Re: [church_history] Re: About all this bickering
In 1921, under the authorization of Russian Patriarch TIKHON (Bellavin),
Archbishop AFTIMIOS (Ofiesh) was "to found and head, under synodical
constitution, an independent American Orthodox Church." Independent means an
American Western Rite expression of the ancient faith that would not be
under a Russian or Eastern Patriarch. Hence, was born the American Orthodox
Church. Likewise, in 1927 Metropolitan PLATON (Rozhdestvensky) and
the Holy Synod of Moscow gave its consent to the "formation of a group of
Eastern Rite Orthodox bishops in North America." To achieve these goals,
bishops were called upon to consecrate and ordain even outside their ethnic
Due to an extended hospitalization, Archbishop PALLADIOS called upon
Archbishop ATHENAGORAS (Spyrou) of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of North
and South America (who later became the Ecumenical Patriarch of
Constantiople in 1948) to ordain priests. On March 20, 1932, at Holy Trinity
Greek Orthodox Cathedral in New York City, Archbishop ATHENAGORAS ordained
priest Peter Andreas Zhurawetzky for the Ukrainian jurisdiction.
Zhurawetzky was born in the Ukraine on December 7, 1901; he studied at the
Theological Seminary in Vienna, Austria, and came to the United States in
1925. He traveled for a time as a missionary for the Ukrainian Church and
later served as secretary for Bishops JOSEPH (Zuk) and THEODOR (Shpilka). He
was schoolmates with the future Archbishop ANDREI (Kuschak), Bishop BOHDAN
(Shpylka) and the recent Ukrainian Kievan Patriarch MSTYSLAV I (Skrypnyk).
In 1940 Father Peter was transferred to the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of
Alexandria headed by its Exarch in this Country, Metropolitan CHRISTOPHER
(Contogeorge), who made him a Mitred Archpriest in 1942, and called him to
administer the Eastern Catholic and Apostolic Diocese of America. (A letter
from the Greek Archbishop ATHENAGORGAS, dated March 1, 1945 on behalf of the
Ecumenical Patriarch, confirmed the canonical character and validity of the
ecclesiastical acts of Metropolitan CHRISTOPHER.)
The Ecumenical Patriarch would only "officially" recognize autocephalous
churches directly under the Phanar.
(Even to the present day, the Greek Archdiocese does not officially
recognize the canonical status of the Orthodox Church in America. And, in
1995 a plan for "administrative unity" promoted by Archbishop IAKOVOS was
squashed by the Ecumenical Patriarchate!) The Ecumenical Patriarch refused
recognition to any Western Rite parishes that would be autocephalous.
At the death of His Beatitude Metropolitan JOSEPH in 1961, the Most Reverend
Archbishop PETER (Zhurawetzky) was elected as his successor. Archbishop
PETER, under the orders of Ecumenical Patriarch ATHENAGORAS of
Constantinople, had been consecrated to the Sacred Episcopacy on October 15,
1950 at Springfield, Massachusettes by Metropolitan JOSEPH (Klymowycz),
Archbishop KONSTANTIN (Jaroshevich) and Metropolitan NICHOLAS (Bohatyretz).
A letter from His Beatitude NICHOLAS VI, Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria
dated June 29, 1978, recognized Archbishop PETER as a canonical bishop. The
authenticity of this letter was verified by the
representative of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria at Athens,
Greece by His Beatitude PARTHENIOS III, Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria and
All Africa, in a letter dated January 5, 1994.
His Beatitude PETER II (Zhurawetzky), dedicated the larger part of his later
works to bringing the dream of Patriarch Tikon to reality by promoting and
working for the establishment of an independent AMERICAN ORTHODOX CHURCH in
the USA. His Beatitude reposed on October 19, 1994 at his residence in
Vineland, New Jersey.
The Apostolic Succession of the American Orthodox Church
A Canonical Apostolic Heritage from Constantinople, Alexandria, Moscow,
Albania and the Ukraine --
An Unbroken Line from Jesus Christ as transmitted to the Twelve and to the
All lines of Apostolic Succession find their common origin in one source,
Jesus Christ, brought upon those who received the Baptism of the Holy Spirit
in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost (Acts 1:4-5, 2:1-4) and upon
others during the Apostolic Age.
The Patriarchates of Jerusalem, Constantinople (seat of the Ecumenical
Patriarch and now called Istanbul), Alexandria, Antioch, Moscow and Rome
comprise the traditional six chief centers of Christendom. All of the
centers mentioned are equal in substance. With the exception of the
Patriarchate of Moscow, the other five centers originated during the
Apostolic Age and were founded by the Twelve.
The Apostle Peter is considered the founder of the Church of Antioch; James,
the Brother of the Lord, of the Church of Jerusalem; the Apostle to the
Gentiles, Paul, and Linus (II Timothy 4:21) of the Church of Rome; Mark the
Evangelist of the Church of Alexandria; and, the Apostle Andrew--the "first
called"-- and Stachys (Romans 16:9) of the Church of
Byzantium, which was later named Constantinople in AD 330.
The Patriarch of Moscow was elevated to that status in 1589 by the Patriarch
of Constantinople JEREMIAS II, and extended its jurisdiction over all of
Russia where Eastern Orthodoxy arrived in AD 988 with the Baptism of the
Grand Prince Volodymyr who recognized Orthodox Christianity
as the official religion in Russia. In 1593, at the Great Synod in
Constantiople, the Patriarchs of Constantiople, Jerusalem, Antioch and
Alexandria confirmed the Patriarchate of Moscow.
On May 4, 1793, permission was granted by the Empress Catherine II of Russia
to the Holy Governing Synod of the Russian Church to establish an Orthodox
Mission in America. The first missionaries arrived on Kodiak Island, Alaska
on September 24, 1794. This early Russian Mission in
America had the following Episcopal succession: Bishops JOASAF (1799),
INNOCENT (1840-1858), PETER (1859-1867), PAUL (1867-1870), JOHN (1870-1876),
NESTOR (1879-1882), VLADIMIR (1888-1891), NICHOLAS
(1891-1898), and TIKHON (1898-1917) to the Bolshevik Revolution, overthrow
& persecution of the Russian Orthodox Church.
The former ruling Archbishop in North America, TIKHON (Vasili Ivanovich
Bellavin), was elected Patriarch of Moscow, and the Patriarchate was
restored in August of 1917 by the Russian Holy Synod which had convened and
sought to reform conditions imposed since 1721. In effect, the Russian
Church had retained its internal integrity for the period 1721-1917, but had
been captive to the state.
Patriarch TIKHON and the Holy Synod of Moscow elected as bishop Abdulla
Aftimios Ofiesh, a former monk who had been ordained a priest by the
Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch. Bishop AFTIMIOS was consecrated on May 31,
1917 at New York City by Metropolitan EVDOKIM (Mischersky), Bishop
ALEXANDROVICH (Nemolovsky) Russian Orthodox Bishop of Canada and the
Aleutian Islands and Bishop STEPHEN (Dzubai) Russian Orthodox Bishop of
Lines of Apostolic Succession in the "new world" were further strengthened
by relations with various canonical Orthodox bodies, among them, the
Albanian Orthodox Church; in its long history, it was the continuation of
the pristine Christian Church of Illyricum where St. Paul had proclaimed the
Gospel of Christ.
On November 21, 1923 Archbishop THEOPHANIES (Noli) was consecrated
Metropolitan of Durrazzo at St. George Cathedral in Korcha, Albania by
Archbishop KRISTOFOR (Kissi) of Albania and Bishop HIEROTHEOS (Andon-Yaho),
Bishop of Miletoupolis and Exarch of the Greek Orthodox
Patriarchate of Constantinople.
Metropolitan THEOPHANIES considered his Albanian Orthodox Church in America
as a daughter of the Russian Orthodox Church in America. He was one of the
first hierarchs to call for an united Independent Orthodox Church in the
Americas that would reflect the Western heritage of Americans. The
Metropolitan was a distinguished diplomat, a delegate to the League of
Nations, served in the Albanian Parliament and
was elected as Prime Minister of Albania in 1924.
Archbishop AFTIMIOS (Ofiesh), assisted by Bishop EMMANUEL (Abo-Hatab) Bishop
of Montreal and Archbishop ELIAS of Tyre and Sidon, on May 26, 1928
consecrated Bishop SOPHRONIOS (Bashira) as Bishop of Los Angeles,
Archbishop SOPHRONIOS (Bashira) of the Greek Diocese of Los Angeles with
Albanian Metropolitan THEOPHANIES (Noli) of Boston, on February 10, 1934 at
the Church of Sts. Constantine and Helen in New York City consecrated
Archbishop CHRISTOPOHER (Contogeorge) as Bishop of Philadelphia; in 1947 he
was made Metropolitan of Pentapolis and Exarch for the Greek Orthodox
Patriarchate of Alexandria, Egypt and All Africa, in the United States.
Archbishop CHRISTOPHER (Contogeorge) with Albanian Metropolitan THEOPHANIES
(Noli) on August 25, 1934 at the Church of St. John the Baptist in New York
City, consecrated Archbishop ARSENIOS (Saltas); in 1954 he was made Exarch
of the Patriarchate of Alexandria, Egypt and All Africa, for the United
States and Canada.
Archbishop CHRISTOPHER (Contogeorge) with Bishop AMBROSIUS of Aman, Jordan,
in accordance with orders from the Holy Synod of Moscow, on November 3, 1935
consecrated Archbishop NICHOLAS (Kedroffsky) as
Archbishop of North America and the Aleutian Islands. The consecration took
place at the Russian Cathedral of St. Nicholas in New York City, which was
erected in November of 1902 under the auspices of Czar Nicholas II, who
assisted in its maintenance until his death in 1917.
Archbishop NICHOLAS (Kedroffsky) with Archbishop ARSENIOS (Saltas) and
Archbishop BENJAMIN (Fedchenkoff), Patriarchal Exarch of the Greek Orthodox
Patriarchate of Moscow, in 1935 at the Russian Orthodox Cathedral
of St. Nicholas in New York City, consecrated Bishop JOSEPH (Klymowycz) of
Springfield, Massachusetts for the Russian jurisdiction.
Archbishop CHRISTOPHER (Contogeorge) in 1949 with Archbishop ARSENIOS
(Saltas), and with the concurrence of Albanian Metropolitan THEOPHANIES
(Noli), consecrated Archbishop KONSTANTIN (Jaroshevich) for the
Patriarchate of Alexandria.
Metropolitan JOSEPH (Klymowycz) with Archbishop KONSTANTIN (Jaroshevich) on
October 14, 1950 at Springfield, Massachusetts consecrated Ukrainian
Metropolitan NICHOLAS (Bohatyretz) for the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of
Metropolitan JOSEPH (Klymowycz) with Archbishop KONSTANTIN (Jaroshevich) and
Ukrainian Metropolitan NICHOLAS (Bohatyretz) on October 15, 1950 at
Sts. Peter and Paul Russian Orthodox Church in Springfield, Massachusetts
consecrated Bishop PETER Andreas (Zhurawetzky).
The first attempt at an American Orthodox Church met with opposition from
various autocephalous Orthodox Churches, with little to no support from
other ethnic churches in America. Sadly, the Ethnic Orthodox in America,
resist an American expression of the ancient Orthodox and Catholic faith.
They believe Orthodoxy must be presented in Eastern terms, in Eastern
Liturgy and Eastern Tradition. This belief is called the heresy of Cultural
submission. The Ukrainians had
In 1978, Archbishop +Peter (Zhurawetsky) assisted by Greek Archbishop
+Joachim (Souris) and Greek Bishop +Lavrentios (Maniatakis) consecrated
Metropolitan +Nicholas (Llnyckyj) for the Ukrainian Orthodox Church.
On May 13, 1989, Metropolitan +Nicholas (Llnyckyj) assisted by Bishop
+Christopher (Jones) and Bishop +David (Quilliams) consecrated Metropolitan
+Yuri (Spaeth) for the
Ukrainian Orthodox Church.
On January 17, 1999 Metropolitan Archbishop +Yuri
(Spaeth) assisted by Archbishop +Matthew (McCarthy) consecrated Archbishop
+Michael Damian-Benedict (Palladino) for the American Orthodox Church.
On April 25, 2001, Metropolitan Archbishop +Michael Damian-Benedict (A
Schema Benedictine Monk) assisted by Bishop +Martin-Benedict (Tindall) and
Bishop +Brendan Nuadha (Donovan) consecrated Metropolitan Archbishop + Brian
Joseph Kennedy, (a Schema Benedictine Monk) for the American Orthodox
----- Original Message -----
From: Ralph Brandt <brandtre@...>
Sent: Monday, June 30, 2003 12:05 AM
Subject: [church_history] Re: About all this bickering
> Bishop, I have failed in every attempt to make a check your
> credentials independent of your presence here. I will be very
> careful to quote you accurately and not add my meanings to what you
> Please grant me the same courtesy.
> --- In firstname.lastname@example.org, "Bishop Brian Kennedy, O.S.B."
> <a_o_c@s...> wrote:
> > I don't know if you mean me or not. Feel free to quote me, but not
> > me :)
> > Bishop Brian Kennedy, O.S.B.
> > ----- Original Message -----
> > From: Ralph Brandt <brandtre@d...>
> > To: <email@example.com>
> > Sent: Saturday, June 21, 2003 8:33 PM
> > Subject: [church_history] Re: About all this bickering
> > > Bishop, I have saved your post and Jason's that follows it for
> > > publication the next time someone talks ecumenicism. May I
> > > attribute the comments?
> > >
> > >
> > >
> > >
> > > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
> > > firstname.lastname@example.org
> > >
> > >
> > >
> > > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to
> > >
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