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Special Report - Air Temperatures & Dew Points - Great Lakes States

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  • npat1@juno.com
    Special Report - Air Temperatures & Dew Points - Great Lakes States April 16, 2003 Great Lakes States: Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio,
    Message 1 of 1 , Apr 16 11:20 AM
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      Special Report - Air Temperatures & Dew Points - Great Lakes States

      April 16, 2003

      Great Lakes States: Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana,
      Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York.

      A five year interval was chosen for this study due to the high annual
      variability in temperatures and humidity, due to highly variable
      atmospheric, oceanographic, and other conditions.

      AIR TEMPERATURES
      Temperature data at climate stations within the Great Lakes States are
      shown in Table 1. The first column shows the 1998 through 2002 average
      annual temperatures for each station. The second column has historical
      average annual temperatures based on station records through 1997.
      Difference values between the periods are shown in the third column.
      The difference values varied from 1.1 degrees Fahrenheit (F) at
      Bellefontaine, Ohio to 3.6 degrees F at Spooner, Wisconsin.

      DEW POINTS
      Dew point data at airport stations within the Great Lakes States are
      shown in Table 2. The first column shows the 1998 through 2002 average
      annual dew points for each station. The second column has historical
      average annual dew points based on station records through 1997.
      Difference values between the periods are shown in the third column.
      The differences varied from 1.2 F at Columbus, Ohio to 3.8 F at
      International Falls, Minnesota.

      STATION SELECTION AND OTHER PROCEDURES
      For airport stations, all stations that had 50 or more years of record
      were included. Climate stations are sometimes called National Weather
      Service (NWS) cooperative stations. Cooperative observers for the NWS
      include other government people and private individuals (many farmers).

      For the Midwest, many cooperative observers began their record keeping
      in 1896. Most of the stations in the East (PA & NY) have records
      beginning in 1926. Stations were selected that had low percent missing
      monthly and annual data.

      Procedure:
      o Determine stations with highest quality data.
      o Make consistency plots for station temperatures.
      o For each station, determine temperature differences between
      average temperatures for 1998 through 2002 and average
      temperatures for historical periods. Historical periods run
      from the beginning of record through 1997). Use the differences
      for the stations with very high quality data to help in the
      selection of other stations.
      o Select stations for good distribution over Great Lakes States.
      o Make no or limited adjustments in data, use other stations instead.

      CONCLUSIONS
      Annual temperature data at climate stations in the Great Lakes States
      show that above average annual temperatures occurred from the 1920s
      through the 1950s and from the 1980s through the year 2002. Average
      five year annual temperatures for 1998 through 2002 were the highest
      of record at many NWS cooperative climate stations. The majority of
      the new record five year average temperatures were in the Western
      Great Lakes States (MN, WI, MI). The highest five year average
      temperatures at cooperative stations are shown in Table 3,provisional.

      Five year humidity levels (dew points) for 1998 through 2002 were the
      highest on record at all airport stations in all Great Lakes States.

      The airport station data shown in this report represent a large region
      of the United States. Near surface humidity has also been shown to
      have increased at Barrow, Alaska during the latest couple decades
      (Neuman post to Climate Change Debate Listserv, Jan 2003). The
      1998 through 2002 humidity has been shown to be higher than any
      other five year averages in the 1918 through 2002 record of humidity
      data at Minneapolis, MN.

      The largest increases in both temperatures and humidity for the
      Northeast, Midwest, and Northern Great Plains have been during
      Winter and early Spring months (Neuman, 2003: 1, 2).

      1. Neuman, 4 Mar 2003, Temperatures Rising in the Northeast,
      Midwest, & Northern Great Plains, Post at
      ClimateArchive@yahoogroups.com

      2. Neuman, Pat, May/June 2003 Wild Ones Journal, Native Plants,
      Natural Landscapes, "Using Juncos as "Canaries", to be
      available for distribution May 1, 2003.

      Wild Ones Journal, Native Plants, Natural Landscapes, is at:
      http://www.for-wild.org

      Monthly dew point data for stations used in this report are at:
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ClimateArchiveTwo

      One of the largest global climate warming fingerprints is that
      near surface atmospheric humidity (dew points) is increasing.
      The increase in dew points at stations in this report (Table 2)
      cannot be a result of increasing evaporation from irrigation
      because no irrigation occurs during the Winter and early Spring
      in this area (Great Lakes-Midwest and Great Plains). It is
      nearly certain that the increase in humidity, especially during the
      1998 through 2002 period, was due to increasing evaporation
      and transpiration (longer growing seasons) due to global
      climate warming caused by the accumulation of a higher
      concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and,
      the higher humidity associated with the 1997-1998 powerful
      El Nino. Warmer ocean waters and strong El Ninos, and other
      warm ocean water oscillations, are linked to having a warmer
      overall global climate. As greenhouse gases continue to
      accumulate in the atmosphere and as ocean waters continue
      to warm, the buildup of warmth on the planet will continue.
      The warmth will not be variable as are local and regional
      day to day and year to year temperature variations.

      Summary tables follow. Data Tables are at:
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ClimateArchiveTwo

      Table 1 Five Year Average Temperature Differences (F)

      Cooperative Climate Stations

      9802 - AvgTemp TempDiff : Cooperative Station (Begin of record)
      49.9 - - 48.0 - - 1.9 - : Mount Carroll IL (1898)
      55.6 - - 53.4 - - 2.2 - : Windsor IL (1904)
      54.8 - - 53.4 - - 1.4 - : Columbus IN (1901)
      52.1 - - 50.7 - - 1.4 - : Marion IN (1901)
      50.6 - - 48.7 - - 1.9 - : Adrian 2 NNE MI (1888)
      51.2 - - 49.3 - - 1.9 - : Benton Harbor MI (1893)
      49.6 - - 48.0 - - 1.6 - : Hastings MI (1893)
      46.4 - - 43.4 - - 3.0 - : West Branch 3 SE MI (1900)
      42.0 - - 40.5 - - 1.5 - : Ironwood MI (1901)
      41.8 - - 39.7 - - 2.1 - : Crookston NW Exp MN (1890)
      42.6 - - 39.2 - - 3.4 - : Grand Rapids Forestry MN (1915)
      46.1 - - 43.3 - - 2.8 - : New London MN (1896)
      41.7 - - 39.1 - - 2.6 - : Park Rapids 2 S MN (1893)
      46.3 - - 44.3 - - 2.0 - : Waseca Experimental MN (1915)
      45.5 - - 43.6 - - 1.9 - : Canton 3 SE NY (1922)
      51.6 - - 50.5 - - 1.1 - : Bellefontaine OH (1896)
      52.2 - - 50.1 - - 2.1 - : Kenton OH (1900)
      47.1 - - 45.9 - - 1.2 - : Ridgway PA (1926)
      48.8 - - 47.1 - - 1.7 - : Brodhead 1 SW WI (1898)
      45.2 - - 42.9 - - 2.3 - : Marshfield Exp Sta WI (1913)
      45.2 - - 43.8 - - 1.4 - : Oconto 4 W WI (1898)
      48.3 - - 46.6 - - 1.7 - : Portage, WI AVG (1896
      46.3 - - 43.8 - - 2.5 - : Sturgeon Bay WI (1901)
      45.6 - - 42.0 - - 3.6 - : Spooner WI (1896)
      48.6 - - 46.7 - - 1.9 - : Watertown, WI (1895)
      44.9 - - 41.6 - - 3.3 - : Weyerhauser (1906)
      - - - - - - - - - 1.1 - : Minimum
      - - - - - - - - - 3.6 - : Maximum

      Table 2: Five Year Average Dew Point and Temperature Differences (F)

      Airport Stations

      9802 - AvgDewp DewpDiff : 9802 - AvgTemp TempDiff : Airport station
      41.5 - - 39.1 - - 2.4 - : 51.6 - - 49.4 - - 2.5 : Chicago O'H IL(1959)
      42.5 - - 39.5 - - 3.0 - : 51.9 - - 50.0 - - 1.9 : Moline IL (1948)
      43.7 - - 40.9 - - 2.8 - : 52.9 - - 51.0 - - 1.9 : Peoria IL (1948)
      49.9 - - 48.1 - - 1.8 - : 49.9 - - 48.1 - - 1.7 : Rockford IL (1951)
      44.4 - - 42.6 - - 1.8 - : 53.8 - - 52.8 - - 1.0 : SpringfieldIL (1948)
      47.4 - - 45.5 - - 1.9 - : 57.1 - - 56.0 - - 1.1 : EvansvilleIN (1948)
      42.8 - - 40.6 - - 2.2 - : 51.4 - - 50.3 - - 1.1 : Fort WayneIN (1948)
      44.7 - - 42.7 - - 2.0 - : 54.2 - - 52.4 - - 1.8 : IndianapolisIN(1948)
      41.9 - - 40.4 - - 1.5 - : 51.3 - - 49.7 - - 1.6 : South Bend IN (1948)
      37.0 - - 34.5 - - 2.5 - : 45.5 - - 43.7 - - 1.8 : Alpena MI (1959)
      40.5 - - 38.9 - - 1.6 - : 52.4 - - 50.3 - - 2.1 : Detroit MI (1948)
      41.0 - - 38.2 - - 2.8 - : 49.5 - - 47.4 - - 2.1 : Flint MI (1948)
      41.2 - - 38.5 - - 2.7 - : 49.7 - - 47.8 - - 1.9 : Muskegon MI (1948)
      38.5 - - 36.2 - - 2.3 - : 47.6 - - 45.4 - - 2.2 : Traverse C MI(1948)
      31.9 - - 29.4 - - 2.5 - : 41.3 - - 38.7 - - 2.6 : Duluth MN (1948)
      31.6 - - 27.8 - - 3.8 - : 40.4 - - 37.4 - - 3.0 : Internat F.MN (1948)
      37.3 - - 34.2 - - 3.1 - : 47.9 - - 45.2 - - 2.7 : Minneapolis MN(1945)
      37.3 - - 34.7*- - 2.5*- : - - - - - - - - - - - : Minneapolis MN(1918)
      41.7 - - 39.7 - - 2.0 - : 52.4 - - 50.9 - - 1.5 : Pittsburgh PA (1948)
      43.1 - - 40.5 - - 2.6 - : 51.9 - - 50.3 - - 1.6 : Cleveland OH (1948)
      43.0 - - 41.8 - - 1.2 - : 53.3 - - 52.2 - - 1.2 : Columbus OH (1948)
      43.0 - - 41.5 - - 1.5 - : 53.2 - - 51.9 - - 1.3 : Dayton OH (1948)
      41.8 - - 39.9 - - 1.9 - : 51.7 - - 49.3 - - 2.4 : Toledo OH (1946)
      36.7 - - 34.0 - - 2.7 - : 46.8 - - 44.0 - - 2.8 : Eau Claire WI(1949)
      38.3 - - 35.4 - - 2.9 - : 46.6 - - 44.3 - - 2.3 : Green Bay WI (1949)
      38.9 - - 36.5 - - 2.4 - : 49.3 - - 46.4 - - 2.5 : La Crosse WI (1948)
      39.2 - - 36.7 - - 2.5 - : 48.5 - - 46.3 - - 2.2 : Madison WI (1948)
      40.1 - - 37.6 - - 2.5 - : 40.1 - - 37.6 - - 2.5 : Milwaukee WI (1948)
      - - - - - - - - - 1.2 - : - - - - - - - - - 1.0 : Minimum
      - - - - - - - - - 3.8 - : - - - - - - - - - 3.0 : Maximum

      * 1918 through 1944 annual dew points derived with relative humidity.
      Data from NWS and Federal Aviation Administration.
      Data obtained from Midwest Regional Climate Center, Springfield,IL.

      Table 3: Five Year Average Temperatures(F) - Highest of Record

      Cooperative Climate Stations

      9802 : High YrYr : Prev YrYr : Cooperative Climate Station
      49.9 : 50.2 3842 : --------- : Mount Carroll IL (1898)
      55.5 : new record: 44.9 3034 : Windsor IL (1904)
      54.8 : 56.0 3034 : --------- : Columbus IN (1901)
      52.1 : 52.7 3034 : --------- : Marion IN (1901)
      50.6 : 51.5 3034 : --------- : Adrian 2 NNE MI (1888)
      51.2 : tie record: 51.2 3034 : Benton Harbor MI (1893)
      49.6 : 50.4 3034 : --------- : Hastings MI (1893)
      46.4 : new record: 44.8 7175 : West Branch 3 SE MI (1900)
      42.0 : 42.5 3034 : --------- : Ironwood MI (1901)
      41.8 : new record: 41.6 3034 : Crookston NW Exp MN (1890)
      42.6 : new record: 40.0 3034 : Grand Rapids Forestry MN (1915)
      46.1 : 47.3 3034 : --------- : New London MN (1896)
      41.7 : new record: 40.7 3034 : Park Rapids 2 S MN (1893)
      46.3 : 47.3 3034 : --------- : Waseca Experimental MN (1915)
      45.5 : 46.0 4953 : --------- : Canton 3 SE NY (1922)
      51.6 : 52.3 3135 : --------- : Bellefontaine OH (1896)
      52.2 : new record: 51.5 8791 : Kenton OH (1900)
      47.1 : 48.4 4953 : --------- : Ridgway PA (1926)
      48.8 : 49.1 3034 : --------- : Brodhead 1 SW WI (1898)
      45.2 : tie record: 45.2 8690 : Marshfield Exp Sta WI (1913)
      45.4 : new record: 45.3 3034 : Oconto 4 W WI (1898)
      48.3 : 49.5 3034 : --------- : Portage, WI AVG (1896
      46.3 : new record: 45.5 8791 : Sturgeon Bay WI (1901)
      45.6 : new record: 43.7 8488: Spooner WI (1896)
      48.6 : 49.0 3034 : --------- : Watertown, WI (1895)
      44.9 : new record: 43.6 8791 : Weyerhauser (1906)

      Note: the number of stations in tables 1 and 3 are provisional.

      Data are at: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ClimateArchiveTwo
      Special Report at: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ClimateArchive

      Pat Neuman, Hydrologist-personal study
      Chanhassen, Minnesota, npat1@...

      >

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