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  • bobbees@juno.com
    ... Subject: Saga #17: Bee Breeding in the Field Part 2 To: BEE-L@uacsc2.albany.edu From: deelusbybeekeeper@up2me.com Cc: honeybee@elgon.t.se Date: 15 Jan 2000
    Message 1 of 24 , Jan 28, 2000
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      Subject: Saga #17: Bee Breeding in the Field Part 2
      To: BEE-L@...
      From: deelusbybeekeeper@...
      Cc: honeybee@...
      Date: 15 Jan 2000 13:39:44 PST

      Bee Breeding in the Field: Part # 2 USA Paralysis - Vicious Bee Breeding
      Historical Background.......
      ******************************************
      ...........................................QUARTERLY
      REPORTS............................................... USDA Bureau
      of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Division of Bee Culture, Madison,
      Wisconsin. Period: Jul 1 - Sep 30,
      1942 An unusually vicious temper was
      observed in only a few of the hybrid groups which reached its highest
      level in a few colonies of Group
      GxHxS...........................................
      .........................................................................
      .............................................................. USDA
      Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Division of Bee Culture,
      Madison, Wisconsin. Period: Apr 1 -
      Jun 30, 1945 ABSTRACT: Page #2. Two groups of
      resistant queens proved to be so vicious that it is almost immpossible to
      handle them in full-strength colonies. Queens of this stock crossed with
      Caucasian drones produced workers of satisfactory disposition....Page
      #17. Work Project t-1-5. Management of Bees for the Production of Bee
      Products. Groups Ma, Ra, and K deserve special mention. The Ma queens
      produced bees so vicious that it is almost impossible to handle them in
      full-strength colonies. The level of brood production from these queens
      is so low that it is unlikely this stock will prove practical for
      production. The Ra group contains representative colonies equally vicious
      as the Ma but on the whole they are somewhat easier to handle. Colonies
      headed by K queens, which are sisters of the Ra, show desirable
      characteristics, both in behavior and expected production. We are
      convinced that unless resistance can be retained upon top crossing with a
      gentler strain of bees, the present resistant lines will be unacceptable
      by and dangerous to the beekeeping industry. Large apiaries of bees as
      vicious as the two lines in question are almost centain to cause
      unsuitable relations between beekeepers and people of the community in
      which they operate. Future plans for the selection and breeding for
      resistance must take these factors into consideration. From an
      experimental standpoint it would be worthwhile to raise queens from one
      of the better yet more vicious Ma queens to be top crossed with drones
      from gentler stock, both for the purpose of testing their resistant
      character and
      temper...................................................................
      ..................................................
      .........................................................................
      ..............................................................USDA Bureau
      of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Division of Bee Culture, Madison,
      Wisconsin. Period: Jul 1 - Sep 30,
      1945 Page #8. Lines S-36, Hr, and Ra appear
      superior in production. Lines F, Fa, and K show high production and are
      considered to have characteristics desired in good stock. Lines G-Ga and
      H-Ha showed a marked tendency for swarming, and this lowered their
      average production. Some attempted swarming and some actual loss of
      swarms occurred in all stock groups. Consequently, some of the better
      colonies were handicapped at some period during the flow whereas some of
      the retarded colonies had an advantage because of more storage space in
      proportion to their population. this situation will prevent a strict
      analysis of differences in the productive capacity of the several stock
      lines. This year's tests indicate that artificially inseminated queens
      are as dependable as those naturally mated. We should, therefore, plan to
      use as many artificially mated queens as possible in future tests. Other
      noticeable stock differences were evident. The Hr group was exceptionally
      slow in sealing honey and used excessive burr comb. Several colonies in
      the H and Ha groups cut some of their brood combs down to the midrib
      without building them. The vicious temper of the Ma and Ra groups was
      almost intolerable. However, these lines built practically no burr comb
      and sealed their honey sooner than any of the
      others...................................
      .........................................................................
      ..............................................................
      USDA Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Division of Bee Culture,
      Madison, Wisconsin. Period: Jul 1 -
      Sep 30, 1948 Page #18. The 123 queens were
      less prolific than the other lines tested. The bees were cross and
      production was low. It had many of the characteristics of the RA 3-way
      resistant stock of the same component lines tested in 1945 that showed
      good average production but extreme viciousness. This hybrid line has few
      desirable characteristics to offer. (Note: Ref
      (W39xW64)x(A18)..........................................................
      ................
      .........................................................................
      ..............................................................USDA Bureau
      of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Division of Bee Culture, Madison,
      Wisconsin. Period: Apr 1 - Jun 30,
      1949 ABSTRACT:W.C. Roberts has been at Kelleys
      Island since April 5 making preparations for the queen-rearing project
      this year. Stephen Taber and William N. edwards are carrying on the work
      this summer....Page #2. Progress and Status of Work. W.C. Roberts has
      been stationed at Kellelys Island since April 5 making preparations for
      the queen-rearing project this year. A 20' x 40' x 8' portable insulated
      steel building has recently been erected in one of the queen-rearing
      yards. The portable steel grafting house erected last summer was moved to
      this location. Mr Roberts returned to Madison June 25 to carry on his
      work in bee breeding. Stephen Taber and his assistant William N. Edwards
      have taken over the queen-rearing work on the Island this
      summer...................................................................
      ...........................
      .........................................................................
      .............................................................. USDA
      Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Division of Bee Culture,
      Madison, Wisconsin. Period: Jul 1
      - Sep 30, 1949 ABSTRACT: At the start of the season
      the bees on Kelleys Island were in excellent condition. However, there
      was little nectar available throughout the summer, handicapping the
      production of queens severely. Approximately 1,500 queens were produced
      and distributed for testing. Large quantities of sugar sirup will need to
      be fed to insure satisfactory wintering of the colonies. More cases of
      paralysis were observed this summer than during any previous year. With
      one exception, all colonies suffering from paralysis were headed by (S-10
      x W39)x(A18 x 16-3) queens, which suggests a stock weakness....Page #2
      Progress and Status of Work. "Kelleys Island Queen Production Project" A
      20' x 40' portable insulated steel building was erected late in June to
      facilitate the project. The bees were in excellent condition at the start
      of the season. Queen rearing go off to a good start. However, except for
      a brief honey flow from sumac, there was little nectar available
      throughout the summer, which handicapped the production of queens
      severely. Very little rain fell during June, July, and August. Robbing
      bees were serious throughout the summer but special cages for putting
      over colonies while they were being worked were of some help. The
      production schedule fell below planned estimates. Approximately 1,500
      queens were produced and distributed for testing. Honey reserves are too
      low for satisfactory wintering, which will make it necessary to feed a
      large quantity of sugar sirup before the 1st of November.....Page #4.
      "Paralysis" (Floyd Moeller) Paralysis became so severe in one colony in
      the Slotten yard that the colony was of no value. The condition was first
      noted June 3. After adding a quantity of brood from a triple nuc on June
      20, the colony made some improvement but due to queen trouble, the colony
      was finally disposed of. Two other colonies in the same yard later
      developed paralysis, which was never severe, and recovered. In July two
      more colonies in this yard developed bad cases of paralysis. Both of
      these are very severe at this time. Two cases of paralysis appeared in
      early August in the Primrose yard - one is severe and the other mile, but
      both persist as of this date. A further observation was made to the
      effect that all five of the colonies severely infected with paralysis wer
      of the stock line (S-10 x W39) x (A18 x 16-3). The two colonies that
      showed light infection and then recovered were of the line (Cau. x B149 x
      E-182 x Sh) None of the (S-10 x W39) x (A18 x 16-3) cases has recovered.
      This would seem to indicate some degree of resistance and susceptibility
      to the disease among the lines of stock. The means of spread is not well
      understood, but may be in large part by crawling bees. It has to this
      time been restricted to the two yards - Slotten and Primrose....Page #6.
      Work Project I-g-2. Bee Management Investigations. I-g-2-5. Stock
      selection and inbreeding. (W.C.Roberts) The production phase of the
      Kelleys Island project was assigned to Stephen Taber and two assistants
      in late June. Thus the work of production and maintenance in inbred lines
      of bees could be renewed at Madison. Established lines were inbred for
      another generation and new lines were started from some of the
      outstanding hybrid crosses. Pedigrees of the nine lines (which we will
      winter this year) are shown in the diagrams. These pedigrees give a
      history of the lines for the last 4 years and show the matings made each
      year........Page #15. Some of the principal distinguishing
      characteristics of the lines under test are given below. Detailed study
      of the season's data has not been made at this time. The Kelleys Island
      line (S-10 x Cau) x (A-18 x 16-3) has bees of gentle disposition, seal
      their honey white to the bottom bar, and do not produce bur or brace comb
      even when heavily crowded. The top producing colonies in three of the
      four yards were of this line. In the other yard, the top producing colony
      produced only 5 pounds less than the highest yielding colony. In some
      colonies the tendency to propolize the entrance was shown, but not to
      excess. From the standpoint of handling characteristics and honey
      production, this is the best of the 1949 series. Some of the queens were
      lost due to an unexplained rather abrupt cessation of egg laying at
      various times of the season, which necessitated replacement of those
      queens. The Kelleys Island line (S-10 x W-39) x (A-18 x 16-3) has some
      temper and is of a rather nervous temperament, probably due to the W-39
      influence. The bees tend to buld bur and brace comb, often to excess.
      These colonies produced crops well in the upper range, indicating
      superior performance of the queens. Five of the colonies of this line
      were the only ones to come down with paralysis and seem unable to
      recover, at least at present. This would indicate unusual susceptibility
      to this disorder. The Kelleys Island line (S-10 x W-39 x Cau.) x (A-18 x
      16-3) shows nervous "runny" tendencies, probably also due to the W-39
      influence. The honey is well sealed and whitecapped. the tendency to
      build bur comb is not present, and they do not build much brace comb.
      Queens are large and prolific. Production is superior, except in the
      Slotten yard where only two queens are represented. The Kelleys Island
      line (D182 x B149 x Cau.) x (A-18 x 16-3) is of mild disposition, does
      not build much bur or brace comb, and seals honey well. Production from
      this line is also superior. All four lines of queens from Kelleys Island
      were introduced in the fall and overwintered in the colonies to be
      tested. The commercial line S-229 x Sh was average or below average in
      production. The queens were not as large as most Short stock but were of
      good conformation and quite uniform. The bees showed some temper. Line 50
      x Sh had large light colored queens of remarkable uniformity with bees of
      some slight temper. Honey was not sealed as well as some of the other
      lines. Production was average or slightly below. The 51 x Sh line was one
      of the better Short crosses as far as temperament is concerned.
      Production was good. The 53 x Sh cross produced bees of mild disposition
      with a tendency to propolize the hive entrance heavily. (Caucasian
      characteristic) Production was average or above. The queens were darker
      in color than the other Short hybrids and somewhat smaller than the 50 x
      Sh queens. The 1 x Sh hybrids showed bees of some slight temper. The
      tendency to build bur comb was notably absent. Entrances to some of the
      colonies were heavily propolized. Production was average or slightly
      above. The 3 x Sh cross produced bees with some nervousness, but not
      excessive temper. The bees built bur comb freely even when not crowded,
      but this characteristic was not clearly defined among all the test queens
      of the line. Production was well above average. Sister queens mated to
      Harrell drones (3 x Hr) produced gentle bees. Again the tendency to build
      bur comb was present. Production, however, in this cross was not
      outstanding. 5 x Hr and Hr x Hr queens were not outstanding, and produced
      average or below average crops. The 111 and 112 lines were tested last
      year, and the queens representing these lines were in their second year.
      Production for both lines was well above average. The 112 x Sh hybrids
      produced bees with some temper. Production was good. Some of the colonies
      had a tendency to propolize the entrance. Queens of this line were of
      very good size and conformation and produced excellent quality brood. All
      of the colonies are being prepared for overwintering and necessary weight
      adjustments made to insure adequate winter stores. The four remaining
      cases of paralysis are being kept under observation, and, if their
      condition does not improve, they will have to be disposed of rather than
      to attempt wintering them. Test queens reared on Kelleys Island will be
      introduced this fall to the colonies they are to head next
      season....................................
      .........................................................................
      ..............................................................USDA Bureau
      of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Division of Bee Culture, Madison,
      Wisconsin. Period: Oct 1 - Dec 31,
      1949 ABSTRACT: Five colonies headed by (S-10 x
      W39) x (A18 x 16-3) queens still showed paralysis late in October,
      although of much less severity, and the colonies are being overwintered.
      A sample from one of these colonies is being observed for longevity
      study."Paralysis" Paralysis in colones headed by (S-10 x W39) x (A18 x
      16-3)queens referred to in the Third Quarterly Report (Plus one
      additional colony developing late in the Zweifel yard) persisted late in
      October. Colony conditions appeared to have improved and the colonies are
      being overwintered. Only 62 queens were shipped during the 4-weeks'
      period between August 15 to September 12. The sesons for this are many
      and interlocking, but, in general, our failure to control or prevent
      robbing during the dearth of honey flow in August and September is
      perhaps the most important. We again experienced a shortage of drones in
      August, but this was remedied with only a short period of no matings in
      contrast with the 4-weeks' period of 1948 in which drones were exceedinly
      scarce. Plans are being made to distribute cell bulding and drone
      colonies in several small yards instead of one yard. The number os stock
      colonies on the Island will be reduced next year to lower the population
      of bees on the Island so that competition for floral plants will not be
      so great. Any suggestions on methods to prevent or control robbing will
      be appreciated as we consider that our number one problem. The
      exceedingly hot weather in july and August (Maximum 102') on several
      occasions caused poor acceptance of cells in the swarm boxes, but this
      was not as serious as the sudden complete robbing out of finishing
      colonies that occurred several times. These factors reduced the number of
      cells available to put out but an epidemic of absconding in the mating
      yard (probably due to nucs being robbed out) during the last half of
      august almost completely stopped the shipment of queens. This occurred at
      the time we expected to ship queens to the Laramie, Logan, and Columbus
      laboratories. The resut was that Laramie received only half of its order
      and the other laboratories none. When things got back to near normal
      again, we were able to produce two-thirds the number of queens promised
      the Madison laboratory and then closed down queen rearing to get the
      colonies in condition to winter. After taking up the nuc yard and
      consolidating the equipment , we were fortunate in getting a fall honey
      flow. Seven-hundred pounds of sugar were fed in September but robbing
      continued even during the very good honey flow from golden rod and aster
      during early October. Seventy-four colonies are being wintered on the
      Island and 23 on the mainland. All colonies were requeened with Island
      raised queens. Only 20 of these colonies have the proper queens for next
      season's drones so some requeening will be necessary in March and April
      of 1950....Page #8. "Stock Testing Reports" Reports on the performance of
      queens produced at Kelleys Island in 1948 are slow in coming in and in
      general very incomplete. Some cooperators gave good reports on individual
      colonies and supplied a comprehensive summary of general conclusions.
      Other cooperaors just wrote a letter of regret that colony records were
      not taken. It is evident from the tests that the S-10 x Cauc (Red) queens
      were considered best by most cooperators. The other lines were in most
      cases infeior but in a few cases the S-10 x W39 (yellow) or S-10 x W39 x
      Cau (orange aluminum) queens were considered superior. In the majority of
      cases where the S-10 x Cau (Red) queens were best the D182 x Bur X Cau
      (aluminim) queens were in second position with orange aluminum and yellow
      following in that order. In most cases the best Kelleys Island lines were
      considered superior to commercial stock in the same test yards. No
      general summary can be prepared at this time and a statistical analysis
      of the data may never be made because the records are incomplete.
      However, a few general impressions are indicated by a study of the
      records of the various tests. The S-10 x Cau (Red) line gave the best
      record of honey production, brood production and gentleness. The other
      lines were more variable and were often critized for temper, nervousness,
      or slow to build up. In most cases the S-10 x W39 (yellow) was reported
      to be more vicious than the other lines. Some beekeepers considered this
      line gentler than their own stock, whereas other reported them to be very
      vicious....Page 9 The records showed a general tendency for the S-10 x
      W39 (yellow) and the S-10 x W39 x Cau (orange aluminum) to be slow in
      building up in the spring. This is in general agreement with our
      observations of the queens in the cell builders at Kelleys Island. The
      cooperatorswho expressed a preference for the yellow or orange aluminum
      queens were located in areas having a honey flow that started later than
      in areas of cooperators who found the red or aluminum queens to be
      best.Although the records are only approximate, it appears that the
      queens that were one-half or one-fourth W39 had a tendency to reach the
      peak of brood rearing later than those queens having no W39. this seems
      to indicate that certain hybrids build up a population quicker than
      others. Location and time of honey flow may thus be very important in the
      selection of the most desirable hybrids. It may be assumed that S-10 x
      Cau is a 75-day hybrid and S-10 x W39 x Cau is a 90-day hybrid. This
      conjecture, however, is based upon scattered observations. Cooperators
      often commented on the high quality or compactness of the brood from the
      Kelleys Island queens. Individual colonies, however, were often recorded
      as having spotted brood. These records occur mostly in S-10 x W39
      (yellow) queens and indicate that the S-10 or W39 lines may have one sex
      allele that is the same as one of those in the inbred A-18 or 16-3 lines.
      S-10 and 16-3 were originally Short lines, while W39 and A-18 are both
      resistant lines and may be somewhat related or have a common sex
      allele....Page #16. Due to its unusual susceptibility to paralysis, stock
      (S-10 x W39) x (A18 x 16-3) was hampered considerably in production. (Six
      colonies showed paralysis: 3 in the Slotten yard ((one lost)), 2 in
      Primrose, and 1 in Zweifel.) On the basis of relative yields, it ranks
      about eleventh among the sixteen lines tested. This line evidently is the
      more inferior of the four Kelleys Island crosses. Temper and nervousness
      is also associated with this ine, probably due to the W39
      breeding..........................................
      .........................................................................
      .............................................................. USDA
      Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Division of Bee Culture,
      Madison, Wisconsin. Period: Apr 1 -
      Jun 30, 1950 ABSTRACT: Fifteen cases of paralysis
      have been noted among test colonies. The disorder is confined to five
      lines of stock. One colony at the Hill Farm had American foulbrood.
      European foulbrood has been serious at the Sherwin and Hill Farm
      apiaries. European foulbrood in the queen yard has seriously affected bee
      breeding progress.Queens and drones from all lines have been produced so
      that each line will be further inbred one or two generations this season.
      A shortage of bees on Kelleys Island has curtailed the production of
      queens for distribution to cooperators. It is anticipated that the number
      of queens produced will be somewhat less than expectations....Page #1
      Progress and Status of Work. "Diseases" - Paralysis. It is interesting to
      note that the five cases of paralysis encountered last year were all of
      the stock line (S-10 x W39) x (A18 x 16-3) All hybrids received for 1950
      tests from Kelleys Island were mated to S-10 x W39 drones. If stock has
      any relationship to the occurrence of paralysis, this would indicate that
      we can expect trouble....Page #2. Already fifteen cases of paralysis have
      been noted among test colonies this year. The disorder is confined to
      five lines of stock at present. The (S-12 x Bur) x (S-10 x W39) line
      developed 6 cases of the disease among 20 colonies, 2 of which were very
      bad. The (A-18 x Bur) x (S10 x W39) line developed 4 cases among 18
      colonies, 2 of which became severe. The (Hr x Gaf) x (S-10 x W39) stock
      shows paralysis in 3 colonies out of 20, one being severe. The (A-18 x
      Gaf) x (S-10 x W39) and (Bur x Hr) x (S-10 x W39) lines each have one
      case of the disease. Strangely, the (S-10 x W39) x (A18 x 16-3) colonies
      that had severe paralysis and recovered lst year are excellent colonies
      this year and show no signs of the
      disease..................................................................
      ..........
      .........................................................................
      .............................................................. USDA
      Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Division of Bee Culture,
      Madison, Wisconsin. Period: Jul 1 -
      Sep 30, 1950 ABSTRACT: Page #2. Adult bee
      paralysis reached epidemic proportions in two yards, was severe in a
      third yard, and spread to all other yards before the end of August. With
      the exception of two colonies, the most devastating cases were confined
      to stocks containing at least 50 percent S10 x W39 blood lines. See Table
      4....Page #6. "Paralysis" Adult bee paralysis reached epidemic
      proportions in two yards, was severe in a third yard, and spread to all
      other yards before the end of August. With the exception of two colonies,
      the most devastating cases were confined to Kelleys Island stock. One
      Short and one Harrell colony represented severe cases. However, in these
      and the milder cases among commercial stocks the disease developed
      slowly. With Kelleys Island stock, they contained S10 x W39 either
      through the queen or drones....Page #7. The first indication of paralysis
      usually was indicated as mild and within 5 to 7 days the majority of bees
      were affected. In many colonies from 1 to 3 gallons of dead bees would
      accumulate in front of the hive within a few weeks. In most cases queens
      were superseded, although in one of the worst cases brood rearing was
      maintained at an excessive level, yet the colony population remained
      static or decreased. In a few cases where infection and supersedure
      occurred early, the colonies appear free of paralysis. Two of five (S10 x
      W39) x (A18 x 16-3) colonies overwintered showed severe infections during
      December 1949 that lasted until the close of brood rearing. These
      survived the winter in excellent condition and built up splendid
      populations. They did not show paralysis this year until midsummer. The
      cases changed from mild to severe in 4 or 5 days. In order to handle 245
      queens for test next year, they were established in nuclei above main
      colonies. The nuclei were made irrespective of the presence of paralysis
      in the colonies. We intended to unite the nuclei to the colonies below
      early in September but further consideration of the relationship between
      stock and paralysis suggests the advisability of allowing the nuclei to
      develop new populations. By so doing we may get some indication of
      differences in stock susceptibility by comparing the bees in the nucleus
      with those in the colony below. By delaying the uniting of the nuclei, we
      will accomplish two purposes - (1) a check between stock lines and
      paralysis and (2) possibly provide populations more capable of
      overwintering where paralysis was severe. Especially noted was one colony
      divided the first week in August to establish a young laying queen on
      top. The nucleus showed no symptoms of paralysis the middle of September
      whereas the main colony below developed a severe case....Page #10. During
      August and September, queens produced at Kelleys Island for 1951 tests
      were introduced. The plan calls for 9 lines with 20 queens in each line.
      To date, all but two of the lines have been introduced. Five commercial
      lines were also secured for test - 20 queens from Davis, 20 queens from
      the American Bee Breeers Association (ABBA), 26 queens from Short, 20
      queens from Rossman and Long (G42 xS10 breeding), and 20 quens from
      Kelley (Hr x S10 breeding), making a total of 180 Kelleys Island and 106
      commercial or 286 queens in all for 1951 test. Some losses are expected
      but the numbers should be adequate to provide 15 to 20 queens from each
      line. Losses incurred at introduction or shortly after are being
      compensated for in part by Dr. Robert's replacement queens of the
      breeding (MxE) x F, (MxE) x Naturally Mated, and (YFxD) x T. Table 2
      shows the queen losses to date. A new method of queen introduction was
      tried this fall. One brood chamber with an auger-hole entrance, turned to
      the rear was used to establish a nucleus above the inner cover with the
      escape hole screened. All older bees than drifted back to the old colony
      below, leaving younger bees above - a desirable condition for queen
      introduction. The Ashurst paper push-in cages were employed. They worked
      satisfactorily and eliminated extra work and disturbance experienced when
      removing the wire push-in cages.Introduction loss other than for cause
      was 1.6 percent. Closer observation might have explained the loss of the
      four queens recorded as not accepted. The majority of nuclei were made 1
      to 3 days prior to caging the new queens. Seven losses resulting from
      virgins or queens in nuclei were due to apparent queenlessness or
      unobserved queen cells.(Three mother and daughter colony units were
      observed, two of which involved losses of queens caged.) The greater loss
      of queens this year over that experienced in 1948-49 can in part be
      explained by the epidemic of bee paralysis and a shortage of help in
      manipulating colonies. In late July when extracting was begun, colony
      manipulation was neglected, allowing any queen cells present to mature
      and emerge. Colonies afflicted with paralysis invariably commenced queen
      cell building. This is largely responsible for the average of 36 percent
      of original queens surviving among the Kelleys Island stocks mated to
      S-10 x W39 drones, as compared to 57 percent of original queens of the
      commercial stocks surviving and 53 percent of queens of the Short
      top-crosses carried for a second-year test. Of the 25 Kelleys Island
      queens carried over for a second-year test, 32 percent of the original
      queens survive................
      .........................................................................
      .............................................................. USDA
      Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Division of Bee Culture,
      Madison, Wisconsin. Period: Oct 1 -
      Dec 31, 1950 ABSTRACT: Page #2. Data on queen
      cell and queen production at Kelleys Island for the season of 1950 is
      summarized. Over 1,600 test queens were producedbut only 1,225 were
      shipped. A comparison of the 3 years of queen production at Kelleys
      Island shows that progres is being made in solving the problem of losing
      virgin queens due to robbing and insufficient drones during the last half
      of the season. Data is given to indicate that the number of test queens
      produced ech season can be increased most readily if more nuclei are
      stocked in the months of May and June. Paralysis was the major factor in
      the poor showing of the test queens produced in 1949 and tested by
      commercial producer in the summer of 1950. Where paralysis was not
      present, some test colonies had remarkable records of production and
      exceeded commercial stocks by large margins. A study of the survival of
      original test queens was made and the results tabulated. Survival among
      all stocks is much lower than normal. This is explained by a higher
      incidence of swarm preparations and the occurrence of paralysis desease
      among the Kelleys Island stocks top crossed to (S10 x W39) drones. A
      total of 241 test queens were successfully introduced to colonies for
      1951 test. Paralysis disease persisted in late October but may have been
      subsiding. Nine cases of the disease were found in late September, making
      a total of 77 cases for the season. Nuclear divisions into which 1951
      test queens were introduced during August had fewer paralysed bees than
      their respective parent colonies below. This strengthens evidence that
      susceptible stock was the basis cause for the high indident of the
      disease.....Page #12. Most cooperators reported some paralysys in their
      test colonies. Some beekeepers, however, were unable to differentiate
      between paralysis and nosema. Several cooperators reported differences
      between yards in the incidence of the disease, although the queens in
      each yard were of the same breeding....Page #14. Paralysis was not
      noticeable or appreciably evident in the stock colonies or in the cell
      building and finishing colonies on the Island in the summer of 1949.
      Since these colonies were the source of the S10 x W39 drones that mated
      with the test queens, it must be concluded that the question of
      heritability of susceptibility to the disese is not established. We,
      however, do not plan to repeat these identical crosses for large-scale
      tests again in the near
      future...................................................................
      ..............
      .........................................................................
      ..............................................................
      ===============================================================**********
      ************************************************************** USDA
      Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Division of Bee Culture,
      Madison, Wisconsin. Period: Apr 1
      - Jun 30. 1951 ABSTRACT: Robert Kleba was employed
      under letter of authority at Kelleys Island starting April 2. W. C.
      Roberts was at Kelleys Island on May 21 to 24 and June 25 to 28 to direct
      the queen rearing work by Mr. Kleba. Similar to the eipdemic of paralysis
      encountered in Kellelys Island stock last year and due to the unfortunate
      selection of S10 x W39 paralysis - susceptible drone stock for securing
      matings, we are now faced with an epidemic - this time being VICIOUS bees
      due to another unfortunate selection of A-18 x Bur - drone stock for
      mating on Kelleys Island last year. There are apparent differences
      between the lines, both in temper and in other characteristics, so an
      effort will be made to carry the tests through to completion. ...Page #7.
      I-g-2-6 Production of hybrid queens for testing under commercial
      conditions.(W.C.Roberts). Production of queens on Kelleys Island has been
      satisfactory during the quarter, and all order have been filled according
      to schedule. Approximately 175 queens were mailed out previous to June 26
      and another 100 queens will probably be sent out before June 30.
      Four-hundred-eighty nuclei were established previous to June 25, and
      adquate numbers of bees and brood are available to establish all the
      remaining nuclei within the next 2 weeks. The delay in getting the yard
      completely established before the end of June was due to difficulty in
      obtaining adequate numbers of queen cells for establishing nuclei. Mr.
      Kleba has had some difficulty with acceptance of cells in the swarm
      boxes, but this situation is rapidly improving. I-g-2-7 (Farrar) The
      unfortunate mating of all Kelleys Island queens to drone source A18 x Bur
      has resulted in bees so vicious that this is no satisfaction in working
      them. It has been necessary to use bee gloves for the first time. In past
      years where a vicious line was experienced, the number of colonies
      represented only a small part of the total. There are apparent
      differences between the lines, both in temper and in other
      characteristics, so an effort will be made to carry the tests through to
      completion. Ribbands of Rothamsted reported that nurse bees could be
      converted into field bees by treatment with CO2.(Changes in Behavior of
      Honeybees Following Their Recovery From Anaesthesia, The Journal of
      Experimental Biology, Vol. 27, Nos. 3 & 4, pp. 302-310, december 1950.).
      To determine the effects of CO2 on the behavior of bees, four 2-pound
      package colonies were established at the Hill Farm. Two of the packages
      were anesthetized with CO2 for 5 minutes at the time of introduction and
      again 4 days later. The other two were handled in the usual manner to
      serve as checks. The gassed colonies gained approximtely 1 pound during
      the first 4 days compared with 4 pounds for the two checks. Queens in the
      former remained shrunken and produced few, if any, eggs, whereas those in
      the checks started laying immediately. Prior to the second treatment with
      CO2, 500 bees were marked with distinctive colore in each of the four
      packages. Bees marked in the treated colonies were observed in colonies
      throughout the yard even though the test units were well isolated. Marked
      bees identifying the check colonies have not shown up in other hives.
      Several questions may be raised. Did the queens fail to lay because the
      bees in the gassed hives failed to feed them? Did the bees drift because
      treatment with CO2 caused them to lose their sense of orientation or
      because the queens were not laying? Similarly, did the lower gain of the
      gassed colonies result from the fact that their queens did not lay or
      from the change in behavior of the individual bees? Further studies along
      these lines seem desirable....Page #12 " Temperament of Bees" Similar to
      the epidemic of paralysis encountered in Kelleys Island stock last year
      and due to the unfortunate selection of S10 x W39 paralysis - susceptible
      drone stock for securing matings, we are now faced with an epidemic, this
      time being VICIOUS bees due to another unfortunate selection of A18 x Bur
      drone stock for matings on Kelleys Island last year. The (A18 x Bur) x
      (S10 x W39) stock tested last year was outstandingly viciouos, so the
      choice of A18 x Bur drones for Kelleys Island last year was expected to
      be unfortunate and it was. All Kelleys Island stocks being tested this
      year are vicious, with some variations in the queen lines. The temper of
      these bees is such that unless a honey flow is in progress, they cannot
      be manipulated without the use of gloves and adequate clothing. Even with
      a flow on, they are far from
      gentle...................................................................
      ......
      .........................................................................
      ............................................................. USDA
      Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Division of Bee Culture,
      Madison, Wisconsin. Period: Jul 1 -
      Sep 30, 1951 ABSTRACT: An abstract summary is
      submitted in lieu of the Third Quarterly Report due to pressure on field
      work, resulting from a shortage of help for completion of the field
      work.....Page #2.The honey flow ended approximately July 25. Colony
      yields appear to average 150 pounds surplus and range from less than
      winter stores to in excess of 300 pounds surplus. European foulbrood
      infections and extremely vicious bees that increased difficulties in
      colony management largely contributed to the wide spread in production.
      Stock differences will be summarized when data is completed and analyzed.
      Extracting of honey was made dificult by inadequate space for handling
      the large volume of super equipment, no satisfactory method for uncapping
      honey, and considerable amount of granualted honey in the comb affecting
      straining. The finishing of extracting had to be postponed as it
      stimulated robbing among the breeding colonies and nuclei located in the
      immediate vicinity. Considerable loss of queens resulted from the excess
      robbing....Page #3. Attendant bees from approximately 300 cages of queens
      received were examined for Nosema. Approximately 40 to 50 percent
      contained infected attendants. An analysis of this problem is being
      undertaken by caging queens removed from colonies with varying numbers of
      inoculated attendant bees for 4 to 8 days. Over 200 queens will be
      examined to determine what infection results from this association. Two
      colonies of bees removed from the refrigerator showed 100-percent Nosema
      infections. Cause or significance of this has not been clarified.
      I-g-2-6. Data on production of queens on Kelleys Island for the year has
      not been summarized, but indications are that it will exceed that of any
      other previous year. All test colonies are being requeened by uniting
      nuclei that had been established on top after first removing the old
      queen. Over 300 queens were introduced into the nuclei during August and
      September. Losses among the introduced queens were approximately 10
      percent and appear to be explained by (1) extremely vicious bees; (2)
      presence of the colony's queen in the nuclei just prior to caging the new
      queen; (3) the condition of queens on arrival as indicated by high Nosema
      infectionamong attendants, dead attendants in certain groups from Pelee
      Island (most accepted Pelee Island queens required several more days to
      lay than from other sources), and notation as to the poor quality of
      queens at the shipping point; and (4) certain queen lines seem more
      difficult to introduce. The problem of vicious bees appears to be of
      greatest importance....Page #4. Vicious bees necessitated wearing of two
      layers of clothing, bee gloves, and removing honoey by means of bee
      escapes. These procedures still were not adequate to prevent considerable
      stinging. All the field operations were materially slowed up as a result.
      I-g-2-9. Little work on this project was possible due to European
      foulbrood and demands of other work in handling the test
      colonies.....................................................
      .........................................................................
      .............................................................. USDA
      Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Division of Bee Culture,
      Madison, Wisconsin. Period: Oct 1 -
      Dec 31, 1951 ABSTRACT: During the season 1,262
      hybrid queens were shipped from Kelleys Island. This compares facorably
      with previous years. Over 250 of these were shipped to Madison and
      Laramie. twelve different hybrid queen combinations - mated to the (M x
      E) drone population at Kelleys Island are available for test at Madison.
      Five of these hybrids will also be tested at Laramie....Page #2.
      Excessive temper characterized the stock from Kelleys Island produced in
      1950 and tested this summer. This temper was so bad that all colony
      manipulations were seriously impeded, resulting in incomplete colony
      notes. Many of the best colonies went out of condition due to swarm
      preparations that seriously affected yields. European foulbrood reached
      epidemic proportions, greatly influencing yields and distorting the
      general conclusions. Forty cases of European foulbrood were recorded,
      with possibly again that many that were not recorded. Production records,
      in view of the above conditions, were used only to generalize on the
      potentialities of the stock lines. All Test colonies were weighed in
      October and final production records tabulated. All test colonies showed
      an average yield of 157.5 pounds - maximum 363, minimum -72. Only eight
      cases of paralysis disease, four of which were bad, were observed this
      season. All of these cases were either Short stock or contained the S-10
      line....Page #14. Detailed observations on queens and brood were
      restricted to fewer occasions than in the past due to the excessive
      temper characterizing most of the stock being tested this season. Colony
      manipulations were modified somewhat, also due to this cause. Bee gloves
      and coveralls, frowned upon by progressive beekeepers as cumbersome and
      unnecessary, had to be used even during the height of the honey flow to
      avoid unbearable amount of punishment. Paralysis disease has been much
      reduced this season, only eight colonies showing any evidence of the
      disease. Five of these were commercial Short stock, two of (W42 x S10) x
      (M x E) stock, and one was a (Hr x S10) x (A18 x Bur) colony. Four of the
      cses were very mild and four were bad. Three of the bad cases were of
      commercial Short stock and one was of the (W42 x S10) x (M x E) stock.
      All of the cases were either Short stock or contained the S10 line. It
      will be recalled that the S10 x W39 matings in pst years resulted in
      unusual susceptibility to paralysis. Experience this year points strongly
      to the Short stock portion of this cross as carrying much of the
      susceptibility....Page #15. Test queens for 1952 were introduced during
      August and September. The program of testing has been modified for next
      year to get a better evaluation of stock before it is released as well as
      to broaden the scope of stocks being
      evaluated..................................................
      .........................................................................
      .............................................................. USDA
      Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Division of Bee Culture,
      Madison, Wisconsin. Period: Jan 1 -
      Mar 31, 1952 Page #6. I-g-2-6. Production of
      hybrid queens for testing under commercial conditions. (W.C. Roberts)
      This project is in a state of uncertainty. There appears to be little
      likelihood that any work will be carried on at Kelleys Island this year
      due to the decision of the Cooperative to donduct queen rearing in South
      Georgia. The move was necessary to keep the project on a self-sustaining
      basis. Twelve queens for the production of drones were removed from Hill
      Farm stock colonies and mailed to South Georgia January 31. According to
      reports, the Cooperative will have hybrid queens available for
      distribution about April
      15............................................................
      .........................................................................
      .............................................................. USDA
      Entomology Research Branch, Section of Beekeeping and Insect Pathology,
      Madison, Wisconsin. Period: Oct
      1 - Dec 31, 1954 Report now labeled Administratively
      Confidential, with following: This report is not for publication in whole
      or in part without prior approval by the Chief of the Branch.
      General stock characteristics are summarized in table 11, page
      18................................
      .........................................................................
      ..............................................................
      ===============================================================**********
      ************************************************************** USDA
      Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quartine, Division of Bee Culture,
      Intermountain States Bee Culture Field Laboratory Period: Apr 1 - Jun
      30, 1945 R.L.P. 12. rearing of daughters from queens showing
      resistance to American foulbrood (H.B.Parks, Collaborator, Texas
      Agricultural Experimental Station). ...Page #6. Artificially inseminated
      queens, 1945 testing. Table 2 gives a comparison of the 1944 results
      with the 1945 preliminary results. The W64 line again showed 100 percent
      negatives plus recoveries but only 46 percent negatives. The W39 line
      results were complicated by the fact that 8 of the 12 colonies under
      tests were killed on Sept 10, because of the extremely vicious temper
      then exhibited. This viciousness was a source of increasing difficulty
      all season. It is very probable however that this group would have been
      100 percent negative plus recoveries if they had gone to the end of brood
      rearing since none of the non-recovery colonies showed more than 1 or 2
      diseased cells at the time the colonies wee killed on September
      10................................
      .........................................................................
      .............................................................. USDA
      Bureau of Entomologoy and Plant Quarantine, Division of Bee Culture,
      Intermountain States Bee Culture Field Laboratory. Period: Apr 1 - Jun,
      1946 The three queen lines that have been under
      observation and included in this analysis are as follows: The W64
      (Stugar, Yugoslavia, Carniolan) 1939-1945; the W39 (Piana, Italy,
      Italian) 1937-1945; the A18 (Iowa,Mraz hybrid)
      1937-1944.................................
      .........................................................................
      ..............................................................===========
      ====================================================
      ************************************************************************
      Bee Culture Research Investigations, Southern States Bee Culture
      Research Lab, Baton Rouge, La.
      Period: April 1 - Jun 30, 1960 Quarterly Progress
      Report labeled Administratively
      Confidential................................ Page #13.BR 14-60. To
      obtain information on semen and eggs of the honey bee (S.Taber,3rd)
      Experiments on Semen --shipment: The work this season on this problem has
      continued some of the work started in the fall, and summer. Two shipments
      of semen wer received from Dr. W. E. Kerr, in Brazil. The first arrived
      in very poor condition and no inseminations were possible. The second
      made according to my instructions was quite satisfactory and semen
      arrived in good condition. Four queens were inseminated, all are laying
      fertilized eggs. According to Kerr this particular stock (Apis mellifera
      adonsonii) is quite vicious but a tremendous honey producer. At this time
      virgins are being reared from these queens and Kerr has been asked to
      send additional semen from this stock. Three tubes of semen mailed to
      Kerr in one shipment were received but queens inseminated with the
      contents of the tubes died. Two additional shipments of semen, 3 tubes
      each have been made to Kerr, one sent airmail special delivery and the
      other sent regular mail special delivery. The results of these shipments
      are not known yet. Four shipments of semen have been received from Dr. F.
      Kohler, Wursburg,Germany. He has been working on this problem
      independently and his shipping tubes are somewhat different but show
      promise of improvement over the method used here. Semen is placed in very
      fine capillary plastic (polyetgelene) tubes, the tubes are sealed at both
      ends. These are then placed in a larger aluminum tube to provide
      protection. The whole package is quite light and virtuallydamage proof.
      However, the semen which he has shipped has all arrived in very poor
      condition. I think the reason is because of the various diluents he has
      been using and the inclusion of mucus. Three inseminations have been made
      with very poor quality semen, results of the inseminations are not
      available at this time. One shipment of semen has been made to Dr.
      Kohler, but no results are available. One additional shipment of semen
      has been made to Illinois, and the results of this shipment are
      unknown....Page #14. There has been no chance to study the implications
      of light eggs versus heavy eggs, in so far as a practical aspect of the
      problem is concerned. The logic that a small queen might lay small eggs
      and a large queen larger eggs or that a queen of equal size but laying
      smaller eggs than another could for this reason lay more eggs, is not
      necessarily so. These questions and others will have to be examined. Two
      shipments of semen wer received from Kerr during the quarter. The first
      was expecially unsatisfactory, causing death of all queens. The second
      has just been used and the queens have just started laying so that it
      will be some time before success or failure is known. If these are
      successful, it will mean that we now have bees which are 87.5 per cent
      adonsonii.....................................................
      .........................................................................
      .............................................................. Bee
      Culture Research Investigations, Southern States Bee Culture Research
      Lab, Baton Rouge, La. Period:
      Jul 1 - Sep 30, 1960 Quarterly Progress Report
      labeled Administratively Confidential................................
      ABSTRACT: Experiments with septicemia disease in artificial insemination
      showed several antibiotics effective in retarding growth in agar plate
      cultures; however, various tests with Chloromycetgin and other
      experiments with this disease, suggest limited usefulness of antibiotics
      and that the disease is best kept under control by sterilization of
      instruments and hands between insemination operations. Egg development
      times were determined for a number of queens and for several samples of
      the same queen. These sample averages varied from about 70 to 80 hours.
      Sample variation from one queen varied in their extremes 10 hours or more
      in development times. Egg development times were measured in hive and
      laboratory incubation. Some differences may exist between the two. Semen
      was successfully sent to Germany, Iowa, and California. Semen was
      successfully sent to and returned from Austria. Reports of other
      shipments are not complete.Egg transfers and queen rearing experiments
      are on extension of the 2nd Quarterly Report. Over the season 2,310 eggs
      have been transferred and of these 1,582 were accepted. Queens raised
      from eggs are generally good if the eggs hatch first in a swarm bos. Eggs
      which hatch in queen cups placed in usual queen rearing colonies develop
      into poor queens, intermediate forms or even workers....Page #11.
      7-Temper and Manageability. Temper, quietness on combs, and similar
      factors which influence handling of bees were noted at most observations.
      The rating, except in instances where a colony wes noticeable different,
      were broad comparisons. No accurate measure of temper was
      developed....Page #16. "X" Characterization of Line. General: This line,
      in spite of its nervousnes and mean disposition, was the outstanding line
      under test. It was also the least inbred. It had the highest honey
      production, was second only to "B" in pollen storage, had the best B/H
      and E/B ratios, the highest brood average and the best brood pattern of
      any group. Of the six colonies set up for test, one superceded prior to
      the data taking period and one failed, queenless, on 5/19/60. Queen cells
      in various stages were observed in all colonies at various times but
      there was no serious effort to swarm of to supercede in splits of severe
      crowding, except in the supercedure colony 36 which tried to swarm about
      5/19. The colonies were above average in population throughout the test
      period. Burr comb was perhaps more plentiful in this line then in any
      other but it is doubtful that this can be considered a line
      characteristic since these colonies were stronger and possibly more
      crowded than some others. There was no disease in any colony during the
      test, except possibly nosema which was doubtless present in all
      colonies....Page #17. "B" Characterization of Line. General: Not an
      outstanding line in any particular. Colonies were average or below
      average in development and production, inclined toward nervousness and
      meanness and susceptible to European Foulbrood. Honey production was
      closely comparable in all colonies but exceeded by "I" and "D". The ratio
      of brood to honey was above average, exceeded only by "X" and would have
      been better except for colony 37 which produced more brood than any
      colony of the group but was third in honey production. The line rated 7th
      in ratio of pollen to brood but the maximum amount of pollen stored was
      in B-17. There were no supercedures in the line and only one colony
      failed during the test. In spite of general resistance to wax moth
      infestation Colony B-1 was finally almost destroyed by moths...Page #18.
      "B" line cont'd. Wax Moths. Moths were found in combs in Colonies 10, 17,
      and 25. Bottom boards, with the exception of 25 were generally clean and
      no wax moth larvae were found there. Reaction to Smoke was interesting in
      this line. Bees had a tendency to collect on top bars or to boil over the
      edges of bodies during manipulation and especially in Colony 37 could not
      be driven down by smoke. Similar to the "S" line in this respect....Page
      #21. "Y" Characterization of Line. General: In spite of the fact that
      these colonies were good in population throughout the test the line
      excelled only in the P/B ratio and possibly in resistance to wax moth. Of
      the 5 colonies set up for test, two colonies superceded prior to the data
      taking period and one failed on 4/6/60. One test colony #35, and one
      supercedure colony, #8, had E.F.B. The colonies were gentle, quiet and
      possibly as easy to handle as any group. However, colony 12, a
      supercedure colony, wasnervous and nasty; qualities which may be forgiven
      in part since it was one of the strongest colonies and the highest
      producer in the yard....Page #22. "L" Characterization of Line. General:
      This is a difficult line to evaluate. The colonies divide into two
      groups: 15 and 16 which were alike and uniformly poor thoughout the test
      period and colonies 21, 24, and 33 which were average or above. There
      were no supercedures prior to the data gathering period and no colony
      failures during the test which is similar to the "B" and "T" lines. The
      line is susceptible to "paralysis" with all colonies showing SHINY bees
      to a certain extent during most of the test and severe symptoms in Nos.
      15, 16, 21, and 24 until 4/6. European foulbrood was present in Colony 33
      during most of the test period and in Colony 21 on 4/20. In spite of
      disease the line ranked 4th in honey production and only one colony had
      any wax moths. The line is inclined to be cross, equal to "B" and
      exceeded only by "X", but is fairly quiet on the combs. There is a
      definite indication that stronger colonies would be harder to handle and
      Colony 21 was definitely MEAN....Page #26 "S" Characterization of Line.
      General: Of the three colonies started, two were superceded early and
      only one colony was available for test. Although the colony was below
      average in most respects it had some distinctive characteristics. The
      bees were nervous and irritable but not exactly cross. They did not
      respond to smoke, flew from frames easily and could not be driven down
      from top bars or edges of hives. Sometimes a trail a bees would biol over
      from the second brood chamber, run down the side of the hive and go in
      the entrance.Presumably they ran up the inside wall and repeated the
      performance. Both supercedure colonies were downright nasty to handle.
      Another characteristic different from most lines was the presence of
      "Lace" comb, a thin line of white wax along the edges of the top bars.
      The behavior of this line shows a resemblance to the old "black" or
      German bees. No disease was found in Colony 27 but both supercedure
      colonies showed E.F.B. at one or more observation periods....Page #33.
      Experiments on shipment of bee semen (continued from 2nd Quarter) Dr. F.
      Kohler, of Wursburg, Germany, reports that he used semen sent to him to
      successfully inseminate queens. Semen sent to Illinois and California was
      successfully used to inseminate queens. Four tubes were sent air mail to
      Dr F. Ruttner, in Austria, with instructions for him to use two tubes for
      inseminations of his own and to return two to Baton Rouge. Upon receipt
      of this returned semen from Ruttner, one tube was immediately used to
      inseminate 4 queens. Three of these produced fertile workers. The other
      tube was kept for 3 weeks so that it would have been possible to have
      inseminated daughters of the first insemination with the second
      insemination. Inseminations with the second tube were unfortunately all
      unsuccessful. However, they were made at a time when we were having a
      great deal of trouble with septicemia infections killing inseminated
      queens, so tht the disappointment in the second tube cannot be blamed
      entirely on the semen. Additional shipments of semen were received from
      Kohler as described in the last Quarterly Report, but no successful
      inseminations were made from them. Other shipments have been made from
      Baton Rouge to various people, but reports are still not
      complete........................
      .........................................................................
      .............................................................. Bee
      Culture Research Investigations, Southern States Bee Culture Research
      Lab, Baton Rouge, La. Period:
      Apr 1 - Jun 30, 1961 Quarterly Progress Report
      labeled Administratively Confidential, with following: This report is not
      for publication in whole or in part without prior approval by the Chief
      of
      Investigations...........................................................
      ........................................ ABSTRACT: page 1. Work
      Project ENT c10 - Bee Culture Investigations, including other pollinating
      insects. BR 4-61. To develop methods of measurement of "temper" in honey
      bees as a basis for genetic study. BR 7-61. To improve individual
      artficial insemination. BR 11-61. To obtain information on semen and eggs
      of the honey bee....Page #9. A shipment of one tube of semen of A.
      mellifera adonsonii was received from Dr W. Kerr, four inseminations were
      attempted, 3 queens died immeditely, the fourth is still in
      doubt....................................................................
      ......
      .........................................................................
      .............................................................. Bee
      Culture Research Investigations, Southern States Bee Culture Research
      Lab, Baton Rouge, La. Period:
      Jul 1 - Sep 30, 1961 Quarterly Progress Report
      labeled Administratively Confidential................................
      BR 4-61. To develop methods of measurement of "Temper" in honey bees as
      a basis for genetic study....Page #2. In cooperation with the Onterio
      Agricultural College stocks of bees are being established from immature
      stages brought to Baton Rouge from England by Dr. Smith, of that
      Institution. Queens and drone pupae in gelatin capsules, young larvae on
      royal jelly, and fertilized eggs were included. Three stocks were
      represented: Adam 1, Adam 2, and Russian. Good sexually mature
      indivisuals were obtained from all categories in all stocks except the
      Russian drones produced very little semen. Virgin queens of all lines
      were shipped to Ontario for natural mating there and drone production.
      Artificial matings were made between the virgins and drones of each Adam
      line and some of those shipped to Ontario and some to Madison for virgin
      production. The Russian imported drones were unusable but a few queens
      were inseminated with semen shipped from England. Virgin daughters of all
      of these were mated artificially with sons of queens of imported larvae,
      and this stock can be considered secure in this country. Similar queens
      have been shipped to Ontario and Madison for establishment of stocks at
      these places. Although all methods of imprtation were successful, the
      most practical method of establishing a stock appears to be by importing
      larvae or eggs and then semen when the virgins are ready to be
      mated....Page #3. BR 4-61. To develop methods of mesurement of "Temper"
      in honey bees as a basis for genetic study. (Roberts) During the season
      we have produced over 25 two-way hybrids and 20 four-way hybrids for
      temper studies. The single hybrids are established in nuclei and the
      multiple hybrids are now in colonies. Variances in temper of these bees
      are observable but difficult to measure. So far we have not obtained a
      "yardstick."
      ........................................................................

      .........................................................................
      ..............................................................
      Entomology Research Branch, Apiculture reserach Branch, Southern States
      Bee Culture research Lab, Baton Rouge, La. Period: Jan 1 - Mar
      31, 1962 Quarterly Progress Report Labeled
      Aministratively Confidential................................. BR
      4-62 Temper of Bees, page 3. BR 9-62 Studies on semen and eggs of the
      honey bee. (Taber) Several new ideas have been developed to further
      extend the usefulness of sperm shipment and storage. As yet these trials
      ae in a very preliminary stage and no report will be made on them at this
      time. The Apis mellifera adonsonii. Stock that was lost during the late
      spring because of neglect has been re-imported with two successful
      shipments of semen from Dr Kerr, in Brazil. This stock will be available
      for tests by the various interested people by the end of the summer.
      Stock of over 90% adonsonii is now available and with a little inbreeding
      this will be taken to over
      95%......................................................................
      .........................................................................
      .........................................................................
      ..............................................
      ===============================================================**********
      **************************************************************Entomology
      Research Division, Bee Management Investigations, Madison, Wisconsin.
      Period: Apr 1 - Jun 30,
      1966 Quarterly Progress Report labeled Not For Publication, with
      following: Not for publication without prior approval of the Entomology
      Research Branch of the Agricultural Research Service or for use in sales
      promotion or advertising which expresses or implies endorsement of the
      product by the Branch, Service, or the
      USDA.....................................................................
      ......................................................Page #7 As a first
      step in evaluating the colonies in this test group, a brood count was
      made June 29. This is shown in table 3. The colonies will be moved into a
      50 acre alfalfa field at Arlington Farm in August. Undesirable handling
      qualities of runniness and some temper were noted in m<br/><br/>(Message over 64 KB, truncated)
    • davidbrowder
      Beware of foulbrood. I don t know how to check old equipment for it. Freebies would be worth fumigating if the woodenware isn t too old and rotten. After that
      Message 2 of 24 , May 7, 2003
        Beware of foulbrood. I don't know how to check old equipment for it. Freebies would be worth fumigating if the woodenware isn't too old and rotten. After that lots of cheap paint.
        ----- Original Message -----
        Sent: Wednesday, May 07, 2003 1:30 PM
        Subject: [beekeeping] (unknown)

        I know some one that might give me all their equipment that they have.  But how do I know that it doesn't have any diseases on it?  I would appreciate any comments.  
         
         
        Joshua in Michigan


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      • Eileen Barnes
        Our FL state bee inspectors recommend scorching the insides to kill the foulbrood spores. Eileen Eifl@care2.com Meet 30,000 Eco-Friendly Individuals:
        Message 3 of 24 , May 9, 2003
          Our FL state bee inspectors recommend scorching
          the insides to kill the foulbrood spores.

          Eileen
          Eifl@...


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        • Shanta McBain
          ... Up. scorch the boxes. burn the frame with the bees. ... -- Thanks Shanta McBain Bee Breeder http://shanta.org
          Message 4 of 24 , May 10, 2003
            On Fri, 2003-05-09 at 22:56, Eileen Barnes wrote:
            > Our FL state bee inspectors recommend scorching
            > the insides to kill the foulbrood spores.
            >
            Up. scorch the boxes. burn the frame with the bees.

            > Eileen
            > Eifl@...
            >
            >
            > Meet 30,000 Eco-Friendly Individuals:
            > http://www.Care2.com/connect/
            > ------------------------ Yahoo! Groups Sponsor ---------------------~-->

            --
            Thanks
            Shanta McBain
            Bee Breeder
            http://shanta.org
          • Crenn
            We pressure wash the hive bodies with a steam cleaner hot enough to melt wax, etc. The hive boxes seem to last longer and we haven t had any problems with
            Message 5 of 24 , May 10, 2003
              We pressure wash the hive bodies with a steam cleaner hot enough to melt wax, etc.  The hive boxes seem to last longer and we haven't had any problems with reoccurance of AFB.  A guy from LA has his hives irradiated, frames and all, for $6 a piece and he swears by it.  We haven't tried it though.

              Caitlin

              Shanta McBain <shanta@...> wrote:
              On Fri, 2003-05-09 at 22:56, Eileen Barnes wrote:
              > Our FL state bee inspectors recommend scorching
              > the insides to kill the foulbrood spores.
              >
              Up. scorch the boxes. burn the frame with the bees.

              > Eileen
              > Eifl@...
              >
              >
              > Meet 30,000 Eco-Friendly Individuals:
              > http://www.Care2.com/connect/
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              --
              Thanks
              Shanta McBain
              Bee Breeder
              http://shanta.org


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            • Shanta McBain
              ... Pressure washing is not hot enough to kill the spores I would not depend on it. Irradiation is illegal in Canada due to the health risk to people consuming
              Message 6 of 24 , May 10, 2003
                On Sat, 2003-05-10 at 10:10, Crenn wrote:
                > We pressure wash the hive bodies with a steam cleaner hot enough to
                > melt wax, etc. The hive boxes seem to last longer and we haven't had
                > any problems with reoccurance of AFB. A guy from LA has his hives
                > irradiated, frames and all, for $6 a piece and he swears by it. We
                > haven't tried it though.
                > Caitlin
                >

                Pressure washing is not hot enough to kill the spores I would not depend
                on it. Irradiation is illegal in Canada due to the health risk to people
                consuming the food. One reason I don't buy American produce.

                --
                Thanks
                Shanta McBain
                Bee Breeder
                http://shanta.org
              • Ferguson Apiaries
                Iradiation works. We did a whole outfit in Ontario to try and help one beekeeper. Several hundred supers and frames. The bees did realy well that year.
                Message 7 of 24 , May 10, 2003
                  Iradiation works.  We did a whole outfit in Ontario to try and help one beekeeper.  Several hundred supers and frames.  The bees did realy well that year.  Steam cleaning the super will seal in any AFB in melting wax.
                  ----- Original Message -----
                  From: Crenn
                  Sent: Saturday, May 10, 2003 1:10 PM
                  Subject: Re: Re: [beekeeping] (unknown)

                  We pressure wash the hive bodies with a steam cleaner hot enough to melt wax, etc.  The hive boxes seem to last longer and we haven't had any problems with reoccurance of AFB.  A guy from LA has his hives irradiated, frames and all, for $6 a piece and he swears by it.  We haven't tried it though.

                  Caitlin

                  Shanta McBain <shanta@...> wrote:
                  On Fri, 2003-05-09 at 22:56, Eileen Barnes wrote:
                  > Our FL state bee inspectors recommend scorching
                  > the insides to kill the foulbrood spores.
                  >
                  Up. scorch the boxes. burn the frame with the bees.

                  > Eileen
                  > Eifl@...
                  >
                  >
                  > Meet 30,000 Eco-Friendly Individuals:
                  > http://www.Care2.com/connect/
                  > ------------------------ Yahoo! Groups Sponsor ---------------------~-->

                  --
                  Thanks
                  Shanta McBain
                  Bee Breeder
                  http://shanta.org


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                • Keith Benson
                  ... Sad, as it works and is safe. The act of irradiating something does not leave it unsafe or radioactive. ... Interesting choice - what is it you beleive
                  Message 8 of 24 , May 10, 2003
                    Shanta McBain wrote:

                    >Pressure washing is not hot enough to kill the spores I would not depend
                    >on it. Irradiation is illegal in Canada due to the health risk to people
                    >consuming the food.S
                    >
                    Sad, as it works and is safe. The act of irradiating something does not
                    leave it unsafe or radioactive.

                    > One reason I don't buy American produce.
                    >
                    Interesting choice - what is it you beleive the radiation does to the food?

                    Keith
                  • Crenn
                    Pressure washing removes the spores whether it kills them or not. The water we use in the pressure water is heated by means of a propane water heater to a
                    Message 9 of 24 , May 11, 2003
                      Pressure washing removes the spores whether it kills them or not.  The water we use in the pressure water is heated by means of a propane water heater to a temperature that is definitely too hot to touch, though I don't know in degrees.  As far as irradiation, the place that does it primarily does fruit boxes to sterilize anything on them, so I trust that it is safe to consume whatever comes into contact with these things later on.
                       
                      Caitlin

                      Shanta McBain <shanta@...> wrote:
                      Pressure washing is not hot enough to kill the spores I would not depend
                      on it. Irradiation is illegal in Canada due to the health risk to people
                      consuming the food. One reason I don't buy American produce.

                      --
                      Thanks
                      Shanta McBain
                      Bee Breeder
                      http://shanta.org


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                    • Keith Benson
                      ... Not from a surface as porus as wood. Plastic surfaces? Maybe, but not wood. ... Tough to say - but definately not as hot as a scorching with a torch. ...
                      Message 10 of 24 , May 11, 2003
                        Crenn wrote:

                        > Pressure washing removes the spores whether it kills them or not.

                        Not from a surface as porus as wood. Plastic surfaces? Maybe, but not wood.

                        > The water we use in the pressure water is heated by means of a propane
                        > water heater to a temperature that is definitely too hot to touch,
                        > though I don't know in degrees.

                        Tough to say - but definately not as hot as a scorching with a torch.

                        > As far as irradiation, the place that does it primarily does fruit
                        > boxes to sterilize anything on them, so I trust that it is safe to
                        > consume whatever comes into contact with these things later on.

                        It is - there is no residual.

                        Keith
                      • davidbrowder
                        Disinfection vs sterilization. ... From: Keith Benson To: beekeeping@yahoogroups.com Sent: Sunday, May 11, 2003 3:59 PM Subject: Re: [beekeeping] (unknown) ...
                        Message 11 of 24 , May 11, 2003
                          Disinfection vs sterilization.
                          ----- Original Message -----
                          Sent: Sunday, May 11, 2003 3:59 PM
                          Subject: Re: [beekeeping] (unknown)



                          Crenn wrote:

                          > Pressure washing removes the spores whether it kills them or not.

                          Not from a surface as porus as wood.  Plastic surfaces? Maybe, but not wood.

                          > The water we use in the pressure water is heated by means of a propane
                          > water heater to a temperature that is definitely too hot to touch,
                          > though I don't know in degrees.

                          Tough to say - but definately not as hot as a scorching with a torch.

                          >   As far as irradiation, the place that does it primarily does fruit
                          > boxes to sterilize anything on them, so I trust that it is safe to
                          > consume whatever comes into contact with these things later on.

                          It is - there is no residual.

                          Keith



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                        • Crenn
                          The water is not as hot as fire, but we have had problems with reoccurance with hives that were scorched. We have had no reoccurances with steam cleaned
                          Message 12 of 24 , May 11, 2003
                            The water is not as hot as fire, but we have had problems with reoccurance with hives that were scorched.  We have had no reoccurances with steam cleaned hives.  The main benefit is probably trapping the spores in wax so that they can't infect the colony.  Steam cleaning also doesn't damage the hive body as much either.
                             
                            Caitlin

                            > Pressure washing removes the spores whether it kills them or not.

                            Not from a surface as porus as wood. Plastic surfaces? Maybe, but not wood.

                            > The water we use in the pressure water is heated by means of a propane
                            > water heater to a temperature that is definitely too hot to touch,
                            > though I don't know in degrees.

                            Tough to say - but definately not as hot as a scorching with a torch.

                            > As far as irradiation, the place that does it primarily does fruit
                            > boxes to sterilize anything on them, so I trust that it is safe to
                            > consume whatever comes into contact with these things later on.

                            It is - there is no residual.

                            Keith


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                          • Crenn
                            That s a very good point. Does anyone know what temperature is needed to kill AFB? Caitlin davidbrowder wrote:Disinfection vs
                            Message 13 of 24 , May 11, 2003
                              That's a very good point.  Does anyone know what temperature is needed to kill AFB?
                               
                              Caitlin

                              davidbrowder <davidbrowder@...> wrote:
                              Disinfection vs sterilization.
                              ----- Original Message -----
                              Sent: Sunday, May 11, 2003 3:59 PM
                              Subject: Re: [beekeeping] (unknown)



                              Crenn wrote:

                              > Pressure washing removes the spores whether it kills them or not.

                              Not from a surface as porus as wood.  Plastic surfaces? Maybe, but not wood.

                              > The water we use in the pressure water is heated by means of a propane
                              > water heater to a temperature that is definitely too hot to touch,
                              > though I don't know in degrees.

                              Tough to say - but definately not as hot as a scorching with a torch.

                              >   As far as irradiation, the place that does it primarily does fruit
                              > boxes to sterilize anything on them, so I trust that it is safe to
                              > consume whatever comes into contact with these things later on.

                              It is - there is no residual.

                              Keith



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                            • Keith Benson
                              ... Now steam is a very different matter - and is at least 212 degrees - not merely hot but dangerously so. Pressure washers are not the same a a true steam
                              Message 14 of 24 , May 11, 2003
                                Crenn wrote:

                                > The water is not as hot as fire, but we have had problems with
                                > reoccurance with hives that were scorched. We have had no
                                > reoccurances with steam cleaned hives.

                                Now steam is a very different matter - and is at least 212 degrees - not
                                merely hot but dangerously so. Pressure washers are not the same a a
                                true steam cleaner. Hot fast moving water, while impressive, has
                                nothing on steam. There are other benefits of true steam as a sterilant
                                - it has a large heat capacity, meaning it can transfer a lot of
                                calories (and therefore damge) to the target. Flaming the wood can also
                                fail as the wood temp must be high enough - simple discoloration won't do.

                                > The main benefit is probably trapping the spores in wax so that they
                                > can't infect the colony.

                                My understanding is that this is what allows for the persistance of the
                                organism in the colony. The bees chew the wax for use elsewhere (after
                                all - why make more when you can just move it) and voila - exposed spores.

                                > Steam cleaning also doesn't damage the hive body as much either.

                                Radiation will cause the least change, save the most time and will
                                actually sterilize the hiuve parts.

                                Keith
                              • Ferguson Apiaries
                                AFB can be boilded for 20 min. and it will still live over 20 years. The best thing is proper treatment and hygenic bees. I think I will have to try steam
                                Message 15 of 24 , May 11, 2003
                                  AFB can be boilded for 20 min. and it will still live over 20 years.  The best thing is proper treatment and hygenic bees. 
                                   
                                  I think I will have to try steam cleaning though.
                                   
                                  ----- Original Message -----
                                  Sent: Sunday, May 11, 2003 9:04 PM
                                  Subject: Re: [beekeeping] (unknown)



                                  Crenn wrote:

                                  > The water is not as hot as fire, but we have had problems with
                                  > reoccurance with hives that were scorched.  We have had no
                                  > reoccurances with steam cleaned hives.

                                  Now steam is a very different matter - and is at least 212 degrees - not
                                  merely hot but dangerously so.  Pressure washers are not the same a a
                                  true steam cleaner.  Hot fast moving water, while impressive, has
                                  nothing on steam.  There are other benefits of true steam as a sterilant
                                  - it has a large heat capacity, meaning it can transfer a lot of
                                  calories (and therefore damge) to the target.  Flaming the wood can also
                                  fail as the wood temp must be high enough - simple discoloration won't do.

                                  >   The main benefit is probably trapping the spores in wax so that they
                                  > can't infect the colony.

                                  My understanding is that this is what allows for the persistance of the
                                  organism in the colony.  The bees chew the wax for use elsewhere (after
                                  all - why make more when you can just move it) and voila - exposed spores.

                                  > Steam cleaning also doesn't damage the hive body as much either.

                                  Radiation will cause the least change, save the most time and will
                                  actually sterilize the hiuve parts.

                                  Keith



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                                • davidbrowder
                                  It s a spore, pretty hard to kill and ain t gonna die of old age. Had to fight this monster once and kicked his tail right and proper, aided with 1/2 a
                                  Message 16 of 24 , May 11, 2003
                                    It's a spore, pretty hard to kill and ain't gonna die of old age. Had to  fight this monster once and kicked his tail right and proper, aided with  1/2  a gallon of gasoline and a match. Hasn't come back yet (80s), knock on wood. So we wanna be organic now do we??  HA HA HA HA HA!! (Fiendish laughter as I dance around a pile of burning wax filled hives.) HA HA HA!!! Two choices when foulbrood shows up, antibiotics or death, sometimes antibiotics and still death. Times change, but that was my bad experience.
                                    ----- Original Message -----
                                    Sent: Sunday, May 11, 2003 10:30 PM
                                    Subject: Re: [beekeeping] (unknown)

                                    AFB can be boilded for 20 min. and it will still live over 20 years.  The best thing is proper treatment and hygenic bees. 
                                     
                                    I think I will have to try steam cleaning though.
                                     
                                    ----- Original Message -----
                                    Sent: Sunday, May 11, 2003 9:04 PM
                                    Subject: Re: [beekeeping] (unknown)



                                    Crenn wrote:

                                    > The water is not as hot as fire, but we have had problems with
                                    > reoccurance with hives that were scorched.  We have had no
                                    > reoccurances with steam cleaned hives.

                                    Now steam is a very different matter - and is at least 212 degrees - not
                                    merely hot but dangerously so.  Pressure washers are not the same a a
                                    true steam cleaner.  Hot fast moving water, while impressive, has
                                    nothing on steam.  There are other benefits of true steam as a sterilant
                                    - it has a large heat capacity, meaning it can transfer a lot of
                                    calories (and therefore damge) to the target.  Flaming the wood can also
                                    fail as the wood temp must be high enough - simple discoloration won't do.

                                    >   The main benefit is probably trapping the spores in wax so that they
                                    > can't infect the colony.

                                    My understanding is that this is what allows for the persistance of the
                                    organism in the colony.  The bees chew the wax for use elsewhere (after
                                    all - why make more when you can just move it) and voila - exposed spores.

                                    > Steam cleaning also doesn't damage the hive body as much either.

                                    Radiation will cause the least change, save the most time and will
                                    actually sterilize the hiuve parts.

                                    Keith



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                                  • Shanta McBain
                                    ... Most spores require in excess 400deg F ... -- Thanks Shanta McBain Bee Breeder http://shanta.org
                                    Message 17 of 24 , May 12, 2003
                                      On Sun, 2003-05-11 at 17:17, Crenn wrote:
                                      > That's a very good point. Does anyone know what temperature is needed
                                      > to kill AFB?
                                      >
                                      Most spores require in excess 400deg F

                                      > Caitlin
                                      >
                                      > davidbrowder <davidbrowder@...> wrote:
                                      > Disinfection vs sterilization.
                                      > ----- Original Message -----
                                      > From: Keith Benson
                                      > To: beekeeping@yahoogroups.com
                                      > Sent: Sunday, May 11, 2003 3:59 PM
                                      > Subject: Re: [beekeeping] (unknown)
                                      >
                                      >
                                      > Crenn wrote:
                                      >
                                      > > Pressure washing removes the spores whether it kills
                                      > them or not.
                                      >
                                      > Not from a surface as porus as wood. Plastic
                                      > surfaces? Maybe, but not wood.
                                      >
                                      > > The water we use in the pressure water is heated by
                                      > means of a propane
                                      > > water heater to a temperature that is definitely too
                                      > hot to touch,
                                      > > though I don't know in degrees.
                                      >
                                      > Tough to say - but definately not as hot as a
                                      > scorching with a torch.
                                      >
                                      > > As far as irradiation, the place that does it
                                      > primarily does fruit
                                      > > boxes to sterilize anything on them, so I trust that
                                      > it is safe to
                                      > > consume whatever comes into contact with these
                                      > things later on.
                                      >
                                      > It is - there is no residual.
                                      >
                                      > Keith
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to the Yahoo!
                                      > Terms of Service.
                                      >
                                      >
                                      > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to the Yahoo! Terms of
                                      > Service.
                                      >
                                      > ______________________________________________________________________
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                                      > Yahoo! Groups Sponsor
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to the Yahoo! Terms of Service.
                                      --
                                      Thanks
                                      Shanta McBain
                                      Bee Breeder
                                      http://shanta.org
                                    • Crenn
                                      hhmmm... that would make sense. Caitlin ... My understanding is that this is what allows for the persistance of the organism in the colony. The bees chew the
                                      Message 18 of 24 , May 12, 2003
                                        hhmmm... that would make sense.
                                         
                                        Caitlin

                                        > The main benefit is probably trapping the spores in wax so that they
                                        > can't infect the colony.

                                        My understanding is that this is what allows for the persistance of the
                                        organism in the colony. The bees chew the wax for use elsewhere (after
                                        all - why make more when you can just move it) and voila - exposed spores.


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                                      • tlcrosley
                                        Do you do the steam cleaning yourself, (if so, how?) or hire a company? Leah ... From: Ferguson Apiaries To: beekeeping@yahoogroups.com Sent: Sunday, May 11,
                                        Message 19 of 24 , May 13, 2003
                                          Do you do the steam cleaning yourself, (if so, how?) or hire a company?
                                          Leah
                                          ----- Original Message -----
                                          Sent: Sunday, May 11, 2003 10:30 PM
                                          Subject: Re: [beekeeping] (unknown)

                                          AFB can be boilded for 20 min. and it will still live over 20 years.  The best thing is proper treatment and hygenic bees. 
                                           
                                          I think I will have to try steam cleaning though.
                                           
                                          ----- Original Message -----
                                          Sent: Sunday, May 11, 2003 9:04 PM
                                          Subject: Re: [beekeeping] (unknown)



                                          Crenn wrote:

                                          > The water is not as hot as fire, but we have had problems with
                                          > reoccurance with hives that were scorched.  We have had no
                                          > reoccurances with steam cleaned hives.

                                          Now steam is a very different matter - and is at least 212 degrees - not
                                          merely hot but dangerously so.  Pressure washers are not the same a a
                                          true steam cleaner.  Hot fast moving water, while impressive, has
                                          nothing on steam.  There are other benefits of true steam as a sterilant
                                          - it has a large heat capacity, meaning it can transfer a lot of
                                          calories (and therefore damge) to the target.  Flaming the wood can also
                                          fail as the wood temp must be high enough - simple discoloration won't do.

                                          >   The main benefit is probably trapping the spores in wax so that they
                                          > can't infect the colony.

                                          My understanding is that this is what allows for the persistance of the
                                          organism in the colony.  The bees chew the wax for use elsewhere (after
                                          all - why make more when you can just move it) and voila - exposed spores.

                                          > Steam cleaning also doesn't damage the hive body as much either.

                                          Radiation will cause the least change, save the most time and will
                                          actually sterilize the hiuve parts.

                                          Keith



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                                        • don
                                          The short answer is you don t. Your best way to determine the history of the gear is to talk to the owner. If they used antibiotics they probably had AFB.
                                          Message 20 of 24 , May 13, 2003
                                            The short answer is you don't. Your best way to determine the history
                                            of the gear is to talk to the owner. If they used antibiotics they
                                            probably had AFB. Remember antibiotics do not remove AFB from the hive
                                            they only mask the symptoms. If you manage the AFB with antibiotics
                                            you will have to treat on a regular basis. Antibiotics WILL leave a
                                            residue in the honey.

                                            AFB will leave a scale on the lower sides of the cells of the frames.
                                            Gamma radiation will sterilize everything.
                                            Hot wax dipping 150 degrees centigrade for 15 minutes will kill AFB
                                            spores make shore the gear is dry.
                                            Scorching is hit and miss the temperature and time is impossible to
                                            control accurately

                                            An important issue to consider is the condition of the gear if it is
                                            well worn and only likely to give a few years of service it may not be
                                            worth the money and time.

                                            Or you could just put bees in the box and see what happens you would
                                            need to monitor the hives closely.

                                            How much time and effort you are prepared to put into this gear is a
                                            personal issue.

                                            Best of luck

                                            Don





                                            -- In beekeeping@yahoogroups.com, davidbrowder <davidbrowder@l...>
                                            wrote:
                                            > Beware of foulbrood. I don't know how to check old equipment for it.
                                            Freebies would be worth fumigating if the woodenware isn't too old and
                                            rotten. After that lots of cheap paint.
                                            > ----- Original Message -----
                                            > From: JP Traverse
                                            > To: beekeeping@yahoogroups.com
                                            > Sent: Wednesday, May 07, 2003 1:30 PM
                                            > Subject: [beekeeping] (unknown)
                                            >
                                            >
                                            > I know some one that might give me all their equipment that they
                                            have. But how do I know that it doesn't have any diseases on it? I
                                            would appreciate any comments.
                                            >
                                            >
                                            > Joshua in Michigan
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
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                                          • Crenn
                                            We bought a pressure washer that has a built in propane water heater that heats the water enough that is becomes steam. We do it ourselves outside on some
                                            Message 21 of 24 , May 14, 2003
                                              We bought a pressure washer that has a built in propane water heater that heats the water enough that is becomes steam.  We do it ourselves outside on some metal roofing that we put over the dirt next to a piece of concrete.
                                               
                                              Caitlin

                                              tlcrosley <crosley@...> wrote:
                                              Do you do the steam cleaning yourself, (if so, how?) or hire a company?
                                              Leah


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                                            • davidbrowder
                                              KOOL!! Don t worry bout the translations. Your English is good enough for me. ... From: Gacesa Goran To:
                                              Message 22 of 24 , Mar 3, 2005
                                                KOOL!! Don't worry bout the translations. Your English is good enough for
                                                me.
                                                ----- Original Message -----
                                                From: "Gacesa Goran" <pcelar@...>
                                                To: <beekeeping@yahoogroups.com>
                                                Sent: Thursday, March 03, 2005 11:38 AM
                                                Subject: [beekeeping] (unknown)


                                                >
                                                >
                                                > Greetings!
                                                > First of all sorry on my bad English.
                                                > This is my first writing to the group, but I was reciving messages
                                                > all the time.
                                                > I am from Serbia - Zemun (the pritiest parth of Belgrade)and
                                                > I am a beekeeper but also master and author of web-site:
                                                >
                                                > http://www.pcelar.co.yu (not yet translated to english)
                                                >
                                                > Also I am helping web-site
                                                >
                                                > http://www.beehivevoja.com (have English version)
                                                >
                                                > so, I made plans for Native -Voja beehive.
                                                >
                                                > Yu can download them from:
                                                >
                                                > http://www.pcelar.co.yu/KOSNICE.HTM#rODNA
                                                >
                                                > Litle help:
                                                > (podnjaca-bottom board,
                                                > (nastavak-corpus or brood super and honey super),
                                                > (hranilica - supers and feeder-shallow box),
                                                > (krov -roof)and
                                                > (ram - frame).
                                                >
                                                > Have a honeyed year
                                                >
                                                > Goran Gacesa
                                                > Kej oslobodjenja 13f/26 11080 Zemun Serbia and Monte Negro
                                                >
                                                > +381 11 106463
                                                >
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                                                >
                                                > Yahoo! Groups Links
                                                >
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                                                >
                                              • katel_alhacker katel_alhacker
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                                                Message 23 of 24 , Mar 31, 2005


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