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Biogas China

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    The intended recipient for this message is All-Energy@yahoogroups.com The Institute of Science in Society Science Society Sustainability
    Message 1 of 1 , Oct 2, 2006
      The intended recipient for this message is All-Energy@yahoogroups.com
      The Institute of Science in Society
      Science Society Sustainability
      http://www.i-sis.org.uk

      This article can be found on the I-SIS website at
      http://www.i-sis.org.uk/BiogasChina.php

      ========================================================


      ISIS Press Release 02/10/06
      Biogas China
      ***********

      Biogas from biological wastes tops renewable energies as it
      also prevents carbon emissions and environmental pollution.
      It is at the heart of a burgeoning eco-economy in China, but
      certain constraints need to be addressed for its full
      potential to be realized.
      Prof. Li Kangmin and Dr. Mae-Wan Ho

      What is biogas?

      Biogas is a combustible mixture of gases produced by micro-
      organisms when livestock manure and other biological wastes
      are allowed to ferment in the absence of air in closed
      containers [1] (Dream Farms). The major constituents of
      biogas are methane (CH4, 60 percent or more by volume) and
      carbon dioxide (CO2, about 35 percent); but small amounts of
      water vapour, hydrogen sulphide (H2S), carbon monoxide (CO),
      and nitrogen (N2) are also present. The composition of
      biogas varies according to the biological material. The
      methane content of biogas produced from night soil (human
      excreta), chicken manure and wastewater from slaughterhouse
      sometimes could reach 70 percent or more, while that from
      stalk and straw of crops is about 55 percent. The
      concentration of H2S in biogas produced from chicken manure
      and molasses could be as high as 4 000mg/m3, and from
      alcohol wastewater even higher at 10 000 mg/m3. Biogas is
      mainly used as fuel, like natural gas, while the digested
      mixture of liquids and solids ‘bio-slurry’ and ‘bio-sludge’
      are mainly used as organic fertiliser for crops. But there
      are numerous other uses for biogas, bio-slurry and bio-
      sludge in China.

      Brief history

      There’s evidence that biogas was used to heat bath water in
      Assyria during 10 BC; and the first digestion plant to
      produce biogas from wastes was built in a leper colony in
      Bombay India in 1859 [2] (Sustainable Food System for
      Sustainable Development).

      China is one of countries in the world to have used biogas
      technology early in its history. By the end of the
      nineteenth century, simple biogas digesters had appeared in
      the coastal areas of southern China. Mr. Luo Guorui invented
      and built an eight cubic metre Guorui biogas tank in 1920,
      and established the Santou Guorui Biogas Lamp Company. In
      1932, he moved the Company to Shanghai and changed his
      firm’s name to Chinese Guorui Biogas Company with many
      branches along the Yangtze River and in the southern
      provinces. Chinese Guorui Biogas Digester Practical Lecture
      Notes was published in 1935 [3], the first monograph on
      biogas in China and in the world. That was the first wave of
      biogas use in China.


      Read the rest of this article here
      http://www.i-sis.org.uk/BiogasChina.php


      Or read other articles in the Science and Energy
      section of the Institute of Science in Society Website
      http://www.i-sis.org.uk/scienergy.php


      ========================================================
      This article can be found on the I-SIS website at
      http://www.i-sis.org.uk/BiogasChina.php

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