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Fw: Feedbacks and the coevolution of plants and atmospheric CO2 (abstract)

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  • Pat Neuman
    http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/102/5/1302 Published online before print January 24, 2005, 10.1073/pnas.0408724102 PNAS | February 1, 2005 | vol. 102
    Message 1 of 1 , Mar 4, 2005
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      http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/102/5/1302

      Published online before print January 24, 2005, 10.1073/pnas.0408724102
      PNAS | February 1, 2005 | vol. 102 | no. 5 | 1302-1305

      GEOLOGY
      Feedbacks and the coevolution of plants and atmospheric CO2

      David J. Beerling *, {dagger} and Robert A. Berner {ddagger}

      *Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield S10 2TN, United Kingdom; and {ddagger}Department of Geology
      and Geophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208109, New Haven, CT 06520-8109

      Contributed by Robert A. Berner, November 23, 2004

      The coupled evolution of land plants, CO2, and climate over the last
      half billion years has maintained atmospheric CO2 concentrations
      within finite limits, indicating the involvement of a complex network
      of geophysiological feedbacks. But insight into this important
      regulatory network is extremely limited. Here we present a systems
      analysis of the physiological and geochemical processes involved,
      identifying new positive and negative feedbacks between plants and CO2
      on geological time scales. Positive feedbacks accelerated falling CO2
      concentrations during the evolution and diversification of terrestrial
      ecosystems in the Paleozoic and enhanced rising CO2 concentrations
      across the Triassic–Jurassic boundary during flood basalt eruptions.
      The existence of positive feedbacks reveals the unexpected
      destabilizing influence of the biota in climate regulation that led to
      environmental modifications accelerating rates of terrestrial plant
      and animal evolution in the Paleozoic.

      carbon dioxide | climate | land plant evolution | stomatal density |
      weathering

      Abbreviations: NFL, negative feedback loop; PFL, positive feedback loop.

      {dagger} To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail:
      d.j.beerling@....

      © 2005 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA



      --- In Paleontology_and_Climate_Articles@yahoogroups.com, Sonya
      <msredsonya@e...> wrote:
      The Carbon Sequestration Newsletter March 2005

      This newsletter is produced by the National Energy Technology Laboratory
      to provide information on recent activities and publications related to
      carbon sequestration. It covers domestic, international, public sector,
      and private sector news in four areas:

      *Sequestration in the News
      *Events
      *Recent Publications
      *Legislative Activity

      Sequestration in the News

      Fortune, "OLD KING COAL COMES BACK." Article contends that coal is here
      to stay despite the focus on other sources of energy over the last half
      of the last century. Provides insight into the coal mining operations
      of the Powder River Basin, focusing on mining and transportation.
      Article also distinguishes between eastern and western coal and
      highlights maintenance issues and technological advancements related to
      the burning of western coal. IGCC is discussed in the context of global
      warming. Said William Reilly, former EPA administrator, "Coal
      gasification, when combined with carbon sequestration, has the potential
      to revolutionize energy production." February 21, 2005,
      http://www.wbcsd.org/plugins/DocSearch/details.asp?type=DocDet&ObjectId=13259



      CBC News, "APACHE TO SPEND $95M TO FLUSH OUT OIL WITH CO2." Apache
      Canada Ltd. is planning a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project using
      anthropogenic CO2. The project is located in Southeast Saskatchewan, in
      the same region of Canada that contains the Weyburn Field, and will tap
      into the pipeline running up from Dakota Gasification. The provincial
      Industry and Resources Department said it encouraged the Apache project
      by offering breaks on taxes and royalties. Even with those breaks, the
      government says, it hopes to collect an additional $106 million in
      royalties and taxes over the life of the project (incremental oil
      production estimated to be 45 million barrels over 25 years). The
      article states, "The government says the process is safe, referring to a
      recent scientific study that projected only about 0.2 percent of the CO2
      stored underground would leak out into the atmosphere over 5,000
      years." February 23, 2005,
      http://sask.cbc.ca/regional/servlet/View?filename=midal!
      e-project050223

      The Wall Street Journal, "BURIAL PLAN." Highlights a geologic CO2
      sequestration project, InSalah, being undertaken by BP in a remote
      region of Algeria. One million tons of CO2 will be captured from a
      natural gas processing plant and re-injected into the natural
      gas-bearing formation. The cost of the CO2 capture and compression
      equipment was $100 million. A history of the project is given, planning
      for CO2 injection began in 1997. Also, strategies for CO2 injection and
      practical hurdles including land access for injection wells and
      compressor breakdowns are related. February 4, 2005,
      http://online.wsj.com/public/us (subscription required).

      The Guardian, "CO2 GASES MAY BE BURIED AT SEA." The UK's chief
      scientist Sir David King, speaking at a climate change conference
      revealed the British plan to capture carbon dioxide and pump it
      underground as one of the potential ways of solving a global problem.
      He also raised concerns that the Chinese were building a large number of
      coal-fired power stations which would make the problem worse. He said
      he had asked the Chinese authorities to design the new stations so that
      if the British carbon sequestration scheme worked, the technology to
      capture carbon dioxide could be fitted to the Chinese stations. Said
      Sir David, "The North Sea scheme is an experiment to see if oil wells
      that are running out could be utilized to store carbon dioxide deep
      underground. The gas would be taken in tankers to the oilfields and
      pumped under pressure into the oil wells, which would turn it into a
      liquid and force out the oil. In the longer term, if the experiment was
      successful, the worl!
      d would soon run out of oil wells for all the carbon dioxide being
      produced. There were, however, many salt water aquifers in the world
      into which carbon dioxide could be pumped. Producers who wanted to
      continue using coal and gas could use this method to dispose of the
      carbon dioxide and their businesses would pay for the costs." February
      3, 2005, http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,3604,1404644,00.html

      Scientific American, "CAPTURING CARBON DIOXIDE." Article discusses the
      potential of carbon capture and storage (CCS) to cut emissions of carbon
      dioxide in light of the Kyoto Protocol coming into force on February
      16th. Sleipner and Weyburn are cited as examples of commercially viable
      CCS operations, but the article is quick to point out that CCS is
      expensive. "There's still a gap between the marketplace and the
      technology," says Howard Herzog of the Laboratory for Energy and the
      Environment at MIT. The best way to make CCS cheaper is for government
      to provide incentives to use it, asserts David Hawkins of NRDC.
      "Learning by doing is the thing that drives the cost down, not R&D
      dollars," he adds. DOE carbon sequestration program manager, Scott
      Klara says he is confident that even for traditional coal plants the
      cost of CCS can be reduced to $20 per ton. February 14, 2005,
      http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?chanID=sa004&articleID=0000492C-072B-120D-872B83414B7F013B



      Islam-online.net, "HORRORS OF GLOBAL WARMING HIGHLIGHTED." According to
      conference participants, global warming would boost outbreaks of
      infectious disease, worsen shortages of water and food in vulnerable
      countries and create an army of climate refugees fleeing uninhabitable
      regions. Scientists even gave a detailed timetable of the destruction
      and distress that global warming is likely to cause to the world. The
      conference, however, ended on a positive note, with the forum showing
      how far the argument for carbon sequestration has come, with a series of
      experts insisting it can be transformed from fiction to fact. February
      3, 2005,
      http://www.islam-online.net/English/News/2005-02/03/article08.shtml

      The Daily Texan, "SOLUTION TO WARMING: GO UNDERGROUND." The article
      highlights the Frio project and efforts to model CO2 storage in geologic
      formations. The articles states, "One way to reduce these [greenhouse
      gas] emissions is to drill wells deep into the Earth's crust and pump
      pressurized carbon dioxide into salt water aquifers, where it is
      sequestered for geologic time scales. This might sound bizarre, but
      researchers feel it is a viable option." Justin Ferrell, a researcher
      at the University of Texas has performed modeling, simulations, and cost
      analyses of geologic storage and is quoted, "The cost is about $1.15 per
      ton of carbon dioxide, surface to ground. Surface to ground means the
      price to put the gas down there - any other significant cost is from the
      pipelines to get the carbon dioxide to the well." February 22, 2005,
      http://www.dailytexanonline.com/news/2005/02/22/Focus/Solution.To.Warming.Go.Underground-872198.shtml



      E/The Environmental Magazine, "HIDING THE BAD GAS." Says Einar
      Haandlkken from the Oslo-based environmental group Zero, "Reducing the
      world's dependency on fossil fuels will take too long. We don't have
      enough time to do this because we need to cut greenhouse gases
      immediately." Zero is working with Norway's oil and power industry to
      remove millions of tons of CO2 from Norway's fossil-fuelled power plants
      and pipe them deep under the North Sea into old and existing oil
      fields. January/February 2005, http://www.emagazine.com/view/?2167

      Oil & Gas Journal, "ACID-GAS INJECTION DUE AT LABARGE PLANT."
      ExxonMobil Corp. has drilled two wells with state and US Environmental
      Protection Agency approval to be used to inject a combined 60-67 MMcfd
      of 65% CO2 and 35% H2S below the Madison gas-water contact at 17,500
      ft. Injecting the H2S will allow the company to shut down the aging
      sulfur recovery unit, which has high operating and maintenance costs,
      and exit the weak market for sulfur. Of the plant's output of 250 MMcfd
      of CO2, 80% is sold to three operators of enhanced oil recovery projects
      in Wyoming and Colorado. Anadarko Petroleum Corp. expects to take
      nearly all of the rest of the available CO2 when it boosts injection
      into its Salt Creek and West Sussex oil fields in the Powder River basin
      later this year. January 28, 2005,
      http://ogj.pennnet.com/articles/article_display.cfm?article_id=220352&x=y
      (subscription required)

      Fuel Cell Works, "AGNI RECEIVES ORDER FOR 1MW INTEGRATED FUEL CELL
      ENGINE POWER PLANT." Agni Inc. confirmed receiving an order for a 1MW
      Integrated Fuel Cell Engine power plant with carbon dioxide
      sequestration from a regional oil & gas company. Agni's 1MW Integrated
      Fuel Cell Engine power plant is comprised of an internal combustion
      engine, waste heat recovery system, natural gas steam reformer, PEM fuel
      cells, balance of plant, power inverters, and carbon dioxide recovery
      system. This plant will recover 6,360 tonnes per annum of Carbon
      Dioxide. Agni Inc and the client will release more details of the
      installation within the next 60 days. February 9, 2005,
      http://www.fuelcellsworks.com/Supppage2027.html

      Financial Times, "THE RACE TO CURB GREENHOUSE GASES HEATS UP." Emerging
      technologies would provide the solution to the problem of climate
      change, George W. Bush said during his visit to Europe this month. He
      outlined a way forward based on more collaboration with European
      researchers and "technologies, such as hydrogen-powered vehicles,
      electricity from renewable energy sources, and clean coal technology
      (that) will encourage economic growth that is environmentally
      responsible". Contemplating about whether there is enough time to wait
      for emerging technologies to mature, Peter Challoner of Southampton
      University said, "It's not just that we can't wait for these new
      technologies. It's that the problem has reached such an extent that we
      need to think about radical solutions. I've started to think that
      carbon sequestration might be the best answer." February 25, 2005,
      http://www.wbcsd.org/plugins/DocSearch/details.asp?type=DocDet&ObjectId=13350



      U.P.I., "CLIMATE: LOW-CARBING THE ATMOSPHERE." Article states that
      carbon sequestration has become the leading weapon in the U.S.
      government's arsenal against climate change. Article goes on to discuss
      the benefits and drawbacks of ocean, terrestrial, and geologic
      sequestration. Concludes that both the Bush administration and
      environmentalists see promise in sequestration. January 31, 2005,
      http://www.wbcsd.org/plugins/DocSearch/details.asp?type=DocDet&ObjectId=12987



      News Designerz, "CARBON STORAGE OPTION UNDER MICROSCOPE AT GLOBAL
      WARMING CONFAB." A top meeting of world experts on climate change
      headed towards a close with a close look at ways - considered outlandish
      only a few years ago - of capturing carbon gases that cause global
      warming. February 3, 2005,
      http://science.news.designerz.com/carbon-storage-option-under-microscope-at-global-warming-confab.html?d20050203



      Announcements

      OPPORTUNITY TO SPONSOR TEACHERS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE TRAINING. In October
      2005, The Keystone Center and NETL will host a second training session
      for the interdisciplinary middle school climate change curriculum-which
      highlights sequestration technologies. If you are interested in
      sponsoring a teacher from your area, please contact Brooke Carson,
      Keystone's director of teacher training at bcarson@k... or (970)
      513-5843. More information about the curriculum can be found at
      http://www.keystonecurriculum.org/ or by reading the recent Techline at
      http://www.netl.doe.gov/publications/press/2004/tl_climate_curriculum.html

      "DOE'S CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP PROGRAM ADDS CANADIAN
      PROVINCES." The Department of Energy announced that the Provinces of
      Alberta and British Columbia have joined Saskatchewan and Manitoba as
      Canadian partners in the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership
      program. The Province of Alberta became part of the Plains CO2
      Reduction Partnership in January 2005, and British Columbia joined the
      West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WestCarb) in
      December 2004. U.S. Newswire, February 17, 2005,
      http://releases.usnewswire.com/GetRelease.asp?id=43282

      "CO2 CAPTURE PROJECT HEADS INTO SECOND PHASE." The CO2 Capture Project
      (CCP) announced the commencement of the second phase of its project to
      develop technologies that could mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. CCP
      is a Joint Industry Project with BP, ChevronTexaco, ConocoPhillips, Eni,
      Hydro, Petrobras, Royal Dutch/Shell Group and Suncor participating. The
      second phase of the project (CCP2) will build on the achievements of
      Phase 1 by developing a focused suite of capture technologies to be
      ready for pilot testing by the end of 2007. PR Newswire, February 21,
      2005,
      http://www.prnewswire.com/cgi-bin/stories.pl?ACCT=109&STORY=/www/story/02-21-2005/0003065039&EDATE.

      For additional information, visit the Carbon Capture Project website at
      http://www.co2captureproject.com/index.htm

      CALL FOR PAPERS: OGEL SPECIAL ISSUE ON COAL. Oil, Gas & Energy Law
      Intelligence (OGEL) is seeking prospective authors to contribute
      previously published or unpublished articles in a forthcoming Special
      Issue dedicated to exploring the role of coal in future energy demands.
      Examples of relevant topics include, but are not limited to, clean coal
      technologies, green technologies, geological and/or carbon
      sequestration, clean development mechanisms, or emissions trading.
      Veronica Brieno Rankin is special issue editor. Please contact her
      directly at: vjbrieno@m... or MycoGeo@a...

      "XCEL ENERGY JOINS CARBON DIOXIDE REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP." Xcel Energy
      joined the Plains CO2 Reduction Partnership, which is one of seven
      regional carbon sequestration research projects funded by the U.S.
      Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory. "We are
      serious about following a multi-faceted approach to addressing emissions
      of carbon dioxide," said Xcel Energy Chairman and CEO Wayne Brunetti.
      "Joining the Plains Partnership is an approach that will dovetail nicely
      with our own carbon management policy and other carbon sequestration
      projects." Xcel Energy also participates in another of these regional
      partnerships in the Southwestern U.S., as well as a carbon sequestration
      tree-planting project in the Southern U.S. Business Wire, February 8,
      2005,
      http://home.businesswire.com/portal/site/google/index.jsp?ndmViewId=news_view&newsId=20050208005687&newsLang=en.

      More information is available on the group's Internet site at
      http://www.undeerc.org/pcor/

      "AUGUSTA SYSTEMS OF MORGANTOWN, W.VA., HAS LAUNCHED A CARBON OFFSET
      OPPORTUNITY PROGRAM." The article highlighted the National Energy
      Technology Laboratory-funded Carbon Offset Opportunity Program developed
      by Augusta Systems to foster environmental projects that offset or
      reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The program seeks to instigate such
      projects by bringing together project developers with investors.
      Representatives of the program have been working with the West Virginia
      Coal Association about potential partners in the state, along with power
      producers and others around the nation. The program
      (offsetopportunity.com, 304/599-3200) envisions projects such as carbon
      sequestration, including land reclamation projects on former coal
      fields, as well as energy efficiency improvements and fuel switching to
      renewable resources. Common Ground, January-March 2005,
      http://www.conservationfund.org/?article=2006

      Science

      "ASSUMPTIONS OF EFFECTS OF RISING CARBON DIOXIDE PROBED." A paper in
      the February 10 issue of the journal Nature entitled, "Abrupt Rise in
      Atmospheric CO2 Overestimates Community Response in a Model Plant-Soil
      System," takes a closer look at how rising levels of carbon dioxide
      influence ecosystems. Scientists exposed a mycorrhizal fungal community
      to either an abrupt or gradual increase in CO2. The group exposed to a
      slow rise in CO2 concentration showed less of a decline in the number of
      species per sample of the fungi than did the group exposed to the abrupt
      change, but the difference was not statistically significant. The
      findings suggest that previous work has overestimated the magnitude of
      community and ecosystem responses to carbon dioxide changes, the
      researchers say. Science Daily, February 21, 2005,
      http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/02/050218162213.htm
      Policy

      "CA. MOVES TO PROTECT RATEPAYERS FROM FUTURE GREENHOUSE GAS
      REGULATIONS." A decision by the California Public Utilities Commission
      (PUC) directs the state's largest electric utilities to include CO2
      costs between $8-25 per ton when evaluating the economics of future
      energy resource additions. The GHG value will be added to the prices
      bid in future request for offers (RFOs), and will be used to develop a
      more accurate price comparison between and among fossil, renewable, and
      demand-side bids. The PUC order states, "Regardless of which bid is
      ultimately selected, the adder will not be paid to that generator or
      charged to ratepayers; it is an analytic tool only*Thus, the effect of
      the adder is to potentially change which bids and resources are selected
      - not to change the price of selected bids." ILSR Newsletter, February
      14, 2005, http://www.sustainablebusiness.com/news/sbnews.cfm?id=5460

      "CEQ CHAIRMAN JIM CONNAUGHTON DISCUSSES CLIMATE CHANGE." Jim
      Connaughton, chairman of the White House Council on Environmental
      Quality, defends the Bush administration's efforts on global warming in
      a discussion with E&E Daily senior reporter Brian Stempeck. Connaughton
      addresses criticism from the United Kingdom and other nations that are
      pressuring the White House to take stronger action on climate change,
      while also describing the administration's efforts to spur the
      development of new technologies such as carbon sequestration. E&E TV,
      February 2, 2005, http://www.eande.tv/main/?date=020205

      "CONNECTICUT TO RELEASE CLIMATE CHANGE ACTION PLAN." The Connecticut
      Governor's Steering Committee released a climate change action plan that
      expands programs to use electric, natural gas, and fuel oil more
      efficiently, and limits CO2 emissions from power plants through a
      regional emissions trading program. "This Action Plan is a great step
      forward as we in Connecticut fight global warming, caused by carbon and
      other pollutants. Our state government can and must take action to
      protect the air we breathe and the health of our citizens," said State
      Senate President Pro Tempore Donald Williams. "Breathing clean air is
      the right of every citizen in the state. And they expect nothing
      less." Point Carbon, February 15, 2005,
      http://www.pointcarbon.com/article.php?articleID=6601&categoryID=471.
      To review the plan, visit Connecticut's Official Climate Change Website
      at http://www.ctclimatechange.com/

      "JAPAN URGES INDUSTRY TO CUT EMISSIONS FURTHER." Japan's Ministry of
      Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) has asked power producers and the
      industrial sectors for steel, electrical machinery, rubber, paper,
      industrial vehicle, automotive body, automotive component, machine tool,
      industrial machinery, and construction machinery to step up action to
      cut emissions. Companies in Japan have only had voluntary emissions
      targets, and emissions from 1990 have increased, putting Japan well off
      its 6 percent reduction target under Kyoto. Twelve sectors including
      the oil, chemical, and aluminum industries have achieved their voluntary
      goals, while those singled out by METI now haven't. Policy-makers in
      Japan have been discussing a carbon tax as well as a domestic emissions
      trading scheme for some time, but opposition is significant against both
      within industry. Point Carbon, February 2, 2005,
      http://www.pointcarbon.com/article.php?articleID=6376&categoryID=471

      Geology

      "FEEDBACKS AND THE COEVOLUTION OF PLANTS AND ATMOSPHERIC CO2." This
      paper explores the complex network of geophysiological feedbacks
      associated with the coevolution of land plants, CO2, and climate. The
      authors present a systems analysis of the physiological and geochemical
      processes involved, identifying new positive and negative feedbacks
      between plants and CO2 on geological time scales. Proceedings of the
      National Academy of Sciences, February 1, 2005,
      http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/102/5/1302

      Technology

      "NEW TECHNOLOGY USES CO2 TO MAKE PLASTIC FROM ORANGE PEELS." Using just
      the oil from orange peel and CO2, researchers at Cornell University have
      found a way to make a high quality, versatile plastic in an
      environmentally friendly way. Limonene is a carbon-based compound that
      makes up around 95% of the oil found in orange peel. Led by Professor
      Geoffrey Coates, the researchers discovered that a derivative of this
      substance, limonene oxide, could be made to react with CO2 using a
      catalyst, producing an environmentally friendly polymer, polylimonene
      carbonate. The resulting polymer has many of the same characteristics
      as polystyrene, a petroleum-based polymer that is used to make many
      disposable plastic products. Edie News, January 31, 2005,
      http://www.climatebiz.com/sections/news_detail.cfm?NewsID=27630

      "SCIENTISTS LOOKING AT WAYS TO TRAP GREENHOUSE GASES." Article
      highlights research underway at Arizona State to neutralize CO2 by
      combining it at high heat with serpentine or olivine - two common
      minerals - in a solution of water, sodium chloride, and sodium
      bicarbonate. The reaction produces magnesium carbonate, a stable
      substance that can be buried, turned into road pavement or stored in
      other ways. Said professor Michael McKelvy, "What we're trying to do is
      take what nature does over 100,000 years and do it in less than an hour
      for 10 bucks a ton" of sequestered carbon. But right now, it costs
      about $70 a ton. The researchers, who are working with more than a
      dozen other scientists in four other laboratories, are trying to make
      the reaction cheaper by breaking down a coating that forms over the
      minerals during the conversion process. The Washington Post, February
      22, 2005, http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A42365-2005Feb21

      Ocean

      "GREENHOUSE GAS TURNING OCEANS ACID, SCIENTISTS WARN." At a conference
      on climate change held in Exeter, England, a paper by a team of
      scientists from Britain's Plymouth Marine Laboratory concluded that
      ocean acidification is likely to affect the entire marine food chain.
      Although a growing number of studies about ocean acidification have been
      carried out in recent years, it is only very recently that the whole
      picture has been put together, and the truly stark nature of the threat
      appreciated. Another interesting finding disclosed at the conference
      was by the head of the British Antarctic Survey, Professor Chris Rapley,
      who said that the vast West Antarctic Ice Sheet, previously thought to
      be stable, may be beginning to disintegrate - an event that would cause
      a sea-level rise around the world of more than sixteen feet. The New
      Zealand Herald, February 4, 2005,
      http://www.nzherald.co.nz/index.cfm?c_id=5&ObjectID=10009477

      Trading

      "CLIMATE TRUST TO STIMULATE U.S. CARBON MARKET WITH $4.3 MILLION FOR
      OFFSETS." The Climate Trust received $4.3 million to reduce global
      warming emissions under Oregon's innovative climate change regulation.
      The funds, provided by Portland General Electric, are required to offset
      carbon dioxide emissions from the new Port Westward power plant. To
      date, The Climate Trust has funded a diverse $4 million portfolio to
      offset 1.6 million metric tons of carbon dioxide. Climate Trust Press
      Release, February 2, 2005,
      http://www.climatetrust.org/Climate%20Trust%20Stimulates%20Carbon%20Market.pdf



      NATSOURCE LAUNCHES BUYERS POOL. Natsource launched a private-sector
      buyers' pool, the Greenhouse Gas Credit Aggregation Pool (GG-CAP).
      GG-CAP will purchase and manage the delivery of a large pool of GHG
      emission reduction that its buyer members can use to comply with EU
      emissions trading scheme and Kyoto Protocol emission reduction
      requirements. At first close, Natsource had approximately US$95 million
      committed to acquire GHG emission reductions. This amount will increase
      to approximately US$130 million within 30 days, the firm said in a press
      release. Natsource Press Release, February 28, 2005,
      http://www.natsource.com/uploads/features/Press%20release_Feb%2028%2005_FINAL.pdf



      Events

      March 1-3, 2005, CARBON MARKET INSIGHTS 2005, Amsterdam, The
      Netherlands. The annual gathering for active players in the world's
      carbon markets. Focuses on Global Markets (including U.S., Canada,
      Australia, as well as post-2012 discussions including carbon
      sequestration technology development), CDM&JI, and EU ETS. For
      conference program and details on registration visit
      http://www.pointcarbon.com/category.php?categoryID=401

      March 3-4, 2005, INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON INTERFACES BETWEEN CLIMATE
      AND ECONOMIC DYNAMICS, Interlaken, Switzerland. The topics of the
      symposium include among other things: assessing the economic costs of
      carbon policy, assessing technological options, and the role of
      technological change in reducing energy intensity. Further details can
      be found at the conference webpage at
      http://ecolu-info.unige.ch/~nccrwp4/GEMINI-E3/Interlaken.htm

      March 10, 2005, FUTURE OF COAL CONFERENCE, 2:00 p.m. in Room 106 of the
      Senate Dirksen Building, Washington, DC. The Senate Energy & Natural
      Resource Committee will hold a conference to discuss a broad array of
      proposals to address coal challenges. Attendance is open to the public
      and the media. For conference guidelines and a list of participants
      visit http://energy.senate.gov/conference/coalconference.cfm

      March 21-24, 2005, THIRD USDA SYMPOSIUM: GREENHOUSE GASES AND CARBON
      SEQUESTRATION IN AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY, Baltimore, MD. This
      symposium will provide a forum for scientists to present recent
      developments in science and technology relevant to storing carbon and
      addressing greenhouse gases in managed terrestrial ecosystems. For
      details and registration see
      http://soilcarboncenter.k-state.edu/conference

      April 13-15, 2005, EUROPEAN CO2 CAPTURE AND STORAGE CONFERENCE - TOWARDS
      ZERO EMISSION POWER PLANTS, Brussels. A high-level international
      conference organized by the European Commission. Attendance is free,
      but will be by invitation only. To submit your intention to
      participate, please visit the following web-site
      http://scic.cec.eu.int/scic/owa/WEB_MTKF.reg_form?confID=04RDTCO2

      April 18-20, 2005, GHG REGISTRIES AND COMPETING IN A CARBON-CONSTRAINED
      WORLD, Berkeley, CA. Hosted by the California Climate Action Registry
      and IETA, this two-day event brings together leading experts to discuss
      the key questions and latest developments related to climate change
      policy and business strategy. For more information and to register,
      visit http://www.climateregistry.org/EVENTS/Conference/

      April 19-22, 2005, THE 16TH GLOBAL WARMING INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
      (GW16), New York, NY. Over 200 papers and panels will address global
      and regional Extreme Weather Events, Emissions and Greenhouse Gas
      Reduction, Low GHG Transportation and Clean Energy Technology,
      Sustainable Development, and Corporate Learning. For additional
      information visit http://www.globalwarming.net

      May 2-3, 2005, FOURTH ANNUAL GREENTRADING SUMMIT: EMISSIONS, RENEWABLES
      & NEGAWATTS, New York, NY. To obtain more information, visit
      http://www.greentradingsummit.com/

      May 2-5, 2005, THE FOURTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON CARBON SEQUESTRATION,
      Alexandria, VA. ABSTRACTS ARE DUE March 4, 2005. For more information,
      visit http://www.carbonsq.com/ or contact Exchange Monitor Publications
      at (202) 296-2814.

      May 11-13, 2005, CARBON EXPO 2005, Cologne, Germany. The annual trade
      fair and conference dedicated to the carbon market co-organized by World
      Bank, International Emissions Trading Association (IETA), and
      Koelnmesse. For more information, please visit www.carbonexpo.com

      Recent Publications

      NEW REPORT POSTED ON NETL POLICY/ANALYSIS PAGE. The report, entitled "A
      Primer on Perceptions of Risk, Risk Communication and Building Trust"
      can be downloaded at
      http://www.netl.doe.gov/coal/Carbon%20Sequestration/pubs/reg-issues/TKC%20Risk%20Paper.fin.pdf



      BROOKINGS TRANSCRIPT NOW AVAILABLE. A transcript from a February 9,
      2005 Brookings event, "Climate Change Policy: Next Steps," is now
      available. During the event, Senator Hagel described his then upcoming
      legislation, where sequestration was mentioned specifically as "the kind
      of technology that must be employed around the world to achieve results
      in reducing greenhouse gas emissions." To view the transcript visit
      http://www.brookings.edu/comm/events/20050209climate.pdf. For more
      information about Senator Hagel's proposal, see the Legislative Activity
      section of this newsletter.

      "GLOBAL WARMING BILL MEANS THOUSANDS OF NEW JOBS." According to a new
      study, major global warming legislation would add more than 800,000 new
      jobs in America by 2025. The bi-partisan bill, the Climate Stewardship
      Act, would trigger new development and investment in clean energy
      technologies, bringing much-needed employment to states and diverse job
      sectors across the country. The analysis predicts some job losses in
      the coal industry, but those effects could be mitigated through policies
      to promote deployment of advanced coal technologies, as well as through
      transition assistance to displaced workers. NRDC Press Release,
      February 10, 2005, http://www.nrdc.org/media/pressreleases/050210a.asp.
      The report, "Jobs and the Climate Stewardship Act," can be downloaded at
      http://www.nrdc.org/globalWarming/csa/CSAjobs.pdf

      "ASSESSING CARBON STOCKS AND MODELING WIN-WIN SCENARIOS OF CARBON
      SEQUESTRATION THROUGH LAND-USE CHANGES." A relatively new publication
      by the Land and Water Development Division of the Food and Agriculture
      Organization of the UN, focuses on inventory of carbon stocks in above-
      and below-ground biomass and on modeling of scenarios of carbon
      sequestration through land use changes. The publication can be
      downloaded at ftp://ftp.fao.org/agl/agll/docs/carbonstocks.pdf

      Legislative Activity

      FY2006 BUDGET REQUEST TO CONGRESS. The proposed U.S. 2006 Energy budget
      provides $286 million, an increase of $13 million over 2005 enacted
      levels, for the President's Coal Research Initiative. Specifically, $67
      million are allocated for Sequestration R&D. The overall 2006 budget
      request for DOE's Fossil Energy Research and Development is $491
      million, which is a reduction from the 2005 appropriation of $572
      million. To view a statistical table of DOE's FY 2006 Budget Request to
      Congress visit
      http://www.mbe.doe.gov/budget/06budget/Content/appstat_cd.pdf

      CLIMATE STEWARDSHIP ACT REINTRODUCED. Senators John McCain and Joe
      Lieberman reintroduced their plan for a nationwide plan to regulate
      carbon dioxide emissions, with McCain pledging to go after a vote on the
      measure within the first legislative vehicle he can find. "Senator
      Lieberman and I will not give up on this issue," said McCain, noting
      that many of his Senate colleagues are taking a fresh look at global
      warming as the topic becomes more mainstream. "We can no longer afford
      to simply gather data and publish reports," he said. "Senators McCain
      and Lieberman Actively Seeking Vehicle for Climate Vote," Environment &
      Energy Daily, February 14, 2005,
      http://www.sustainablebusiness.com/news/sbnews.cfm?id=5457. Support
      from some senators who previously opposed the bill is summarized in,
      "Senators Warm Up to Emissions Curbs," Wall Street Journal, February 23,
      2005, http://www.sustainablebusiness.com/news/sbnews.cfm?id=5555

      "HAGEL INTRODUCES COMPREHENSIVE CLIMATE CHANGE LEGISLATION." U.S.
      Senator Chuck Hagel (R-NE) introduced legislation to provide a
      comprehensive approach to dealing with the issue of climate change. The
      legislative package consists of three bills (S. 386,387,388) which
      address domestic policy, international policy, and tax policy. They
      focus on the role of private-public partnerships, technology, and
      developing countries in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. For bill
      summaries and the complete text of Hagel's floor statement visit
      http://www.swnebr.net/newspaper/cgi-bin/articles/articlearchiver.pl?157008.

      Southwest Nebraska News, February 16, 2005.

      **************************************************************************************
      If you would like to know more about DOE's Carbon Sequestration R&D
      Program, please contact Scott Klara scott.klara@n...
      or Sarah Forbes sarah.forbes@n... at NET

      ------------------------------------------------
      Sonya PLoS Medicine
      The open-access general medical journal from the Public Library of
      Science
      Inaugural issue: Autumn 2004 Share your discoveries with the world.
      http://www.plosmedicine.org
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