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Avoiding a Catastrophe Of Human Error

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  • patneuman2000
    ... But nations of the world need to address the challenge of monitoring the entire range of natural hazards in a balanced, globally coordinated way.
    Message 1 of 2 , Jan 7, 2005
      ... "But nations of the world need to address the challenge of
      monitoring the entire range of natural hazards in a balanced,
      globally coordinated way.

      "Fortunately, thanks in large part to retired Vice Adm. Conrad
      Lautenbacher, the NOAA administrator, such a concerted international
      effort is underway. More than 50 nations will be meeting in Brussels
      next month to solemnize agreements governing a decade of cooperation
      in enhanced global monitoring for public safety, economic growth, and
      protection of the environment and ecosystems.

      But for many participating nations, the agreements will simply mean
      changes and adjustments in the use of resources. New warning
      capabilities will not be in place for years -- at least not under
      current levels of investment. Here at home, Congress and the federal
      agencies could put meat on the bones of these proposals by increasing
      the funds available. Considering that the level of U.S. investment in
      such monitoring and the associated research and services is only about
      0.1 percent of gross domestic product, and that weather-sensitive
      sectors (agriculture, energy, transportation, etc.) make up a third of
      our economy, this would be a matter of common sense."

      Excerpt above is from the article below.

      Pat N

      --- In fuelcell-energy@yahoogroups.com, "janson2997"
      <janson1997@y...> wrote:

      Avoiding a Catastrophe Of Human Error

      By William H. Hooke

      Wednesday, January 5, 2005; Page A17

      We live on a planet of extremes and cataclysm. A year to the day
      before the Dec. 26 tsunami, whose death toll has surpassed 150,000,
      the Bam earthquake in Iran killed 46,000 people, injured 20,000 and
      left 60,000 homeless. In India the Gujarat earthquake of 2001 resulted
      in more than 20,000 deaths and 167,000 injuries. In 1998 Central
      America lost 10,000 lives to Hurricane Mitch. The 1976 Tangshan
      earthquake in China killed 250,000.

      Nor are such losses confined to the developing world. In 2003 a
      European heat wave killed about 20,000 people; the 1995 Kobe
      earthquake in Japan killed 5,000. Insured losses worldwide for the
      2004 hurricane season came to $35 billion; the total losses were far
      higher. Here's the sober truth. Hurricanes, brutal cold fronts and
      heat waves, ice storms and tornadoes, cycles of flood and drought, and
      earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are not unforeseeable interruptions
      of normality. Rather, these extremes are the way that the planet we
      live on does its business. Hurricanes, in some parts of the world,
      provide a third of the average annual rainfall. What we call "climate"
      is really an average of extremes of heat and cold, precipitation and
      drought. And climate change? The issue is not the small increments in
      the averages but what lies behind them: the projected changes in storm
      patterns, intensity and tracks, and the altered outlook for floods and
      drought. For island nations, or even the United States, the impact of
      a one-foot change in average sea level over a century can in some
      respects be accommodated far more readily than the devastation of a
      single 6- to 15-foot storm surge sustained for just 24 hours during
      that hundred years.

      In this connection, the geological record is not comforting. All the
      evidence from paleoclimatology and geology suggests that over the long
      haul, the extremes we face will be substantially greater than even the
      strongest in our brief historical record. Can we blunt these
      catastrophes? What measures can and should we take to reduce loss of
      life and suffering, mitigate economic disruption and protect the
      environment and ecosystems in the face of extreme events? There are
      several:

      • Monitor. This measure has been discussed repeatedly in the days
      since Dec. 26. Scientific research and technological development have
      led to great advances in our ability to anticipate the development,
      track and intensity of many natural hazards, and to detect many more.
      In the wake of the latest disaster it is tempting to focus attention
      on this particular threat -- namely by our attention to a tsunami
      detection system such as that developed by Eddie Bernard at the
      National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). But nations of
      the world need to address the challenge of monitoring the entire range
      of natural hazards in a balanced, globally coordinated way.

      Fortunately, thanks in large part to retired Vice Adm. Conrad
      Lautenbacher, the NOAA administrator, such a concerted international
      effort is underway. More than 50 nations will be meeting in Brussels
      next month to solemnize agreements governing a decade of cooperation
      in enhanced global monitoring for public safety, economic growth, and
      protection of the environment and ecosystems.

      But for many participating nations, the agreements will simply mean
      changes and adjustments in the use of resources. New warning
      capabilities will not be in place for years -- at least not under
      current levels of investment. Here at home, Congress and the federal
      agencies could put meat on the bones of these proposals by increasing
      the funds available. Considering that the level of U.S. investment in
      such monitoring and the associated research and services is only about
      0.1 percent of gross domestic product, and that weather-sensitive
      sectors (agriculture, energy, transportation, etc.) make up a third of
      our economy, this would be a matter of common sense.

      • Warn. Monitoring doesn't tell the whole story. When information on
      an impending hazard is available to only a few government officials,
      it is virtually useless. The warning must be in the hands of the
      public -- those of us in harm's way. For many events, such as
      earthquakes and tsunamis, the warning time is too short to rely on the
      handoff of information between intermediaries. Nations must pay more
      attention to technical means for disseminating warnings directly to
      those affected. In this country, it means programs such as all-hazards
      NOAA Weather Radio, but also systems linked to cell phones, pagers and
      all the technology of the home and workplace. In the case of
      earthquakes, it might mean warning systems that automatically take the
      steps needed to protect critical infrastructure, without human
      intervention (and fatal delay).

      • Prepare the public. Those in Sumatra, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand and
      elsewhere simply did not know how to interpret the meaning of the
      scene before them -- an ocean suddenly receding far from the coast,
      with fish flopping around on sediment that moments before had been
      underwater. Such public awareness by itself, with or without
      government warnings, could have triggered an immediate and massive
      exodus to higher ground. Arguably, more lives might have been saved
      through such awareness -- and the precious seconds it would have
      bought -- than through any technical means.

      Here at home, K-12 education offers a powerful tool for building
      public awareness and for providing additional benefits. We can teach
      children (society's most vulnerable population) about the hazards they
      face. As they enter adulthood, they will bring that awareness with
      them. Children are fascinated by natural extremes. Earth science
      education therefore serves as a gateway, stimulating their interest in
      all branches of science, including physics, chemistry, biology and
      mathematics.

      But the earth sciences, including meteorology, climatology, hydrology,
      oceanography, geology and many other disciplines, can go only so far
      in protecting the public. Our community, and the warnings and
      forecasts we provide, have their limits. To protect ourselves on this
      wild ride on our untamed planet, we must take additional measures.
      Here are just a few:

      • Adopt less risky behavior. Many of the dazed and injured in Asia
      have no livelihood to return to, no prospect of getting their lives
      back on track. The tragedy will not just persist for years -- it will
      grow. To protect against the property loss and economic disruption of
      disasters, we must adopt more prudent land-use policies, especially in
      coastal regions and other hazardous zones. We must strengthen building
      codes and their enforcement. When we ignore these measures we behave
      like the man who, instead of eating better, exercising, giving up
      smoking and making other lifestyle changes, just figures that when the
      heart attack comes, the ambulance will be there and the bypass surgery
      will make him as good as new.

      • Focus on social equity. Like every such disaster, this one
      aggravates and compounds existing social inequities. Statistically,
      those hit the hardest are the ones who were struggling to begin with:
      the poor, the elderly, the sick, women and children, ethnic
      minorities. Do we want to protect ourselves (and others) from natural
      hazards? Then let's work together to take care of today's basic needs
      -- food, clothing, and shelter -- so there's a surplus to put toward
      greater safety over the long haul. In 1998 Hurricane Mitch undid a
      decade of World Bank investment in Central America. Donor nations and
      nongovernmental organizations such as the World Bank must link aid and
      investment to strategies for reducing vulnerability to natural
      hazards.

      In the face of these realities, the United States has options. At one
      extreme, we can focus on domestic concerns and continue to be
      surprised by disasters abroad -- tsunamis, earthquakes, hurricanes,
      volcanic eruptions -- and the horror they occasion, as well as their
      enduring and destabilizing effects on geopolitics. At the other, we
      can seize this unique opportunity to be a good neighbor.

      Congress and the executive branch should think long-term about this
      threat to humanity's interests and work strategically with others to
      build a safer, richer, more congenial world. Address natural hazards
      and we'll build the international collaborations and trust needed to
      handle freshwater and resource issues, pollution, poverty and other
      global problems. Tackle those concerns and we'll defuse a lot of
      potential armed conflict. The investment amounts to pennies on the
      dollar; the unquantifiable social benefits are immense.

      The writer, a former NOAA employee, directs the American
      Meteorological Society's policy program and chairs the Disaster
      Roundtable of the National Academies of Science-National Research
      Council. The views expressed here are his own.

      http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A48619-2005Jan4?
      language=printer

      j2997
      --- End forwarded message ---
    • Mike Neuman
      International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC) Not much use being a Member State it seems. Located in Honolulu, the International Tsunami Information Center
      Message 2 of 2 , Jan 7, 2005
        International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC)

        Not much use being a "Member State" it seems.

        Located in Honolulu, the International Tsunami Information Center
        (ITIC) was established in November 1965 by the Intergovernmental
        Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of the United Nations Educational,
        Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). In 1968, IOC formed
        an International Coordination Group for the Tsunami Warning System in
        the Pacific (ICG/ITSU). The present Member States are:
        Australia, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Cook Islands, Costa Rica,
        Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji,
        France, Guatemala, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Nicaragua,
        Peru, Republic of the Philippines, Republic of Korea, Russian
        Federation, Samoa, Singapore, Thailand, and the United States of
        America.

        ITIC supports ICG/ITSU by monitoring the activities of the Tsunami
        Warning System in the Pacific (TWSP), coordinating tsunami technology
        transfer among Member States interested in establishing regional and
        national tsunami warning systems, and acting as a clearinghouse for
        tsunami preparedness and mitigation activities. The Richard H.
        Hagemeyer Pacific Tsunami Warning Center PTWC) serves as the
        operational headquarters for the TWSP. The system makes use of the
        hundreds of seismic stations throughout the world that are available
        in real, or near-real, time to locate potentially tsunamigenic
        earthquakes. It has near real time access via satellite and telephone
        to nearly 100 water level stations throughout the Pacific that can be
        used to verify the generation and possible severity of a tsunami. The
        system disseminates tsunami information and warning messages to well
        over 100 points scattered across the Pacific.

        The International Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific is one of the
        most successful international scientific programs with the direct
        humanitarian aim of mitigating the effects of tsunami by saving lives
        and property. ITIC maintains and develops relationships with:

        Intergovernmental Organizations

        All Member States of the International Tsunami Warning System; IOC;
        ICG/ITSU; International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG); World
        Meteorological Organization (WMO); World Data Centers (WDC-SEG);
        International Council of Scientific Unions (ISCU); the United Nations
        Disaster Relief Organization (UNDRO); and the United Nations
        Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

        Non-Governmental Organizations

        Research and academic organizations, universities and institutions
        worldwide, as well as disaster management, preparedness, and response
        agencies.

        The Scientific Community

        Under ITIC's ITSU Tsunami Training Program, scientists, engineers,
        and tsunami program managers can spend up to two weeks at ITIC and
        PTWC learning about tsunamis and tsunami warning systems. ITIC also
        maintains a comprehensive tsunami reference library that tsunami
        researchers can use.

        Local Authorities

        ITIC informs local authorities of Member States of developments in
        tsunami research and education. ITIC initiates, co-ordinates, and/or
        conducts technical training programs, workshops, and seminars dealing
        with all aspects of tsunami preparedness. ITIC aims to make
        authorities more aware of the tsunami hazard and assists in planning
        programs for the protection of life and property and for evacuations
        from dangerous areas during tsunami warnings.

        The General Public

        ITIC informs the general public of the tsunami hazard through
        lectures, publications, educational materials and disaster
        preparedness programs.

        ITIC Engages in the Following Activities:

        Tsunami Education

        ITIC's public education program is directed towards coastal
        residents, their local officials, school teachers, mass media people,
        policy makers, and the general public. It includes lectures, audio-
        visual aids, seminars, posters, photographic displays, television and
        radio coverage, and publications. ITIC's ITSU Training Program
        provides opportunities for scientists to work on tsunami-related
        problems and familiarize themselves with the Tsunami Warning System
        and Civil Defense procedures.

        ITIC facilitates the exchange of scientific and technical personnel
        between ITSU Member States for the purpose of providing training and
        familiarization with automation equipment, new instrumentation, and
        new methods and procedures of the Tsunami Warning System and the
        Civil Defense. Additionally, ITIC provides informational training to
        many transient scientists from Member States.

        Tsunami Research

        For each tsunami, ITIC assists the World Data Center (Solid Earth
        Geophysics, Tsunamis) in soliciting and collecting as complete a set
        as possible of seismic and tsunami wave records showing the event,
        together with supplementary data and descriptive information. ITIC
        prepares and disseminates a report of each tsunami. ITIC collects
        tidal records from selected gauging stations throughout the Pacific
        that have recorded a tsunami.

        ITIC maintains an extensive data file and library on tsunami. ITIC
        identifies research needed to improve tsunami prediction and the
        International Warning System. It cooperates with national scientific
        and professional organizations in encouraging and applying tsunami
        research. ITIC encourages, facilitates and participates in field
        investigations of destructive large tsunami. It has developed a Post-
        Tsunami Survey Field Guide that provides survey procedures and
        instructions to all Member States.

        Tsunami Technology and Information

        ITIC arranges for the availability of technical information on
        equipment required for an effective tsunami warning system. It
        ensures that knowledge of new technology is made available to all
        Member States. It arranges for the provision of advisory and
        consultative services to Member States wishing to upgrade their
        warning system capability. In close cooperation with the
        International Tsunami Warning System and the ad hoc committees of
        ICG/ITSU, ITIC seeks technical improvements for the Tsunami Warning
        System, and for member countries. It provides tsunami data and
        information to scientists, engineers, administrators, and the general
        public throughout the world.

        Public Relations

        ITIC maintains good working relations with a number of national and
        international organizations participating in the International
        Tsunami Warning System. Good public relations are also pursued with
        the media and the general public.

        Publications

        ITIC prepares and publishes tsunami research reports and papers,
        newsletters, historical tsunami catalogs, glossaries, bibliographies,
        books and educational materials. It maintains a web site with
        information on the International Tsunami Warning System, on FAQ's of
        tsunamis, and a Tsunami Newsletter covering recent events. It
        publishes an Annual that brings to tsunami researchers, engineers,
        educators, and government officials a summary of the past year's
        tsunamis and other activities related to the Tsunami Warning System.
        It is distributed to approximately seventy countries.

        Staff:

        Director: Dr. Laura S. L. Kong (USA)

        Associate Director: Emilio Lorca(Chile)

        Technical Information Specialist: Linda S. Sjogren (USA)

        ITIC Webmaster: Tammy W. L. Kaitoku (USA)
        http://www.prh.noaa.gov/itic/more_about/itic/itic.html

        --- In ClimateArchive@yahoogroups.com, "patneuman2000" <npat1@j...>
        wrote:
        >
        > ... "But nations of the world need to address the challenge of
        > monitoring the entire range of natural hazards in a balanced,
        > globally coordinated way.
        >
        > "Fortunately, thanks in large part to retired Vice Adm. Conrad
        > Lautenbacher, the NOAA administrator, such a concerted international
        > effort is underway. More than 50 nations will be meeting in Brussels
        > next month to solemnize agreements governing a decade of cooperation
        > in enhanced global monitoring for public safety, economic growth,
        and
        > protection of the environment and ecosystems.
        >
        > But for many participating nations, the agreements will simply mean
        > changes and adjustments in the use of resources. New warning
        > capabilities will not be in place for years -- at least not under
        > current levels of investment. Here at home, Congress and the federal
        > agencies could put meat on the bones of these proposals by
        increasing
        > the funds available. Considering that the level of U.S. investment
        in
        > such monitoring and the associated research and services is only
        about
        > 0.1 percent of gross domestic product, and that weather-sensitive
        > sectors (agriculture, energy, transportation, etc.) make up a third
        of
        > our economy, this would be a matter of common sense."
        >
        > Excerpt above is from the article below.
        >
        > Pat N
        >
        > --- In fuelcell-energy@yahoogroups.com, "janson2997"
        > <janson1997@y...> wrote:
        >
        > Avoiding a Catastrophe Of Human Error
        >
        > By William H. Hooke
        >
        > Wednesday, January 5, 2005; Page A17
        >
        > We live on a planet of extremes and cataclysm. A year to the day
        > before the Dec. 26 tsunami, whose death toll has surpassed 150,000,
        > the Bam earthquake in Iran killed 46,000 people, injured 20,000 and
        > left 60,000 homeless. In India the Gujarat earthquake of 2001
        resulted
        > in more than 20,000 deaths and 167,000 injuries. In 1998 Central
        > America lost 10,000 lives to Hurricane Mitch. The 1976 Tangshan
        > earthquake in China killed 250,000.
        >
        > Nor are such losses confined to the developing world. In 2003 a
        > European heat wave killed about 20,000 people; the 1995 Kobe
        > earthquake in Japan killed 5,000. Insured losses worldwide for the
        > 2004 hurricane season came to $35 billion; the total losses were far
        > higher. Here's the sober truth. Hurricanes, brutal cold fronts and
        > heat waves, ice storms and tornadoes, cycles of flood and drought,
        and
        > earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are not unforeseeable
        interruptions
        > of normality. Rather, these extremes are the way that the planet we
        > live on does its business. Hurricanes, in some parts of the world,
        > provide a third of the average annual rainfall. What we
        call "climate"
        > is really an average of extremes of heat and cold, precipitation and
        > drought. And climate change? The issue is not the small increments
        in
        > the averages but what lies behind them: the projected changes in
        storm
        > patterns, intensity and tracks, and the altered outlook for floods
        and
        > drought. For island nations, or even the United States, the impact
        of
        > a one-foot change in average sea level over a century can in some
        > respects be accommodated far more readily than the devastation of a
        > single 6- to 15-foot storm surge sustained for just 24 hours during
        > that hundred years.
        >
        > In this connection, the geological record is not comforting. All the
        > evidence from paleoclimatology and geology suggests that over the
        long
        > haul, the extremes we face will be substantially greater than even
        the
        > strongest in our brief historical record. Can we blunt these
        > catastrophes? What measures can and should we take to reduce loss of
        > life and suffering, mitigate economic disruption and protect the
        > environment and ecosystems in the face of extreme events? There are
        > several:
        >
        > • Monitor. This measure has been discussed repeatedly in the days
        > since Dec. 26. Scientific research and technological development
        have
        > led to great advances in our ability to anticipate the development,
        > track and intensity of many natural hazards, and to detect many
        more.
        > In the wake of the latest disaster it is tempting to focus attention
        > on this particular threat -- namely by our attention to a tsunami
        > detection system such as that developed by Eddie Bernard at the
        > National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). But nations
        of
        > the world need to address the challenge of monitoring the entire
        range
        > of natural hazards in a balanced, globally coordinated way.
        >
        > Fortunately, thanks in large part to retired Vice Adm. Conrad
        > Lautenbacher, the NOAA administrator, such a concerted international
        > effort is underway. More than 50 nations will be meeting in Brussels
        > next month to solemnize agreements governing a decade of cooperation
        > in enhanced global monitoring for public safety, economic growth,
        and
        > protection of the environment and ecosystems.
        >
        > But for many participating nations, the agreements will simply mean
        > changes and adjustments in the use of resources. New warning
        > capabilities will not be in place for years -- at least not under
        > current levels of investment. Here at home, Congress and the federal
        > agencies could put meat on the bones of these proposals by
        increasing
        > the funds available. Considering that the level of U.S. investment
        in
        > such monitoring and the associated research and services is only
        about
        > 0.1 percent of gross domestic product, and that weather-sensitive
        > sectors (agriculture, energy, transportation, etc.) make up a third
        of
        > our economy, this would be a matter of common sense.
        >
        > • Warn. Monitoring doesn't tell the whole story. When information on
        > an impending hazard is available to only a few government officials,
        > it is virtually useless. The warning must be in the hands of the
        > public -- those of us in harm's way. For many events, such as
        > earthquakes and tsunamis, the warning time is too short to rely on
        the
        > handoff of information between intermediaries. Nations must pay more
        > attention to technical means for disseminating warnings directly to
        > those affected. In this country, it means programs such as all-
        hazards
        > NOAA Weather Radio, but also systems linked to cell phones, pagers
        and
        > all the technology of the home and workplace. In the case of
        > earthquakes, it might mean warning systems that automatically take
        the
        > steps needed to protect critical infrastructure, without human
        > intervention (and fatal delay).
        >
        > • Prepare the public. Those in Sumatra, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand
        and
        > elsewhere simply did not know how to interpret the meaning of the
        > scene before them -- an ocean suddenly receding far from the coast,
        > with fish flopping around on sediment that moments before had been
        > underwater. Such public awareness by itself, with or without
        > government warnings, could have triggered an immediate and massive
        > exodus to higher ground. Arguably, more lives might have been saved
        > through such awareness -- and the precious seconds it would have
        > bought -- than through any technical means.
        >
        > Here at home, K-12 education offers a powerful tool for building
        > public awareness and for providing additional benefits. We can teach
        > children (society's most vulnerable population) about the hazards
        they
        > face. As they enter adulthood, they will bring that awareness with
        > them. Children are fascinated by natural extremes. Earth science
        > education therefore serves as a gateway, stimulating their interest
        in
        > all branches of science, including physics, chemistry, biology and
        > mathematics.
        >
        > But the earth sciences, including meteorology, climatology,
        hydrology,
        > oceanography, geology and many other disciplines, can go only so far
        > in protecting the public. Our community, and the warnings and
        > forecasts we provide, have their limits. To protect ourselves on
        this
        > wild ride on our untamed planet, we must take additional measures.
        > Here are just a few:
        >
        > • Adopt less risky behavior. Many of the dazed and injured in Asia
        > have no livelihood to return to, no prospect of getting their lives
        > back on track. The tragedy will not just persist for years -- it
        will
        > grow. To protect against the property loss and economic disruption
        of
        > disasters, we must adopt more prudent land-use policies, especially
        in
        > coastal regions and other hazardous zones. We must strengthen
        building
        > codes and their enforcement. When we ignore these measures we behave
        > like the man who, instead of eating better, exercising, giving up
        > smoking and making other lifestyle changes, just figures that when
        the
        > heart attack comes, the ambulance will be there and the bypass
        surgery
        > will make him as good as new.
        >
        > • Focus on social equity. Like every such disaster, this one
        > aggravates and compounds existing social inequities. Statistically,
        > those hit the hardest are the ones who were struggling to begin
        with:
        > the poor, the elderly, the sick, women and children, ethnic
        > minorities. Do we want to protect ourselves (and others) from
        natural
        > hazards? Then let's work together to take care of today's basic
        needs
        > -- food, clothing, and shelter -- so there's a surplus to put toward
        > greater safety over the long haul. In 1998 Hurricane Mitch undid a
        > decade of World Bank investment in Central America. Donor nations
        and
        > nongovernmental organizations such as the World Bank must link aid
        and
        > investment to strategies for reducing vulnerability to natural
        > hazards.
        >
        > In the face of these realities, the United States has options. At
        one
        > extreme, we can focus on domestic concerns and continue to be
        > surprised by disasters abroad -- tsunamis, earthquakes, hurricanes,
        > volcanic eruptions -- and the horror they occasion, as well as their
        > enduring and destabilizing effects on geopolitics. At the other, we
        > can seize this unique opportunity to be a good neighbor.
        >
        > Congress and the executive branch should think long-term about this
        > threat to humanity's interests and work strategically with others to
        > build a safer, richer, more congenial world. Address natural hazards
        > and we'll build the international collaborations and trust needed to
        > handle freshwater and resource issues, pollution, poverty and other
        > global problems. Tackle those concerns and we'll defuse a lot of
        > potential armed conflict. The investment amounts to pennies on the
        > dollar; the unquantifiable social benefits are immense.
        >
        > The writer, a former NOAA employee, directs the American
        > Meteorological Society's policy program and chairs the Disaster
        > Roundtable of the National Academies of Science-National Research
        > Council. The views expressed here are his own.
        >
        > http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A48619-2005Jan4?
        > language=printer
        >
        > j2997
        > --- End forwarded message ---
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