Wisconsin Bureau of Energy, 1999) = $810,400,000.

      After 10 years of awarding the financial incentives, the program could be
      ended, since the behavioral change resulting in reduced driving will have
      become permanent, eliminating the need to continue offering the
      incentives. If their was a need to continue the program after 10 years,
      to maintain the financial incentives program for reduced driving, a
      supplemental tax on the price of gasoline could be levied to continue
      with the funding on the program.

      By offering financial incentives to households who record low annual
      motor vehicle miles traveled in a year, this transportation alternative
      would encourage people to make more informed choices about where to live
      relative to where they need to travel. When they do need to travel, the
      financial incentives would encourage them to choose more environmentally
      friendly means of travel (bicycling, walking, taking a bus, carpooling),
      over driving environmentally harmful and greenhouse gas emitting
      automobiles. Table 4 lists other ways to reduce vehicular travel on
      public highways. Table 5 provides the corresponding modal energy
      efficiencies relative to automobile transportation.

      Increases in Air Travel

      At an international aviation conference held recently in Chicago, United
      Airlines chief James Goodwin was reported (Associated Press, 1999) as
      saying the projected increases in air traffic in the U.S. are
      �frightening�, and that �the skies are crowded and getting more so every
      day�. According to the report, Goodwin warned, �the global skies are
      teeming with so many planes that the entire airline industry is near
      crisis�.

      The U.S. DOT Bureau of Transportation Statistics� data shows U.S.
      enplanements on scheduled domestic flights increased from 297 million
      emplanements, in 1980, to 634 million in 1999 (a 114 percent increase).
      The U.S. Census Bureau reports the U.S. population increased 21 percent
      from 1980-1999, from 226 million to 274 million; therefore, the effective
      airline emplanement increase, exclusive of population increases from 1980
      to 1999, was 93%. This means the average U.S. citizen today flies twice
      as many times a year as the average U.S. citizen did in 1980.

      The U.S. commercial airline industry burned 10.7 billion gallons of fuel
      in domestic and international operations in 1979 (@ $.58/gal). By 1999,
      the industry burned 19.6 billion gallons (@$.53/gal), an increase of 83
      percent over the amount of fuel burned in 1979. The effective increase
      in gallons of fuel burned in airlines from 1979 to 1999 was 62 percent.

      In servicing the increasing number Americans who chose to travel by
      airplane in 1999, American airplanes discharged 215.6 million tons of
      carbon dioxide to the Earth�s atmosphere.

      Methodology for Calculating Financial Incentives for Reducing AMT

      The methodology used for computing the financial incentives for low
      annual airplane miles traveled (AMT) is as follows:

      Airplane Mileage Threshold/Year/Person = y

      Where y = 100 (1�6) miles flown in an airplane

      A schedule for providing financial incentives for encouraging U.S.
      citizens to fly less is provided in Table 6.

      The reward threshold is not increased for families having more than 5
      persons.

      No exclusions would be allowed for business trip mileage. This would
      provide added incentives for business to minimize employee air travel
      requirements.

      How the program would work:

      Any person over 18 years of age who chooses to enroll in the AMT
      reduction rewards program would need to file a one-time application with
      the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), along with a nominal
      administrative fee. That person would then be registered for the program
      for life, and therefore eligible for annual rewards each year that he or
      she commercially flies less than the amount of threshold miles specified
      in Table 6.

      The FAA would require that each commercial airline document the annual
      mileage flown by all registered AMT participants using its service. Each
      airline service would be required to prepare and forward individual
      mileage summaries for each registered AMT participant to the FAA by the
      end of the calendar year. The FAA would summarize the total annual miles
      flown for each AMT participant and issue the incentive payments based on
      the amounts specified in Table 6.

      Funding for AVT Reduction Incentives

      Some of the money to fund the financial incentives would be available
      from the money saved by not having to build additional airport runways,
      taxiways, terminals, and to employ additional airport personal to service
      the otherwise projected increases in the number of flights.
      Environmental savings would result from reduced greenhouse gas emissions,
      reduced air pollution, reduced noise, less air traffic congestion, and
      less wildlife habitat and farmland loses from airport expansion projects.

      The remainder of the funds would be provided from federal taxes levied on
      the price of aviation fuel, as a fixed percentage of each gallon of
      aviation fuel combusted, in commercial and non commercial aircraft
      (excluding only military aircraft). If one dollar in tax were charged
      for each gallon of aviation fuel used by airlines in the U.S., this would
      generate $20 billion to help fund the program.

      Congress recently authorized nearly $10 billion for airport
      infrastructure development over the next 3 years (GAO, 2000). This
      amount, coupled with the $20 billion in fuel tax revenues over the next 3
      years would be enough money to provide financial incentives of an average
      of $1,000 per year for 23,000,000 adults in the U.S., or more than 11% of
      the country�s total adult population.

      Currently, aviation fuel is purchased and combusted by the airline
      industry to power its planes, tax-free.

      Financial Incentives for Encouraging Household Energy Conservation

      Just as positive incentives can be used to encourage reduced fossil fuel
      burning dependent automobile and airplane travel, so too can positive
      financial incentives encourage reduced energy use in homes. Utilities
      could offer financial incentives to encourage people to use less energy
      in heating, cooling and lighting their homes, and for minimizing uses of
      other forms of electricity in their daily lives. This would reduce
      cumulative power demands, reducing the need to build more power plants,
      transmission lines, fuel lines and other expenditures and environmental
      costs associated with increased capacity demands.

      Depending on the amount of the reductions, significant cutbacks in global
      greenhouse gas emissions might be possible from power plants that burn
      fossil fuel for electricity, or from other utilities that distribute fuel
      and natural gas for direct burning in household furnaces.

      Wisconsin�s per capita (per individual) resource energy consumption in
      homes in 1998 was 404 therms (Table 7). A 4-person household in
      Wisconsin uses, on average, 1,600 therms of energy in the home for
      heating and electrical conveniences (4 X 400 therms).

      Financial incentives for encouraging energy conservation in homes would
      work similar to the systems used for encouraging people to reduce their
      driving and flying. That is, households using low per family size annual
      energy amounts could be eligible to receive monetary returns at the end
      of the year for conserving energy (Table 8).

      Methodology for Calculating Financial Incentives for Reducing Total
      Energy Use

      The methodology used for computing the incentives for low energy use is
      as follows:

      Total Household Energy Use Threshold/Year

      = z + Rz

      Where z = 100 (1�6) therms

      R = Number of Additional Residents X .25

      No additional credit is provided for more than 5 person residing in the
      household, and the enrolled persons must occupy the home at least 90
      percent of the total number of days in the proposed year of enrollment.

      There are many things homeowners and renters could do to improve energy
      efficiencies in their homes and reduce overall fuel and electricity
      consumption.

      Appendix B identifies some ways to reduce energy use in the home and
      recreation activities that burn fossil fuels that should be avoided.

      The state could also subsidize consumer�s purchase of energy efficient
      compact flourescents. At least one consumer still uses some of the less
      energy efficient condescends simply because the initial purchase price of
      compact flourescents is several times as costly as the less energy
      efficient alternatives.

      Funding for Low Home Energy Use Incentives

      Assuming 25% of reductions in energy use could be achieved without cost
      to the economy (DeCanio, 1997), the amount of money that would be needed
      on an annual basis for this household energy conservation measure would
      be the same as that required for the VMT reduction incentives ($810
      million, annually).

      The money to fund the financial incentives would be available from the
      money saved by not having to build additional power plants, transmission
      lines and power stations in the future, money that therefore becomes
      available because of the reduced energy demands.

      For example, Wisconsin Energy Corporation has proposed to spend $6
      billion to build three new power plants in Wisconsin and upgrade other
      WEC power generation facilities to accommodate projected public demands
      for more power. The plans call for a new power plants in Port Washington
      (gas-fired); Oak Creek (coal-fired) and another coal-fired plant in an
      undetermined location in Wisconsin.
      As to the nation as a whole, USA TODAY (article by Fred Bayles, 9/11/00),
      following their review of utility industry projections, suggests the cost
      of building new power facilities to meet growing demands will approach
      $80 billion during the next two decades. That amount would fund an
      annual average financial incentive of $155 per year for 25% per cent of
      U.S. households, who might be expected to apply for the low energy use
      financial incentives (by such measures listed in Appendix B.)

      Additional non-monetary environmental savings would result from reduced
      greenhouse gas emissions, reduced air pollution, less wildlife habitat
      and farmland loss from building more power plants and transmission lines
      in those areas, and reduced discharges of excess cooling water, since
      less cooling water would be needed for reduced energy generation.

      An additional method of funding financial incentives for environmental
      conservation, which would itself help reduce greenhouse gas emissions,
      would be the adoption of a �transportation tax� on raw materials and
      products requiring transportation over a certain distance. This would
      lead to reductions in the amount of energy used in transporting products.


      The U.S. Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) should be given the
      authority to collect a "transportation tax" on all raw materials and
      products sold in the United States, that are transported over 50 miles,
      whether the transportation is via land, water or air. The tax would be
      applicable to all raw materials, intermediary and final goods
      commercially transported over 50 miles, at a cost of 10 cents per item,
      10 cents per pound weight, or 10 cents per cubic foot, whichever unit
      amount is higher. The total transportation tax for a shipment would thus
      be the sum of the applicable per unit tax of the products that are
      shipped, multiplied by the number of miles the products are shipped (from
      origin to destination).

      The USDOT would collect the money in this program and place it into a
      "transportation tax fund" (TTF). The money that accumulates into the TTF
      would be used to provide financial incentives to the public to reduce
      driving, flying and energy consumed in homes.

      Other sources federal surpluses available should be used for this purpose
      as well, since the beneficiary of conserving energy and reducing
      greenhouse gas and other emissions will spread to all U. S. citizens, and
      the U.S. economic system should provide higher rewards for
      environmentally conscientious decisions than is now provided.

      Conclusion

      Major new highway, airport and power plant investments require billions
      of public dollars to build, their construction causes major and
      significant environmental disruption, and their end uses create
      significant air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and other adverse
      environmental consequences. Government has the responsibility to protect
      and uphold the general welfare of its citizenry. Ensuring positive
      financial incentives are provided to the public, to discourage overuse of
      highways, air space and energy resources, and thereby to reduce the need
      to build new highways, airports and power generating infrastructure, is
      an appropriate and worthwhile function of government.

      Continuing to burn vast quantities of fossil fuels (coal, oil, gasoline)
      on Earth for energy is increasing average global temperatures due to the
      greenhouse effect. Studies show Earth�s air, land and water temperatures
      are rising, at rates some scientists say are alarming, greatly exceeding
      the more conservative predictions made only a few years ago.

      Many scientists throughout the world are saying it is urgent that
      worldwide actions be undertaken, immediately, to curb, and reduce (some
      say by 80%!), the increasing quantities of greenhouse gas emissions.
      Moreover, many scientists concede the potential for worldwide cataclysmic
      calamity related to global warming is possible, not just in eons, but in
      centuries and perhaps even decades!

      To this call for urgency, the global warming �skeptics� continue to
      demand proof. Before the skeptics (who�s numbers are dwindling rapidly)
      agree fossil fuel burning should be cut, they want to see proof global
      warming is occurring, that fossil fuel burning is the main cause of it,
      and that the costs of increasing global warming exceed the costs of
      slowing it down.

      Scientists claim the buffering characteristics of Earth�s natural
      resources (cool oceans and permafrost store carbon), which have
      historically kept Earth�s atmospheric gases in check, could ultimately
      become unbalanced by global warming, increasing the potential for a
      �runaway greenhouse effect� to occur on Earth.
      If a runaway greenhouse effect got started on Earth, Earth�s surface
      temperatures could increase dramatically. Grinspoon (1997) speculates
      this could have been what happened to Earth�s twin planet, Venus, which
      now has an average surface temperature of 864 degrees, Fahrenheit (water
      boils at 212 degrees F.; steak broils at 550 degrees F.).

      Grinspoon claims the temperature on Venus is much higher than it should
      be, relative to the planet�s mass and distance from the Sun, and that the
      reason for the hotness is that Venus experienced a runaway greenhouse
      effect early in its existence:

      �That brings us to the question of water. Evolutionary models suggest
      that if Venus started out with an ocean of water, it could have been lost
      early in the planet�s history by a �runaway greenhouse effect�. Water
      vapor is a powerful infrared absorber. A little water in the air can
      heat things up a lot. But in the presence of liquid water, if the air
      gets hotter, more water will evaporate. This creates the possibility of
      a powerful positive feedback loop: evaporating water increases the
      greenhouse effect, making the atmosphere so hot that more water
      evaporates, and so on. Any physical system like that, dominated by
      positive feedback, is inherently unstable. Once it gets going, there is
      no stopping it. Venus may have had oceans that simply boiled away,
      leaving large amounts of water vapor high in the atmosphere where solar
      ultraviolet radiation split up the molecules, allowing the hydrogen to
      escape into space� (pg. 149).

      A Call for Action

      When it comes to the long-term sustainability of our planet, it�s much
      better to be conservatively safe, than deeply sorry. Being �deeply
      sorry�, when Earth�s populous might have done something to change a final
      negative outcome is not only being insincere, but even worse: unconcerned
      and callous.

      Necessity now demands everyone accept responsibility for making energy
      conserving sacrifices, right away. Greenhouse gases accumulate in the
      Earth�s atmosphere, over time. Therefore, they remain in the Earth�s
      atmosphere long after the time of their release, warming the planet for
      those who had nothing to do with their release.

      Due to recent (since mid 19th century) and an ever increasing reliance on
      fossil fuel burning by humans, the Earth�s atmosphere has become more
      saturated with carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. The
      concentration of CO2 in the Earth�s atmosphere has gone from a
      preindustrial level of 280 parts per million (ppm) to a present day level
      of 365 ppm+ (and increase of 30%+ over preindustrial levels). The
      current concentration level of CO2 in the atmosphere is already outside
      the bounds of natural variability seen in the climate record of the last
      160,000 years. �If the world proceeds on a �business as usual� path,
      atmospheric CO2 concentrations will likely become more than 700 PPM (an
      increase of 150% over preindustrial levels) by 2100, and they will still
      be rising.� (Executive Office of the President, 1997).

      The balance between the Earth�s greenhouse and non-greenhouse gas
      concentrations has clearly been thrown out of kilter in the last 150
      years. This imbalance is likely to grow significantly larger over time.
      Even in the very unlikely event that increases in greenhouse gas
      emissions from human activity cease, the concentration levels of
      greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will continue to increase, since there
      remains no other place for them to go.

      And, now, with the world�s population having doubled since 1960, and
      expected to increase to 9 billion (by 2054 - Table 14), the potential for
      reducing - let alone slowing - annual global greenhouse gas emissions,
      and therefore global warming, has become exceedingly difficult.

      Scientists the world over are now claiming, with increasingly serious
      overtones, that major and significant worldwide action must be initiated,
      now, to reduce the volumes of greenhouse gases being injected into the
      Earth�s atmosphere. To do so will require a dramatic and abrupt change in
      humankind reliance on fossil fuel burning.

      To be unresponsive to the now almost unanimous scientific community call
      for immediate (not 15 years from now), and drastic (not just slowing the
      rate of increase) is not prudent. For the world�s population to
      dramatically increase fossil fuel burning and greenhouse gas emissions,
      with minimal attempts being made to conserve energy in travel,
      recreational and home energy use, is tantamount to global genocide.

      In conclusion, the time is now already overripe to drastically cut energy
      use in homes, cars, planes, trains and trucks. This paper offers an
      approach to accomplishing that, devoid of instituting regulatory controls
      over people�s everyday lives.

      Governmental officials should, without delay, create programs that offer
      financial incentives to the public to encourage environmental
      conservation and minimize greenhouse gas emissions. Nonessential and all
      recreational uses of energy derived from the combustion of fossil fuels
      should be greatly reduced, starting immediately, so that the Earth�s
      environment continues to remain habitable, indefinitely, by all forms of
      life.

      Acknowledgments
      I wish to credit my brother, Patrick J. Neuman, for his careful review of
      this paper throughout its many iterations of development, and to thank
      him for his personal support as well, without of which this paper would
      not have been completed.

      References

      Ackerman, A.S.; Toon, O.B.; Stevens, A.J.; Heymsfield, V.; Ramanathan,
      E.; Welton, J., May 12, 2000, �Reduction of Tropical Cloudiness by Soot�,
      Science, Vol. 288.

      Associated Press, December 7, 1999, �Airline Head Warns of Crowded
      Skies�.

      Bayles, Fred, September 11, 2000, �Can Expansion Cure Airport Gridlock?�,
      in USA TODAY.

      Bloomfield, Janine, 2000, �Wake Up to Global Warming Threat, U.S.
      Warned�, Environmental News Service,
      http://www.ens.lycos.com/ens/jun2000/2000L-06-12-08.html.

      Boulding, Kenneth E., 1968, Beyond Economics: Essays on Society, Religion
      and Ethics, The University of Michigan Press.

      Boulding, Kenneth E., 1971, �The Economics of the Coming Spaceship
      Earth�, an essay in Problems of the Modern Economy: Pollution, Resources,
      and the Environment, edited by Alain C. Enthoven and A. Myrick Freeman
      III, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc..

      Caldwell, Lyton, Keith, 1971, Environment: A Challenge to Modern Society,
      Chapter 4, Anchor Books Doubleday & Company, Garden City, New York.

      DeCanio, Stephen J., 1997, �Prudent CO2 Emissions Cuts Make Economic
      Sense�, Excerpted from the testimony of Stephen J. DeCanio before the
      Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment of the U.S. House Committee on
      Science, October 9, 1997, in The World Environment & the Global Economy,
      Gary E. McCuen Publications Inc., Hudson, Wisconsin.

      Executive Office of the President, 1997, Climate Change: State of
      Knowledge, Office of Science and Technology Policy.

      Foley, Jonathan, June 3, 2000, personal communication.
      Gumbu, Phinjo, March 18, 2000, �Smog Kills 1,000 Annually in Toronto,
      Study Shows, Toronto Star newspaper.

      Government Accounting Office (GAO), August 2000, Aviation and the
      Environment: Airport Operations and Future Growth Present Environmental
      Challenges.

      Grinspoon, David Harry, 1997, Venus Revealed: A New Look Below the Clouds
      of our Mysterious Twin Planet, Helix Books, Addison-Wesley Publishing
      Company, Inc..

      Intergovernmental Panel of Climate on Climate Change, 1996c, Climate
      Change 1995: Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change,
      contribution of Working Group III to the Second Assessment Report of the
      Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Ed. James P. Bruce, Hoesung
      Lee, and Erik F. Haites, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

      Iltis, Hugh, Wisconsin Public Radio Interview with Tom Clark, April 22,
      2000.
      King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1998, The Autobiography of Martin Luther King,
      Jr., edited by Clayborne Carsen, Intellectual Properties Management,
      Inc., in association with Warner Books.

      McCullough, Jennifer, December, 1999, YES! A Journal of Positive Futures,
      �Are You Kyoto Cool?.

      National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2000, finding of NOAA
      scientists reported by H. Josef Herbert, Associated Press, in Wisconsin
      State Journal,
      March 24, 2000, pg. 6A.

      Neuman, Michael T., June 6, 2000, E-mail Memo to globalwarming@....

      Neuman, Patrick J., June 8, 2000, Calls for Global Warming Awareness,
      Chanhassen Villager.

      New Dream, June 2000, �Cold Wash and Line Dry�, Step by Step No. 9,
      http://www.newdream.org.

      Newman, Judy, May 18, 2000, �Alliant Reflects on a Positive Year with
      Eyes to a Global Goal�, Wisconsin State Journal.

      Population Reference Bureau, June 16, 2000, e-mail memo from Zuali
      Malsawmal, to author.

      Ruckelshaus, William, D., September 1989, �Toward a Sustainable World�,
      in Scientific American, pages 166-174.

      Schipper, Lee; Steiner, Ruth; Meyers, Stephen, 1993, �Transportation and
      Global Climate Change�, American Council for An Energy-Efficient Economy,
      Washington D.C..

      Shindell, 2000, in Wisconsin State Journal, May 22, 2000, Section 11A
      Wampler, Allen, J., 2000, in Wisconsin State Journal, May 22, 2000,
      Section 11A.

      U.S. Department of Energy, May 31, 2000, �Energy Efficiency Tips�,
      Internet, www.doe.gov/tipsheet.htm.

      U. S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics,
      1999 and 1997 Washington D.C..

      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000, Internet,
      www.epa.gov/globalwarming.

      Worrest, Robert C., 2000, U.S. Global Change Research Information Office,
      E-mail to Michael Neuman, 27 March 2000.

      Wills, Diane, 2000, E-mail to Michael Neuman, 6 June 2000.

      Wisconsin Department of Transportation, 1999, Wisconsin State Highway
      Plan 2020.

      Wisconsin Energy Bureau, 1999, Wisconsin Energy Statistics.

      Wisconsin Energy Bureau, no date, bookmarks, �10 Energy Saving Tips�.

      Wisconsin Legislative Reference Bureau, 1999, �1999-2000 Blue Book�.

      U.S. Department of Energy, 2000, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement
      Program, Oceanic Properties, http://www.arm.gov..

      Appendix A: Tables

      Table 1. Wisconsin Population and VMT in 1998 in Comparison to
      Population and VMT in 1970.

      YearPopulation (Millions)VMT (Billions)VMT per PersonVMT per Family of
      419704.421.874,97019,88019985.250.49,69238,976Difference.828.54,72219,096
      Increase18%130%95%95%
      Population Source: Wisconsin Legislative Reference Bureau, State of
      Wisconsin 1999-2000 Blue Book, 1999.

      VMT = Vehicle Mileage Traveled. Source: Wisconsin Department of
      Transportation, personnel communication, 1999.

      Table 2. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions from Personal Automobiles in
      1998 in Wisconsin Compared to CO2 Emissions from Personal Automobiles in
      Wisconsin in 1970.

      YearVMT (Billions) (Exc. Heavy Trucks)Average Miles Per Gallon of
      Gasoline1Gallons of Gasoline (Billions)CO2 Emissions (Millions of
      Tons)2197021.8713.61.6117.7199850.421.52.3425.7Difference 28.8 7.9
      .738.0Increase132%46%45%45%

      Table 3. Financial Incentives for Typical Wisconsin Households Based on
      Recorded Vehicle Miles Traveled Over a 1-year Period

      Financial Incentives (Annual Rewards)
      $400 $1,200 $2,000
      Household SizeTotal Annual MilesTotal Annual MilesTotal Annual Miles1
      person6,0004,0002,0002 people, one drives7,5005,0002,5003 people, one
      drives9,0006,0003,0002 people, both drive10,5008,7503,5003 people, 2
      drive12,0008,0004,0004 people, 2 drive13,5009,0004,5005 people, 2
      drive15,00010,0005,000
      Payment awarded based on a maximum of 5 persons per household.
      Person must be 18 years old to receive payment and identified �head of
      household�.
      No extra mileage credit allocated for vacations, out of state travel, or
      business use of personal vehicles.
      Ownership of a vehicle or possession of a driver�s license is not
      required for receiving non-driver reward, but person must be a Wisconsin
      resident.

      Table 4. Ways to Reduce Vehicle Miles Traveled1

      At Home At Work By Others
      Seek Out Rides with Others Going to Same LocationsUse Teleconferencing
      Whenever PossibleOffer Rides to Others, or to Pick Up Goods at Stores for
      Others in NeighborhoodWork at Home or at a Nearby �Satellite� Office
      Whenever Possible (if Driving is Otherwise Required)Choose Meeting
      Locations to Minimize Overall Travel by Meeting ParticipantsBuy Locally
      Produced ProductsUse Non-Motorized Transportation or Walk Whenever
      Possible, Otherwise Take TransitReserve the Smallest Number of Transport
      Vehicles Possible Choose Products Having Less PackagingMove Residency
      Location if Work Location is Unlikely to Change Frequently and Driving or
      Carpooling is Always RequiredAlways Select Conference Sites and Building
      Locations (& Designs) Having Pedestrian, Transit Access and Bicycling
      (Plus Parking & Shower) Facilities Avoid Buying Unneeded Products, and
      Encourage Others to Avoid Buying Unneeded Products, Too.Minimize VMT by
      Choosing Places to Shop, Recreate, and Work that are Closer to
      HomeEncourage Employees to Work at Home, or to Use Satellite Offices,
      Whenever PossibleProactively Encourage Coordinated Transportation to Any
      Events You Participate In

      Table 5. Relative Transportation Mode Fossil Fuel Efficiencies1

      Auto 1.00 (Ref.)Rail .48
      Inter-city Bus 2.20 Airline
      .92Bicycling Walking 0.00

      Table 6. Payment Schedule for Low Airplane Miles Traveled Per Person

      PaymentYearly Threshold (Miles Traveled)$2,800
      0$2,400100$2,000200$1,600300$1,200400$800500$400600

      Table 7. Wisconsin Residential Energy Consumption by Fuel Type, 1998

      PetroleumNatural GasCoalElectricity1Total End Use2Total Resource
      Use3Trillions of Btu Used33.9117.7.459.4211.4343.1Percent of Total Energy
      End Use16%56%<.128%100%162%Per Capita Use (In
      Therms)64.8224.8.7113.5403.9655.5
      Therm = 100,000 Btu
      Source: Wisconsin Energy Bureau, Wisconsin Energy Statistics, p.14, 1999.
      Wisconsin Population: 5,234,350 (Wis. Legislative Reference Bureau
      (1999))

      Table 8. Payment Schedule for Low Household Annual Energy Use

      PaymentNumber of Persons in HouseholdYearly Energy Use Threshold
      (therms)$2,80010$2,80020$2,80030$2,80040$2,80050$2,4001100$2,4002125$2,40
      03150$2,4004175$2,4005200$2,0001200$2,0002250$2,0003300$2,0004350$2,00054
      00$1,6001300$1,6002375$1,6003450$1,6004525$1,6005600$1,2001400$1,2002500$
      1,2003600$1,2004700$1,2005800$8001500$8002625$8003750$8004875$80051,000$4
      001600$4002750$4003900$40041,050$40051,200

      Table 9. Payment Schedule for Low Household Annual VMT - One Driver

      PaymentNumber of Persons in HouseholdYearly VMT Threshold
      (Miles)$2,8001 0$2,8002 0$2,80030$2,8004 0$2,80050$2,4001 Less than
      1,000$2,4002 Less than 1,250$2,4003 Less than 1,500$2,4004 Less than
      1,750$2,4005Less than 2,000$2,0001 Less than 2,000$2,0002 Less than
      2,500$2,0003 Less than 3,000$2,0004Less than 3,500$2,0005Less than
      4,000$1,6001 Less than 3,000$1,6002 Less than 3,700$1,6003 Less than
      4,500$1,6004 Less than 5,250$1,6005Less than 6,000$1,2001 Less than
      4,000$1,2002 Less than 5,000$1,2003 Less than 6,000$1,2004 Less than
      7,000$1,2005Less than 8,000$8001 Less than 5,000$8002 Less than
      6,200 $8003 Less than 7,250$8004 Less than 8,750$8005Less than
      10,000$4001 Less than 6,000$400 $4002 3 Less than 7,500 Less than
      9,000$4004 Less than 10,500$4005 Less than 12,000

      Table 10. Payment Schedule for Low Household Annual VMT - 2 Drivers

      PaymentNumber of Persons in HouseholdYearly VMT Threshold
      (Miles) $2,8002 0$2,8003 0$2,8004 0$2,8005 0$2,4002 Less than
      1,750$2,4003 Less than 2,000$2,4004 Less than 2,250$2,4005 Less than
      2,500$2,0002 Less than 3,500$2,0003 Less than 4,000$2,0004 Less than
      4,500$2,0005 Less than 5,000$1,6002 Less than 5,250$1,6003 Less than
      6,000$1,6004 Less than 6,750$1,6005 Less than 7,500$1,2002 Less than
      7,000$1,2003 Less than 8,000$1,2004 Less than 9,000$1,2005 Less than
      10,000$8002 Less than 8,750$8003 Less than 10,000 $8004 Less than
      11,250$8005 Less than 12,500$4002 Less than 10,500$4003 Less than
      12,000$4004 Less than 13,500$4005 Less than 15,000

      Table 11. Payment Schedule for Low Household Annual VMT - 3 Drivers

      PaymentNumber of Persons in HouseholdYearly VMT Threshold
      (Miles)$2,8003 0$2,8004 0$2,8005 0$2,4003 Less than 2,500$2,4004 Less
      than 2,750$2,4005 Less than 3,000$2,0003Less than 5,000$2,0004 Less
      than 5,500$2,0005 Less than 6,000$1,6003 Less than 7,500$1,6004
      Less than 8,250$1,6005 Less than 9,000$1,2003 Less than 10,000
      $1,2004 Less than 11,000$1,2005 Less than 12,000$8003 Less than 12,500
      $8004 Less than 13,750$8005 Less than 15,000$4003 Less than
      15,000$4004 Less than 16,000$4005 Less than 18,000

      Table 12. Payment Schedule for Low Household Annual VMT - 4 Drivers

      PaymentNumber of Persons in HouseholdYearly VMT Threshold
      (Miles)$2,8004 0$2,8005 0$2,4004 Less than 3,250$2,4005 Less than
      3,500$2,0004 Less than 6,500$2,0005 Less than 6,700$1,6004 Less than
      9,750$1,6005 Less than 10,000$1,2004 Less than 13,000$1,2005 Less than
      13,250$8004 Less than 16,250$8005 Less than 16,500$4004 Less than
      19,500$4005 Less than 19,750

      Table 13. Payment Schedule for Low Household Annual VMT - 5 Drivers

      PaymentNumber of Persons in HouseholdYearly VMT Threshold
      (Miles)$2,8005 0$2,4005 Less than 4,000$2,0005 Less than 8,000$1,6005
      Less than 12,000$1,2005 Less than 16,000$8005 Less than 20,000$4005 Less
      than 24,000

      Table 14. World and United States Population for 19th, 20th and 21st
      Century

      Year World Population U.S. Population
      18041 Billion -
      19001,650,000,00076,094,00019272 Billion
      -19502,521,000,000152,271,41719603 Billion -19744 Billion
      - 19875 Billion -19996 Billion
      -20006,067,000,000274,114,00020137 Billion -20288 Billion
      -20508,909,000,000403,687,00020549 Billion
      -21009,459,000,000570,954,000

      Appendix B: Transportation, Home and Recreation Energy Conservation
      Measures

      Energy Using Transportation Reduction Measures

      1. Take vacations near home.

      2. When you must drive to get necessities, plan errands to minimize
      driving. Plan shopping so you can get all your groceries in one week.

      3. Buy a fuel-efficient car. Better yet, buy a bike - and use it
      regularly, or wake or take a bus when it is important that you travel
      longer distances.

      4. Move closer in to where you normally must travel to, so you can
      either bike safely or walk more places more often.

      5. Don't move far away from your family if you are close to them, so you
      don't have to fly in during holidays to see them every year. Or if you
      are far away from them, consider moving back to where they are.

      Buy liquids in condensed forms when possible. It saves room in the
      refrigerator, and
      limits the amount of trips necessary to the grocery store.

      7. Avoid purchasing products such as bottled water, beer, pop, liquor
      and other commodities in non-recyclable plastic containers. Not only is
      excess energy burned in transporting the water in those products to the
      grocery store, but there is also energy burned in producing the plastic
      containers for these products, and in transporting and disposing of the
      containers.

      Conserving Energy in the Home: Lighting and Windows

      Install screw-in fluorescent bulbs (compact fluorescent), where
      practical.
      Replace two 60-watt incandescent bulbs with one 100-watt bulb (same
      amount of light).
      Clean light fixtures (dirt reduces light output).
      Turn off lights in parts of the house not in use.
      Limit number, number of days used, and duration of operation of
      holiday/festival lights.
      Long-life incandescence is less efficient than standard incandescence.
      Use �task lights� to provide light where you need it; reduce background
      light levels.
      Chose light colored rooms and ceilings over dark colored ones; white
      ceilings reflect light back into room.
      Use natural daylighting; one 3� by 5 � window can let in more light than
      100 standard 60-what bulbs.
      Organize rooms for maximum use of daylighting to reduce need for
      artificial lighting.
      Ways to improve the energy saving potential of older windows include
      caulking, weather-stripping, replacing sashes and re-glazing.
      Increasing the number of �glazings� (layers of glass) increases the
      energy saving potential.
      Adding plastic film to the outside of windows, or insulated window
      coverings to the inside of windows, increase the energy saving potential.
      New windows should have at least an R-3 insulating value.
      Awnings, overhangs and sunscreens reduce summer heat gain through windows
      by up to 90 percent, while still letting in light. Drapes left open
      around windows where the sun shines into homes (south and west-facing
      side of house) can make air conditioners work 2 to 3 times harder.
      Shut air conditioning vents and close doors in areas not in use, or used
      infrequently.
      Change air conditioner and furnace filters when dirty.
      Turn off lights when not needed for considerable length of time (longer
      period okay for florescent lights, but turn off overnight).

      Conserving Energy in the Home: Remodeling and Building Decisions

      Make sure there is sufficient levels of insulation: at least R-44 in
      roof or attic; R-23 in outside facing walls; R-19 in box sill; and R-10
      around foundation.
      Install a continuous air infiltration barrier.
      Design rooms to take advantage of daylighting.
      Install energy efficient fluorescent light fixtures, where possible.
      Build vestibules for outside doors.
      Install high efficiency condensing furnace with outside combustion air
      and exhaust.
      Select an insulated outside door of R-5 or greater.
      Choose low-E glass for the windows.
      When landscaping, consider planting trees to shade house in summer, and
      to serve as
      windbreaks (especially north side of house) in winter. [Trees also
      sequester carbon dioxide, a �greenhouse gas�, from of the Earth�s
      atmosphere.]
      10. Choose an appropriately sized home for the number of persons who will
      live in the
      home 12 months out of the year. Avoid building and buying a home much
      larger than needed for the residents to live comfortably.
      Avoid building and buying a home on a much larger sized lot than is
      needed by the persons who plan to live in the home. More energy will be
      required to maintain the property (cut lawn, bushes, etc.); and the
      placement of numerous homes on large lots ultimately contributes to
      unnecessary and energy inefficient �sprawling out� of neighborhoods,
      cities and villages.

      Conserving Energy in the Home: Appliances and Heating/Air Conditioning

      When (or before) hot water heater needs replacing, install a natural gas
      water heater with an energy factor of greater than 0.58.
      When (or before) furnace needs replacing, install high efficiency
      condensing furnace with outside combustion air and exhaust.
      When (or before) appliances need replacing, purchase (or ask landlord to
      purchase) high efficiency appliances.
      When (or before) air conditioner needs replacing, install a high
      efficiency air conditioner (if air conditioning considered necessary).
      When washing clothes, wash dark and colored clothes in cold water (to
      avoid using energy for heating the water).
      When drying clothes, line dry them to avoid using the energy in drying
      them in the dryer.
      When conditioning the air, use portable, ceiling and/or whole house attic
      fans for cooling over air conditioning, whenever possible. Less
      electricity is used in operating fans.
      Insulate water heater, insulate pipes, install low-flow shower head, set
      water heater temperature at 120 degrees F.
      In summer, do not run the air conditioner when no one is at home, and
      when someone is home, run the air conditioner only when necessary and
      turn it off completely on cooler nights.
      In winter: keep the thermostat below 60 degrees F. when you are no one is
      home, and turn it down for nighttime hours. Make sure all the windows
      and doors are sealed, and cover the air conditioner with plastic or
      remove it from the window completely. Wear sweaters to allow for lower
      comfortable temperature settings during the daytime hours.

      Participate Only in Low-Energy Consuming Recreational Activities

      1. Choose recreational activities that do not rely heavily on burning of
      fossil fuels or electricity consumption. If one want to be truly energy
      wise and slow global warming for everyone, the following heavily energy
      depended recreational activities should be avoided completely:
      snowmobiling (for recreation purposes); all terrain vehicle riding; motor
      boating; jet skiing; motorcycle riding; recreational flying; going on
      heavily energy using carnival rides.

      2. Avoid participation in activities or sports that require lots of
      travel. If travel is required, it is usually more efficient to travel by
      bus or train, then to fly or take personal transportation. If personal
      transportation is required, coordinate rides to insure the minimum number
      of vehicles are taken to any recreational event.

      Do not cater to events or festivities that burn large amount of energy
      for primarily
      enjoyment viewing. Examples of these activities include auto racing,
      motorcycle racing, boat racing, airplane shows, tractor pulls and
      fireworks displays.

      >
      Appendix B: Transportation, Home and Recreation Energy Conservation
      Measures

      Energy Using Transportation Reduction Measures

      1. Take vacations near home.

      2. When you must drive to get necessities, plan errands to minimize
      driving. Plan shopping so you can get all your groceries in one week.

      3. Buy a fuel-efficient car. Better yet, buy a bike - and use it
      regularly, or wake or take a bus when it is important that you travel
      longer distances.

      4. Move closer in to where you normally must travel to, so you can
      either bike safely or walk more places more often.

      5. Don't move far away from your family if you are close to them, so you
      don't have to fly in during holidays to see them every year. Or if you
      are far away from them, consider moving back to where they are.

      Buy liquids in condensed forms when possible. It saves room in the
      refrigerator, and
      limits the amount of trips necessary to the grocery store.

      7. Avoid purchasing products such as bottled water, beer, pop, liquor
      and other commodities in non-recyclable plastic containers. Not only is
      excess energy burned in transporting the water in those products to the
      grocery store, but there is also energy burned in producing the plastic
      containers for these products, and in transporting and disposing of the
      containers.

      Conserving Energy in the Home: Lighting and Windows

      Install screw-in fluorescent bulbs (compact fluorescent), where
      practical.
      Replace two 60-watt incandescent bulbs with one 100-watt bulb (same
      amount of light).
      Clean light fixtures (dirt reduces light output).
      Turn off lights in parts of the house not in use.
      Limit number, number of days used, and duration of operation of
      holiday/festival lights.
      Long-life incandescence is less efficient than standard incandescence.
      Use �task lights� to provide light where you need it; reduce background
      light levels.
      Chose light colored rooms and ceilings over dark colored ones; white
      ceilings reflect light back into room.
      Use natural daylighting; one 3� by 5 � window can let in more light than
      100 standard 60-what bulbs.
      Organize rooms for maximum use of daylighting to reduce need for
      artificial lighting.
      Ways to improve the energy saving potential of older windows include
      caulking, weather-stripping, replacing sashes and re-glazing.
      Increasing the number of �glazings� (layers of glass) increases the
      energy saving potential.
      Adding plastic film to the outside of windows, or insulated window
      coverings to the inside of windows, increase the energy saving potential.
      New windows should have at least an R-3 insulating value.
      Awnings, overhangs and sunscreens reduce summer heat gain through windows
      by up to 90 percent, while still letting in light. Drapes left open
      around windows where the sun shines into homes (south and west-facing
      side of house) can make air conditioners work 2 to 3 times harder.
      Shut air conditioning vents and close doors in areas not in use, or used
      infrequently.
      Change air conditioner and furnace filters when dirty.
      Turn off lights when not needed for considerable length of time (longer
      period okay for florescent lights, but turn off overnight).

      Conserving Energy in the Home: Remodeling and Building Decisions

      Make sure there is sufficient levels of insulation: at least R-44 in
      roof or attic; R-23 in outside facing walls; R-19 in box sill; and R-10
      around foundation.
      Install a continuous air infiltration barrier.
      Design rooms to take advantage of daylighting.
      Install energy efficient fluorescent light fixtures, where possible.
      Build vestibules for outside doors.
      Install high efficiency condensing furnace with outside combustion air
      and exhaust.
      Select an insulated outside door of R-5 or greater.
      Choose low-E glass for the windows.
      When landscaping, consider planting trees to shade house in summer, and
      to serve as
      windbreaks (especially north side of house) in winter. [Trees also
      sequester carbon dioxide, a �greenhouse gas�, from of the Earth�s
      atmosphere.]
      10. Choose an appropriately sized home for the number of persons who will
      live in the
      home 12 months out of the year. Avoid building and buying a home much
      larger than needed for the residents to live comfortably.
      Avoid building and buying a home on a much larger sized lot than is
      needed by the persons who plan to live in the home. More energy will be
      required to maintain the property (cut lawn, bushes, etc.); and the
      placement of numerous homes on large lots ultimately contributes to
      unnecessary and energy inefficient �sprawling out� of neighborhoods,
      cities and villages.

      Conserving Energy in the Home: Appliances and Heating/Air Conditioning

      When (or before) hot water heater needs replacing, install a natural gas
      water heater with an energy factor of greater than 0.58.
      When (or before) furnace needs replacing, install high efficiency
      condensing furnace with outside combustion air and exhaust.
      When (or before) appliances need replacing, purchase (or ask landlord to
      purchase) high efficiency appliances.
      When (or before) air conditioner needs replacing, install a high
      efficiency air conditioner (if air conditioning considered necessary).
      When washing clothes, wash dark and colored clothes in cold water (to
      avoid using energy for heating the water).
      When drying clothes, line dry them to avoid using the energy in drying
      them in the dryer.
      When conditioning the air, use portable, ceiling and/or whole house attic
      fans for cooling over air conditioning, whenever possible. Less
      electricity is used in operating fans.
      Insulate water heater,insulate pipes,install low-flow shower head,set
      water heater temperature at 120 degrees F.
      In summer, do not run the air conditioner when no one is at home, and
      when someone is home, run the air conditioner only when necessary and
      turn it off completely on cooler nights.
      In winter: keep the thermostat below 60 degrees F. when you are no one is
      home, and turn it down for nighttime hours. Make sure all the windows
      and doors are sealed, and cover the air conditioner with plastic or
      remove it from the window completely. Wear sweaters to allow for lower
      comfortable temperature settings during the daytime hours.

      Participate Only in Low-Energy Consuming Recreational Activities

      1. Choose recreational activities that do not rely heavily on burning of
      fossil fuels or electricity consumption. If one want to be truly energy
      wise and slow global warming for everyone, the following heavily energy
      depended recreational activities should be avoided completely:
      snowmobiling (for recreation purposes); all terrain vehicle riding; motor
      boating; jet skiing; motorcycle riding; recreational flying; going on
      heavily energy using carnival rides.

      2. Avoid participation in activities or sports that require lots of
      travel. If travel is required, it is usually more efficient to travel by
      bus or train, then to fly or take personal transportation. If personal
      transportation is required, coordinate rides to insure the minimum number
      of vehicles are taken to any recreational event.

      Do not cater to events or festivities that burn large amount of energy
      for primarily
      enjoyment viewing. Examples of these activities include auto racing,
      motorcycle racing, boat racing, airplane shows, tractor pulls and
      fireworks displays.

      end

      fwd by:
      Pat Neuman
      npat1@...
      Twin Cities


      ________________________________________________________________
      The best thing to hit the internet in years - Juno SpeedBand!
      Surf the web up to FIVE TIMES FASTER!
      Only $14.95/ month - visit www.juno.com to sign up today!
    Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.