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Xantus's Murrelet in LA Times

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  • tertial
    Here s the latest on our rat project on Anacapa Island, from today s LA Times. Everything is going very well. We ve even found a XAMU nest at Landing Cove,
    Message 1 of 1 , Jun 2, 2003
      Here's the latest on our "rat project" on Anacapa Island, from
      today's LA Times. Everything is going very well. We've even found a
      XAMU nest at Landing Cove, where the boats come in.

      __________________________________________________

      Rare Bird Hatches a Comeback
      A plan to rid Anacapa Island of nonnative black rats was
      controversial, but it appears to be working for the Xantus' murrelet
      and other wildlife.


      By Jenifer Ragland, Times Staff Writer


      It had been 74 years since a Xantus' murrelet nest was found in the
      lava rock crevices, perched high near the plateau surface of Anacapa
      Island. But on May 7, a field biologist studying the rare seabird
      stumbled upon one. Just 10 days later, at least one fluffy chick from
      the nest hatched in the wild.

      This is big news for the National Park Service, because it's a sign
      that the agency's controversial plan to save the tiny bird from
      extinction is working.

      That plan involved killing off the murrelet's last unnatural predator
      on the island: the nonnative black rat, which biologists suspect
      crashed the island's fragile ecosystem in a shipwreck decades ago.

      Despite protests from animal-rights groups, the park service last fall
      completed a two-year project to eradicate up to 3,000 black rats from
      the three islets that make up Anacapa by dropping poison-laced food
      pellets.

      Six months later, the rats are gone, and the island environment in
      which the rodents wreaked havoc is making a comeback, say officials
      at Channel Islands National Park.

      Researchers have found 17 Xantus' murrelet nests on the island and in
      sea caves - the highest number ever recorded.

      In addition, native deer mice on East Anacapa are at greater numbers
      than normal for the spring, about 8,000.

      And side-blotched lizards and Channel Islands salamanders are also
      thriving there, as survival rates among juveniles have doubled with
      the rats gone.

      "The black rat was the last nonnative animal on this island," said
      Kate Faulkner, chief of resource management for the park, as she
      hiked up the rugged path toward Inspiration Point on a recent media
      tour of the island.

      Nonnative rats are responsible for up to 60% of bird and reptile
      extinctions in the world, Faulkner said. Anacapa is the 76th island
      in the world to eradicate rats, and the first off the coast of North
      America.

      "It's a huge step forward for conservation on Anacapa and in the
      United States," she said.

      But critics say such a step forward comes at the expense of other
      animals, including 94 birds - most of which were juvenile white-
      crowned sparrows - found dead on the island after the poisoning.
      Thousands of Anacapa deer mice also died.

      "If the park service really wanted people to have a look at this
      program, they would have invited the media out directly after the
      poisoning to see dying animals everywhere," said Michael Markarian,
      president of the New York-based Fund for Animals, which sued the park
      service in 2001 in an attempt to halt the project.

      "Seeing it six months later doesn't give you the full picture of
      what's happened," he said. "It's like seeing a battlefield after the
      bodies have all been cleaned up and the blood washed away."

      Park service officials, however, maintain that killing the rats was
      important for the long-term conservation of the island.

      Biologists also say they took pains to offset the possible damage by
      staggering the poison drop over two years, trapping and removing many
      birds of prey and capturing more than 1,000 deer mice and then
      reintroducing them after the eradication program.

      "There was a short-term impact, but over the long term there will be
      a net benefit," said Gregg Howald, a biologist with the Island
      Conservation and Ecology Group, a partner in the project.

      As the native species recover on Anacapa, Howald said, biologists are
      making sure the rats are gone by putting out thousands of traps in
      prime rat habitat over a sustained period.

      So far, he said, "There is no sign of rats."

      The project is part of an ongoing effort to restore all five of the
      islands that make up Channel Islands National Park to their natural
      state. Since the 1970s, the park service has worked to remove
      interloping sheep, cats,
      burros, rabbits, pigs and golden eagles from the islands.

      On Anacapa, the eradication effort came with a $1.6-million price
      tag, not including additional costs for rat prevention and future
      monitoring, officials said. It was carried out by a partnership that
      also included the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, California
      Department of Fish and Game and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
      Administration.

      Funding comes from a court settlement stemming from the 1990 American
      Trader oil spill off the coast of Huntington Beach, a disaster that
      resulted in the deaths of thousands of seabirds.

      Among the species killed in the spill was the Xantus' murrelet, a
      nocturnal seabird that nests on only 12 islands - including Anacapa -
      along the West Coast of North America. State officials have listed
      the murrelet as a threatened species.

      Darrell Whitworth, a wildlife biologist at the Davis-based California
      Institute of Environmental Studies, has spent the last few weeks
      working at night to track and monitor the secretive bird.

      Nest numbers are up 50% from the previous highest number over three
      years, Whitworth said.

      Even more telling, he said, is the fact that biologists haven't found
      a single rat-eaten murrelet egg. Before the eradication, about 60% of
      the murrelet nests that were found had been destroyed by the black
      rat's pin-sharp teeth.

      And last week, Whitworth said, researchers came across the first
      documented nest on Anacapa of a Cassin's auklet, another very rare
      seabird, similar to the murrelet.

      It was found on West Anacapa - on Rat Rock, which is now rat-free.

      "Birds you would expect to see here are actually here," Whitworth
      said. "That's a good sign for the island."
      __________________________________

      good birding,

      Steve Hampton
      Davis, CA
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