Re: [Bioethics] two papers may be of interest
- Please forward as appropriateDavid King
Down with the Paralympics! Down with Channel-4-liberalism!
No, really, I mean it. If I am forced to swallow one more dose of Paralympics hype syrup, I will throw up. With the Olympics, the shock and awe blast of nationalist triumphalist machismo was at least familiar this is just the capitalist-spectacle-as-usual. But with the Paralympics we have seen the addition into this cocktail of a supremely powerful and toxic ingredient, the opportunity for liberals to feel good about themselves for supporting the underdog and progress in the fight against prejudice. It is this thick coating of syrup which has confused even radical disability rights advocates, and is making it almost impossible for critics to speak out, except about the blatantly obvious outrage of Atos as sponsors. But the truth is that, despite all the hopeful talk about how the Paralympics are going to revolutionise peoples ideas about disability, the ideas and values at the core of the Paralympics are the precise opposite of the values of disability liberation. (I write this as a disabled person, one who has undergone one of Atos medical assessments and been found wanting, and who is suffering financially as a consequence.)
But wait a minute, I hear you say, isnt that a bit extreme, surely all the visibility and celebration of disabled peoples bodies is a good thing, at least its a step in the right direction? Sorry, Im afraid not. Its not just that the current epiphany of able-bodied people is shallow (how many of those enthusiastic millions will be attending the protests against Atos?). What is actually going on with the Paralympics is an intensification of the values that drive the oppression of disabled people. And there is actually no contradiction at all between Atos as administrators of assessments that rob disabled people of their benefits and Atos as sponsors of the Paralympics.
First, lets clear away some obvious dead wood. There is nothing useful to disabled people in being seen as inspirational for their heroic overcoming of their impairment rather than as pathetic disgusting objects of charity. As some have already pointed out, since the vast majority of disabled people will never become Paralympians, all this does is to set up again the traditional distinction between the deserving and undeserving poor. Equally obviously, this is the quintessential liberal narrative of the heroic individual, filled with (in the words of Tory Prime Minister David Cameron) steely determination to succeed. It has nothing whatsoever to do with a collective struggle for disabled peoples rights or the values of disability liberation. I don't remember a wave of national euphoria about collective achievements of the disability rights movement. Only slightly less obvious is that the deluge of what has now been dubbed inspiration pornography is not about us: its composed largely of able-bodied people's self-congratulation that they have overcome their bad feelings about disabled people and relief that they are no longer being asked to feel sorry for these poor creatures. The inspirational narrative makes them feel much better.
The medical model again
But the heart of the issue is this: this change of narrative is just the flip-side of the same coin, the medical model of disability, the rejection of which, in favour of a social model, has been the theoretical foundation of disability liberation for the last 30 years. While the medical model says that disability is caused by physical impairment, the social model insists that people are dis-abled by society that refuses to accommodate their needs (for a decent income, accessible transport, buildings etc). Medical model thinking is always focused on our individual impairments, and how we can overcome them. In the past, the able bodied peoples predominant feeling about this was despair and pity, expressed by wanting to help through charity; all that's changed is that now theyre excited that it seems that impairments can be overcome after all. Can they not do better than go from one end to the other of this stupid construct? I am neither a hero nor a victim, just an ordinary person, as we all are.
At the heart of the medical model is a value judgement that seems to be such a matter of common sense that it does not need examining; low functionality bad, high functionality good, and this is what is being celebrated at the Paralympics, (and, of course, in competitive sport in general). Here we are seeing the flip side of the medical model, a triumphalist we can fix it with technology narrative that, in the age of high technology and biomedicine, has superseded the old designation of disabled people as incurables.
The point is that the Paralympics dont just reflect the familiar capitalist values of competitive sport, they also represent something just as deep and significant, the values of technology. The concept of functionality/performance/efficiency is one of the concepts that come from machines and engineering that have been the ruling concept of capitalist technocracy for the last 400 years. In economic theory, it is efficiency that leads to success in the marketplace. The medical model of disability springs directly from technocratic thinking. In capitalist technocracy, what matters is not arbitrary or theoretical ideas (like religions or humanist principles) lacking a firm evidence base, but utility, ie. what works, what can be palpably felt and cashed out. Facts! Give me facts, not fancies, declares Dickens Mr Gradgrind (Hard Times). Thus Atos medical assessments are not about what illness/impairment you have, rather they are (supposedly) scientific assessments of the functionality of your body, what tasks it can and cannot do. It is perfectly logical within this technocratic way of thinking that people with terminal cancer can nonetheless be fit to work. This ruthlessly scientific way of thinking is, naturally, being implemented in the governments planned Personal Independence Payments, replacing the Disability Living Allowance system that arbitrarily accepts people with certain conditions as eligible for benefit payments.
In a world in which functionality rules, Atos as sponsors of the Paralympics makes perfect sense. And all the radical talk of integrating the Olympics with the Paralympics, since the performance of Paralympians is approaching that of Olympians, is just another manifestation of technocratic thinking: in a world ruled by a linear scale of performance such arbitrary distinctions are a form of discrimination, arent they? It is always the ironing out of arbitrary anomalous barriers that is defined within liberal technocracy as progress.
Technocracy has always been good at clothing itself in the feel-good ideology of progress, and the adulation of disabled people and their machines as Superhumans, (as the Channel 4 billboards have it) feeds off decades of general technology hype and countless movies about bionic men, robocops and cyborgs were with super-powers, as well as endless TV programmes extolling cosmetic surgery. It is this fetishisation of technology that has made amputee athletes' blades the latest sexy fashion accessory to be flaunted rather than being made to look like human feet. Its the technology that is the real star of the Paralympics, which is why it made sense to have Stephen Hawking and his wonderfully machine-sounding voicebox at the centre of the opening ceremony. (One slightly less well-known fact about Stephen Hawking is his advocacy of genetic engineering to create better humans.) In our times, as dreams of social progress have been crushed, they have been largely replaced with hopes of progress through technology. This has given rise to movements like transhumanism which dreams of humans evolving beyond their biological limits through technology: eventually, they tell us, we will reach a Singularity, at which humans will merge with machines (and humanism will disappear for good). The focus on functionality as ultimate arbiter of value explains why, for a philosopher such as Peter Singer, it makes perfect sense to allow rights for animals but to suggest that its acceptable to kill disabled babies, and that placing any special value on humans is speciesism'. For disabled people, the insistence that value depends on measurable (whether through athletic competition or scientific tests) functionality is just the same old story of their oppression. In the social model, all human beings are of equal value regardless of their abilities you get value by virtue of being a member of this club, the human race.
Perhaps the easiest way to see whats wrong with this enthusiasm for superhumans is to translate the word into German: ubermenschen. The irony of disabled people as poster children for technofascism is just a bit too sharp to bear, but it has to be admitted that there are corners of the disabled community that have encouraged this trend (disabled people are not expected to be better than anyone else at resisting technocratic capitalist ideology). Just as the Olympics always spawns a rash of articles arguing that enhancement through doping should be allowed, the Paralympics is providing a boost to the cyborg enthusiasts who are becoming a distressingly mainstream tendency in liberalism.
I don't enjoy being a spoilsport, and none of the above is intended as a criticism of disabled athletes. It's just important that we don't get fooled again by the Paralympics hype. What's going on here is an old story, and disabled people are not the first group to be told how wonderful they are whilst the state acts against their interests. Liberal hegemony always works like this: it co-opts the radical ideas of liberation movements, turns them into individualist narratives of personal success, and sells them back to us as part of its eternal narrative of progress (through technology). Then it asks why we're still complaining. This is what happened in the 70s and 80s with the ideas of the Women's Liberation Movement. Now women can run corporations and serve in the army (so, as the old slogan goes, they can see the world, meet fascinating and exotic people, and kill them). Underneath the hopeful, shiny, and even beautiful show, the ruling imperatives of capitalist technocracy relentlessly advance. Billions gets spent on a nice Paralympics spectacle, whilst they continue to cut our benefits according to their 'objective' criterion of functionality, and continue to develop reproductive genetic technologies that will make sure we don't get born in the first place.