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Muslim Conquest of Spain

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  • James Mathews
    ... In the late 7th century the Umayyad Caliphate was well ensconced in North Africa having taken North Africa, and Tripolitania, in the year 650 from the
    Message 1 of 4 , Jan 24, 2014
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      >>>> Muslim Conquest of Spain, 711 - 732 <<<<

      In the late 7th century the Umayyad Caliphate was well ensconced in North Africa having taken North Africa, and Tripolitania, in the year 650 from the Byzantines, and the city of Carthage fell to the Muslims in 698.  By the year 709 all of North Africa from the Atlantic Ocean through Egypt had fallen to the armies of Islam.  Meanwhile just across the Strait of Gibraltar, the Visogothic kingdom of Spain was undergoing a dynastic struggle and a Berber-Arab raiding force crossed the strait to intervene in the struggle by invitation.  By 711 the last Visogothic King of Spain, Rodrigo (Roderick) was killed in the Battle of Guadalete River.  The leader of the Muslim forces, Tariq, was honored by changing the name of the strait from, “Pillars of Hercules” to Djebel al Tariq (Tariq’s Mountain).  The term ‘Gibraltar’ is a later linguistic derivation of that title.  Tariq realized that the lands known today as Spain were an excellent candidate for conquest as there was little sympathy in the population for the Visigoths.  The Hispano-Roman peoples were ready to be delivered from the hold of the northern conquerors.  After a hasty reenforcement of the relatively small lodgment gained by the Muslim raiding party, the Muslims moved northward, offering to the population a generous and somewhat more lenient governance and religous tolerance to all Christians and Jews.  In fact, many Visogothic nobles actually embraced the beliefs of Islam in exchange for the continued use and enjoyment of the lands that they held.  In a mere seven years, by 718, nearly all the Iberian Peninsula had fallen to the Muslim Conquest, and was under the firm control of the Umayyad Caliphate.

      References:

      >> Javier Romero, “The Reconquista,” Strategy and Tactics Magazine, (#279, March-April, 2013);
      >> Contamine, Pierre, “War In the Middle Ages,” (New York, 1986);
      >>Oman, Sir Charles, “The Art of War In the Middle Ages,” (Oxford, 1884);
      >> Valdeon, Julio, “La Reconquista.” (Madrid, 2006).

      Respectfully Submitted;

      Marcus Audens   
    • Jeff Smith
      Hi there, I knew some of this history, but not all. I was unaware, for example, that Tariq caught the Visigoths in a dynastic struggle and that they were
      Message 2 of 4 , Jan 24, 2014
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        Hi there,
         
        I knew some of this history, but not all. I was unaware, for example, that Tariq caught the Visigoths in a dynastic struggle and that they were unpopular in Iberia. Their lasting influence, though (particularly in names), seems to have survived the unpopularity. 
         
        The amazing part here to me is that the explosion of Islam (and I can only describe it in those terms) from the Arabian Peninsula not only when west, but went in every direction seemingly at once. During the same time Tariq was rolling the Visigothic kingdom back to the Pyranees other Muslims were pushing the Byzantines out of the Levant into and beyond Syria all the way to the walls of Constantinople itself.
         
        Baduila
         

         

        ----- Original Message -----

        From: James Mathews

        Sent: 01/24/14 06:51 AM

        To: ByzantiumNovum@yahoogroups.com, ByzantiumNovumCulture@yahoogroups.com, ByzantiumNovumMilitarium@yahoogroups.com

        Subject: [ByzantiumNovumMilitarium] Muslim Conquest of Spain

         
         

         

        >>>> Muslim Conquest of Spain, 711 - 732 <<<<
         
        In the late 7th century the Umayyad Caliphate was well ensconced in North Africa having taken North Africa, and Tripolitania, in the year 650 from the Byzantines, and the city of Carthage fell to the Muslims in 698.  By the year 709 all of North Africa from the Atlantic Ocean through Egypt had fallen to the armies of Islam.  Meanwhile just across the Strait of Gibraltar, the Visogothic kingdom of Spain was undergoing a dynastic struggle and a Berber-Arab raiding force crossed the strait to intervene in the struggle by invitation.  By 711 the last Visogothic King of Spain, Rodrigo (Roderick) was killed in the Battle of Guadalete River.  The leader of the Muslim forces, Tariq, was honored by changing the name of the strait from, “Pillars of Hercules” to Djebel al Tariq (Tariq’s Mountain).  The term ‘Gibraltar’ is a later linguistic derivation of that title.  Tariq realized that the lands known today as Spain were an excellent candidate for conquest as there was little sympathy in the population for the Visigoths.  The Hispano-Roman peoples were ready to be delivered from the hold of the northern conquerors.  After a hasty reenforcement of the relatively small lodgment gained by the Muslim raiding party, the Muslims moved northward, offering to the population a generous and somewhat more lenient governance and religous tolerance to all Christians and Jews.  In fact, many Visogothic nobles actually embraced the beliefs of Islam in exchange for the continued use and enjoyment of the lands that they held.  In a mere seven years, by 718, nearly all the Iberian Peninsula had fallen to the Muslim Conquest, and was under the firm control of the Umayyad Caliphate.
         
        References:
         
        >> Javier Romero, “The Reconquista,” Strategy and Tactics Magazine, (#279, March-April, 2013);
        >> Contamine, Pierre, “War In the Middle Ages,” (New York, 1986);
        >>Oman, Sir Charles, “The Art of War In the Middle Ages,” (Oxford, 1884);
        >> Valdeon, Julio, “La Reconquista.” (Madrid, 2006).
         
        Respectfully Submitted;
         
        Marcus Audens   

         





        BADUILA CHALKEUS
        Senator, Grand Chancellor of Byzantium Novum, Duke of Anatoliou Pelagous, etc.
      • Scipio Second
        As always, Marcus Audens has provided an interesting glimpse into history.   There is one anecdote which is misleading: Muslims moved northward [in
        Message 3 of 4 , Jan 24, 2014
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          As always, Marcus Audens has provided an interesting glimpse into history.   There is one anecdote which is misleading: "Muslims moved northward [in Spain}, offering to the population a generous and somewhat more lenient governance and religous tolerance to all Christians and Jews."   While invading Muslims found it convenient to initially accommodate Christians and Jews during the conquest, their status was that of ahl al-dhimma.   These were "protected peoples, i.e. peoples tolerated in the Muslim lands: dar al-Islam (House of Islam) - which subjected them to the disabilities and humiliations laid down in specific regulations commonly known as the Covenant of Umar, which degraded both the individual and the community." (Littman, 92)   In short, dhimmas were second-class citizens at best.     

          In the so-called "golden age" of Muslim tolerance, Abu Ishaq, an 11th century Arab poet and jurist commented thusly on Jews in Spain: "Put them back where they belong and reduce them to the lowest of the low...Turn your eyes to other [Muslim] countries and you will find the Jews there are outcast dogs...Do not consider it a breach of faith to kill them..."   Joseph Ibn Nagrella, the Jewish minister of Muslim Grenada, and an estimated five thousand Jews of Grenada were subsequently slaughtered on December 30, 1066.   (Littman, 93)            

          Source: Littman, David G. and Bat Ye'or, "Protected Peoples Under Islam," The Myth of Islamic Tolerance: How Islamic Law Treats Non-Muslims (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2005).

          Petrus Augustinus  
          On Friday, January 24, 2014 7:41 AM, Jeff Smith <baduila@...> wrote:
           
           
          Hi there,
           
          I knew some of this history, but not all. I was unaware, for example, that Tariq caught the Visigoths in a dynastic struggle and that they were unpopular in Iberia. Their lasting influence, though (particularly in names), seems to have survived the unpopularity. 
           
          The amazing part here to me is that the explosion of Islam (and I can only describe it in those terms) from the Arabian Peninsula not only when west, but went in every direction seemingly at once. During the same time Tariq was rolling the Visigothic kingdom back to the Pyranees other Muslims were pushing the Byzantines out of the Levant into and beyond Syria all the way to the walls of Constantinople itself.
           
          Baduila
           
           
          ----- Original Message -----
          From: James Mathews
          Sent: 01/24/14 06:51 AM
          To: ByzantiumNovum@yahoogroups.com, ByzantiumNovumCulture@yahoogroups.com, ByzantiumNovumMilitarium@yahoogroups.com
          Subject: [ByzantiumNovumMilitarium] Muslim Conquest of Spain
           
           
           
          >>>> Muslim Conquest of Spain, 711 - 732 <<<<
           
          In the late 7th century the Umayyad Caliphate was well ensconced in North Africa having taken North Africa, and Tripolitania, in the year 650 from the Byzantines, and the city of Carthage fell to the Muslims in 698.  By the year 709 all of North Africa from the Atlantic Ocean through Egypt had fallen to the armies of Islam.  Meanwhile just across the Strait of Gibraltar, the Visogothic kingdom of Spain was undergoing a dynastic struggle and a Berber-Arab raiding force crossed the strait to intervene in the struggle by invitation.  By 711 the last Visogothic King of Spain, Rodrigo (Roderick) was killed in the Battle of Guadalete River.  The leader of the Muslim forces, Tariq, was honored by changing the name of the strait from, “Pillars of Hercules” to Djebel al Tariq (Tariq’s Mountain).  The term ‘Gibraltar’ is a later linguistic derivation of that title.  Tariq realized that the lands known today as Spain were an excellent candidate for conquest as there was little sympathy in the population for the Visigoths.  The Hispano-Roman peoples were ready to be delivered from the hold of the northern conquerors.  After a hasty reenforcement of the relatively small lodgment gained by the Muslim raiding party, the Muslims moved northward, offering to the population a generous and somewhat more lenient governance and religous tolerance to all Christians and Jews.  In fact, many Visogothic nobles actually embraced the beliefs of Islam in exchange for the continued use and enjoyment of the lands that they held.  In a mere seven years, by 718, nearly all the Iberian Peninsula had fallen to the Muslim Conquest, and was under the firm control of the Umayyad Caliphate.
           
          References:
           
          >> Javier Romero, “The Reconquista,” Strategy and Tactics Magazine, (#279, March-April, 2013);
          >> Contamine, Pierre, “War In the Middle Ages,” (New York, 1986);
          >>Oman, Sir Charles, “The Art of War In the Middle Ages,” (Oxford, 1884);
          >> Valdeon, Julio, “La Reconquista.” (Madrid, 2006).
           
          Respectfully Submitted;
           
          Marcus Audens   
           




          BADUILA CHALKEUS
          Senator, Grand Chancellor of Byzantium Novum, Duke of Anatoliou Pelagous, etc.


        • Jeff Smith
          My Lord Count, Excellent catch. I missed that line entirely. One has to be always be wary about a line like more lenient -- more lenient than what? More
          Message 4 of 4 , Jan 24, 2014
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            My Lord Count,

             

            Excellent catch. I missed that line entirely. One has to be always be wary about a line like "more lenient" -- more lenient than what?  More lenient than the deal offered in North Africa?  Certainly. More lenient than the Visigoths? Almost certainly not. 

             

            If I may, now that my mind is on this kind of comparison, I'd like to come back to the unpopularity of the Visigoths. While the portion of the article you point out (and correct) makes the the Muslims look popular, and the article says the Visigoths were unpopular, it was the Muslims who were driven out by the "locals", not the Visigoths, and the former were much stronger militarily.

             

            Baduila

             

             

            ----- Original Message -----

            From: Scipio Second

            Sent: 01/24/14 10:55 AM

            To: ByzantiumNovumCulture@yahoogroups.com, ByzantiumNovumMilitarium@yahoogroups.com, ByzantiumNovum@yahoogroups.com

            Subject: Re: [ByzantiumNovumCulture] Re: Muslim Conquest of Spain

             
             

             

            As always, Marcus Audens has provided an interesting glimpse into history.   There is one anecdote which is misleading: "Muslims moved northward [in Spain}, offering to the population a generous and somewhat more lenient governance and religous tolerance to all Christians and Jews."   While invading Muslims found it convenient to initially accommodate Christians and Jews during the conquest, their status was that of ahl al-dhimma.   These were "protected peoples, i.e. peoples tolerated in the Muslim lands: dar al-Islam (House of Islam) - which subjected them to the disabilities and humiliations laid down in specific regulations commonly known as the Covenant of Umar, which degraded both the individual and the community." (Littman, 92)   In short, dhimmas were second-class citizens at best.     
             
            In the so-called "golden age" of Muslim tolerance, Abu Ishaq, an 11th century Arab poet and jurist commented thusly on Jews in Spain: "Put them back where they belong and reduce them to the lowest of the low...Turn your eyes to other [Muslim] countries and you will find the Jews there are outcast dogs...Do not consider it a breach of faith to kill them..."   Joseph Ibn Nagrella, the Jewish minister of Muslim Grenada, and an estimated five thousand Jews of Grenada were subsequently slaughtered on December 30, 1066.   (Littman, 93)            
             
            Source: Littman, David G. and Bat Ye'or, "Protected Peoples Under Islam," The Myth of Islamic Tolerance: How Islamic Law Treats Non-Muslims (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2005).
             
            Petrus Augustinus  
            On Friday, January 24, 2014 7:41 AM, Jeff Smith <baduila@...> wrote:
             
             
            Hi there,
             
            I knew some of this history, but not all. I was unaware, for example, that Tariq caught the Visigoths in a dynastic struggle and that they were unpopular in Iberia. Their lasting influence, though (particularly in names), seems to have survived the unpopularity. 
             
            The amazing part here to me is that the explosion of Islam (and I can only describe it in those terms) from the Arabian Peninsula not only when west, but went in every direction seemingly at once. During the same time Tariq was rolling the Visigothic kingdom back to the Pyranees other Muslims were pushing the Byzantines out of the Levant into and beyond Syria all the way to the walls of Constantinople itself.
             
            Baduila
             
             
            ----- Original Message -----
            From: James Mathews
            Sent: 01/24/14 06:51 AM
            To: ByzantiumNovum@yahoogroups.com, ByzantiumNovumCulture@yahoogroups.com, ByzantiumNovumMilitarium@yahoogroups.com
            Subject: [ByzantiumNovumMilitarium] Muslim Conquest of Spain
             
             
             
            >>>> Muslim Conquest of Spain, 711 - 732 <<<<
             
            In the late 7th century the Umayyad Caliphate was well ensconced in North Africa having taken North Africa, and Tripolitania, in the year 650 from the Byzantines, and the city of Carthage fell to the Muslims in 698.  By the year 709 all of North Africa from the Atlantic Ocean through Egypt had fallen to the armies of Islam.  Meanwhile just across the Strait of Gibraltar, the Visogothic kingdom of Spain was undergoing a dynastic struggle and a Berber-Arab raiding force crossed the strait to intervene in the struggle by invitation.  By 711 the last Visogothic King of Spain, Rodrigo (Roderick) was killed in the Battle of Guadalete River.  The leader of the Muslim forces, Tariq, was honored by changing the name of the strait from, “Pillars of Hercules” to Djebel al Tariq (Tariq’s Mountain).  The term ‘Gibraltar’ is a later linguistic derivation of that title.  Tariq realized that the lands known today as Spain were an excellent candidate for conquest as there was little sympathy in the population for the Visigoths.  The Hispano-Roman peoples were ready to be delivered from the hold of the northern conquerors.  After a hasty reenforcement of the relatively small lodgment gained by the Muslim raiding party, the Muslims moved northward, offering to the population a generous and somewhat more lenient governance and religous tolerance to all Christians and Jews.  In fact, many Visogothic nobles actually embraced the beliefs of Islam in exchange for the continued use and enjoyment of the lands that they held.  In a mere seven years, by 718, nearly all the Iberian Peninsula had fallen to the Muslim Conquest, and was under the firm control of the Umayyad Caliphate.
             
            References:
             
            >> Javier Romero, “The Reconquista,” Strategy and Tactics Magazine, (#279, March-April, 2013);
            >> Contamine, Pierre, “War In the Middle Ages,” (New York, 1986);
            >>Oman, Sir Charles, “The Art of War In the Middle Ages,” (Oxford, 1884);
            >> Valdeon, Julio, “La Reconquista.” (Madrid, 2006).
             
            Respectfully Submitted;
             
            Marcus Audens   
             
             




            BADUILA CHALKEUS
            Senator, Grand Chancellor of Byzantium Novum, Duke of Anatoliou Pelagous, etc.

             

             





            BADUILA CHALKEUS
            Senator, Grand Chancellor of Byzantium Novum, Duke of Anatoliou Pelagous, etc.
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