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Reliquary from Giacomo

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  • giacomomorganti
    Hello, i am Giacomo from Italy. I recently acquired a reliquary for me very beautifull!!I have created an album, section Photos, link Giacomo :
    Message 1 of 7 , Dec 13, 2008
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      Hello, i am Giacomo from Italy.
      I recently acquired a reliquary for me very beautifull!!I have created
      an album, section Photos, link "Giacomo": http://groups.yahoo.com/group/African_Arts/photos/album/1253118286/pic/list
      Excuse me for not very good photos!
      I hope to find information about this figure. I would like to know what
      you think and if you believe that it is a good piece.
      I would like to know also, as it is dirt and dust of the earth, how to
      clean and restorations. What used to do the restoration? Thank you
      Giacomo
    • Lee Rubinstein
      Giacomo: For more information about your reliquary figure, which is stylistically related to or inspired by Mahongwe Bwiti or Bwété reliquary forms, see
      Message 2 of 7 , Dec 15, 2008
      • 0 Attachment
        Giacomo:

        For more information about your reliquary figure, which is stylistically related to or inspired by Mahongwe Bwiti or Bwété reliquary forms, see recent Messages regarding both reliquaries from the Mahongwe and the broader Kota cultural complex.  Relevant messages include Message 3654 referring to the example recently offered at Sotheby's on Paris as Lot 138 as well as Message 3655  Several previous discussions with relevant links are also referenced in Message 3322 with which include various applicable references to studies by Louis Perrois and Alain Chaffin as well as the 2007 exhibition, "Eternal Ancestors" at the Metropolitan Museum in New York and the accompanying publication:  Alisa LaGamma, Eternal Ancestors:  The Art of Central African Reliquary (New York:  Metropolitan Museum of Art and New Haven/London:  Yale University Press.  2007).

        One element suggestive that the figure which you have presented may be a commercial reproduction is the inclusion of the zoomorphic figure on the reverse, an element of which I am not aware as an ordinary feature of such ritual objects.  The referenced publications indicated in the messages to which I have referred may provide you with comparative examples through which to determine more conclusively the origin and function of the figure which you have presented.

        Lee

        On Dec 13, 2008, at 4:49 PM, giacomomorganti wrote:

        Hello, i am Giacomo from Italy.
        I recently acquired a reliquary for me very beautifull!! I have created 
        an album, section Photos, link "Giacomo": http://groups. yahoo.com/ group/African_ Arts/photos/ album/1253118286 /pic/list 
        Excuse me for not very good photos!
        I hope to find information about this figure. I would like to know what 
        you think and if you believe that it is a good piece.
        I would like to know also, as it is dirt and dust of the earth, how to 
        clean and restorations. What used to do the restoration? Thank you
        Giacomo


      • giacomomorganti
        Hello Lee, thanks for your very detailed response, you were very kind. Excuse my english!!! I also thought that I could be a reproduction, but I do not
        Message 3 of 7 , Dec 15, 2008
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          Hello Lee,
          thanks for your very detailed response, you were very kind. Excuse my
          english!!!
          I also thought that I could be a reproduction, but I do not
          understand why they would have made a representation different from
          the original inserting a figure very different from traditional ones.
          This is my doubt, especially being able to see the way in which it
          was achieved. I would deepen the study of this figure physically
          submitting an expert in order to understand if one is playing or not.
          I assure you that if a representation, is made really well in all the
          details, including land, oxidation, wear, signs of the time!
          Thanks in advance for the information that you can give me.

          Best Regards
          Giacomo

          --- In African_Arts@yahoogroups.com, Lee Rubinstein
          <LeeRubinstein@...> wrote:
          >
          > Giacomo:
          >
          > For more information about your reliquary figure, which is
          > stylistically related to or inspired by Mahongwe Bwiti or Bwété
          > reliquary forms, see recent Messages regarding both reliquaries
          from
          > the Mahongwe and the broader Kota cultural complex. Relevant
          messages
          > include Message 3654 referring to the example recently offered at
          > Sotheby's on Paris as Lot 138 as well as Message 3655 Several
          > previous discussions with relevant links are also referenced in
          > Message 3322 with which include various applicable references to
          > studies by Louis Perrois and Alain Chaffin as well as the 2007
          > exhibition, "Eternal Ancestors" at the Metropolitan Museum in New
          York
          > and the accompanying publication: Alisa LaGamma, Eternal
          Ancestors:
          > The Art of Central African Reliquary (New York: Metropolitan
          Museum
          > of Art and New Haven/London: Yale University Press. 2007).
          >
          > One element suggestive that the figure which you have presented may
          be
          > a commercial reproduction is the inclusion of the zoomorphic figure
          on
          > the reverse, an element of which I am not aware as an ordinary
          feature
          > of such ritual objects. The referenced publications indicated in
          the
          > messages to which I have referred may provide you with comparative
          > examples through which to determine more conclusively the origin
          and
          > function of the figure which you have presented.
          >
          > Lee
          >
          > On Dec 13, 2008, at 4:49 PM, giacomomorganti wrote:
          >
          > > Hello, i am Giacomo from Italy.
          > > I recently acquired a reliquary for me very beautifull!!I have
          created
          > > an album, section Photos, link "Giacomo":
          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/African_Arts/photos/album/1253118286/pic
          /list
          > > Excuse me for not very good photos!
          > > I hope to find information about this figure. I would like to
          know
          > > what
          > > you think and if you believe that it is a good piece.
          > > I would like to know also, as it is dirt and dust of the earth,
          how to
          > > clean and restorations. What used to do the restoration? Thank you
          > > Giacomo
          > >
          > >
          > >
          >
        • Lee Rubinstein
          Giacomo: You raise an interesting question regarding the inclusion of non- traditional elements in the contemporary crafting of reproductions of well-known
          Message 4 of 7 , Dec 15, 2008
          • 0 Attachment
            Giacomo:

            You raise an interesting question regarding the inclusion of non-traditional elements in the contemporary crafting of reproductions of well-known traditional African forms.  The motivations for these "unexpected" or innovative inclusions are likely as diverse as they are ambiguous.  There are many traditional masks and figures which are used as the basis for contemporary reproductions and then embellished with animals and other decorative elements which generally do not appear in the original documented examples -- possibly because these added elements are believed to appeal to the intended buyer.  Too, reproductions are often created in workshops outside of the areas where the forms originate, and the introduction of anomalous elements may represent  the insertion of details common to works which are traditional in the areas of production rather than in the locales/cultures where the reproduced forms originate.  Who can say whether the motivation behind innovation is simply creative or intentionally deceptive and at what point in the commercial chain the suggestion of authenticity is attached to the object and by whom -- by the maker, the purveyor, the reseller?  When is the misidentification intentional, and when is it merely based on an erroneous assumption?

            With regard to aged appearance which can be quite convincing and highly suggestive of an object's age and authenticity, the practices to create patinas which correspond to collectors' preferences is well documented.  It is but one of the aspects of ambiguity and confusion that challenges the ability of collectors, appreciators and even museum curators to determine conclusively the age and authenticity of seemingly authentic works.  Among the publications that consider the various aspects of this difficulty is the April, 1976 issue of African Arts  (Vol. 9, Issue 3):  entitled FAKES, FAKERS, AND FAKERY: AUTHENTICITY IN AFRICAN ART.

            Some resources in Italian which you may find helpful in exploring some of the issues you query are included below:



            Perhaps other group members can suggest additional resources in Italian.  Qualcuno sa risorse aggiuntive???

            Best, Lee 

            On Dec 15, 2008, at 4:10 PM, giacomomorganti wrote:

            Hello Lee,
            thanks for your very detailed response, you were very kind. Excuse my 
            english!!!
            I also thought that I could be a reproduction, but I do not 
            understand why they would have made a representation different from 
            the original inserting a figure very different from traditional ones. 
            This is my doubt, especially being able to see the way in which it 
            was achieved. I would deepen the study of this figure physically 
            submitting an expert in order to understand if one is playing or not. 
            I assure you that if a representation, is made really well in all the 
            details, including land, oxidation, wear, signs of the time! 
            Thanks in advance for the information that you can give me. 

            Best Regards
            Giacomo

            --- In African_Arts@ yahoogroups. com, Lee Rubinstein 
            <LeeRubinstein@ ...> wrote:
            >
            > Giacomo:
            > 
            > For more information about your reliquary figure, which is 
            > stylistically related to or inspired by Mahongwe Bwiti or Bwété 
            > reliquary forms, see recent Messages regarding both reliquaries 
            from 
            > the Mahongwe and the broader Kota cultural complex. Relevant 
            messages 
            > include Message 3654 referring to the example recently offered at 
            > Sotheby's on Paris as Lot 138 as well as Message 3655 Several 
            > previous discussions with relevant links are also referenced in 
            > Message 3322 with which include various applicable references to 
            > studies by Louis Perrois and Alain Chaffin as well as the 2007 
            > exhibition, "Eternal Ancestors" at the Metropolitan Museum in New 
            York 
            > and the accompanying publication: Alisa LaGamma, Eternal 
            Ancestors: 
            > The Art of Central African Reliquary (New York: Metropolitan 
            Museum 
            > of Art and New Haven/London: Yale University Press. 2007).
            > 
            > One element suggestive that the figure which you have presented may 
            be 
            > a commercial reproduction is the inclusion of the zoomorphic figure 
            on 
            > the reverse, an element of which I am not aware as an ordinary 
            feature 
            > of such ritual objects. The referenced publications indicated in 
            the 
            > messages to which I have referred may provide you with comparative 
            > examples through which to determine more conclusively the origin 
            and 
            > function of the figure which you have presented.
            > 
            > Lee
            > 
            > On Dec 13, 2008, at 4:49 PM, giacomomorganti wrote:
            > 
            > > Hello, i am Giacomo from Italy.
            > > I recently acquired a reliquary for me very beautifull!! I have 
            created
            > > an album, section Photos, link "Giacomo": 
            http://groups. yahoo.com/ group/African_ Arts/photos/ album/1253118286 /pic
            /list
            > > Excuse me for not very good photos!
            > > I hope to find information about this figure. I would like to 
            know 
            > > what
            > > you think and if you believe that it is a good piece.
            > > I would like to know also, as it is dirt and dust of the earth, 
            how to
            > > clean and restorations. What used to do the restoration? Thank you
            > > Giacomo
            > >
            > >
            > >
            >


          • Lee Rubinstein
            An additional and very valuable resource -- richly illustrated, with text in French and an English summary -- for those who have recently queried
            Message 5 of 7 , Dec 16, 2008
            • 0 Attachment
              An additional and very valuable resource  -- richly illustrated, with text in French and an English summary -- for those who have recently queried Mahongwe-style reliquary figures  is Louis Perrois' "L'Art Kota-Mahongwe:  Les figures funéraires du Bassin de l'Ivindo (Gabon-Congo) which appeared in Arts d'Afrique Noire 20 (Winter/Hiver, 1976), pp. 15-37.  The article is accessible on-line complete with illustrations at http://horizon.documentation.ird.fr/exl-doc/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_5/b_fdi_08-09/08873.pdf

              Lee

              On Dec 15, 2008, at 6:58 PM, Lee Rubinstein wrote:

              Giacomo:


              You raise an interesting question regarding the inclusion of non-traditional elements in the contemporary crafting of reproductions of well-known traditional African forms.  The motivations for these "unexpected" or innovative inclusions are likely as diverse as they are ambiguous.  There are many traditional masks and figures which are used as the basis for contemporary reproductions and then embellished with animals and other decorative elements which generally do not appear in the original documented examples -- possibly because these added elements are believed to appeal to the intended buyer.  Too, reproductions are often created in workshops outside of the areas where the forms originate, and the introduction of anomalous elements may represent  the insertion of details common to works which are traditional in the areas of production rather than in the locales/cultures where the reproduced forms originate.  Who can say whether the motivation behind innovation is simply creative or intentionally deceptive and at what point in the commercial chain the suggestion of authenticity is attached to the object and by whom -- by the maker, the purveyor, the reseller?  When is the misidentification intentional, and when is it merely based on an erroneous assumption?

              With regard to aged appearance which can be quite convincing and highly suggestive of an object's age and authenticity, the practices to create patinas which correspond to collectors' preferences is well documented.  It is but one of the aspects of ambiguity and confusion that challenges the ability of collectors, appreciators and even museum curators to determine conclusively the age and authenticity of seemingly authentic works.  Among the publications that consider the various aspects of this difficulty is the April, 1976 issue of African Arts  (Vol. 9, Issue 3):  entitled FAKES, FAKERS, AND FAKERY: AUTHENTICITY IN AFRICAN ART.

              Some resources in Italian which you may find helpful in exploring some of the issues you query are included below:



              Perhaps other group members can suggest additional resources in Italian.  Qualcuno sa risorse aggiuntive?? ?

              Best, Lee 

              On Dec 15, 2008, at 4:10 PM, giacomomorganti wrote:

              Hello Lee,
              thanks for your very detailed response, you were very kind. Excuse my 
              english!!!
              I also thought that I could be a reproduction, but I do not 
              understand why they would have made a representation different from 
              the original inserting a figure very different from traditional ones. 
              This is my doubt, especially being able to see the way in which it 
              was achieved. I would deepen the study of this figure physically 
              submitting an expert in order to understand if one is playing or not. 
              I assure you that if a representation, is made really well in all the 
              details, including land, oxidation, wear, signs of the time! 
              Thanks in advance for the information that you can give me. 

              Best Regards
              Giacomo

              --- In African_Arts@ yahoogroups. com, Lee Rubinstein 
              <LeeRubinstein@ ...> wrote:
              >
              > Giacomo:
              > 
              > For more information about your reliquary figure, which is 
              > stylistically related to or inspired by Mahongwe Bwiti or Bwété 
              > reliquary forms, see recent Messages regarding both reliquaries 
              from 
              > the Mahongwe and the broader Kota cultural complex. Relevant 
              messages 
              > include Message 3654 referring to the example recently offered at 
              > Sotheby's on Paris as Lot 138 as well as Message 3655 Several 
              > previous discussions with relevant links are also referenced in 
              > Message 3322 with which include various applicable references to 
              > studies by Louis Perrois and Alain Chaffin as well as the 2007 
              > exhibition, "Eternal Ancestors" at the Metropolitan Museum in New 
              York 
              > and the accompanying publication: Alisa LaGamma, Eternal 
              Ancestors: 
              > The Art of Central African Reliquary (New York: Metropolitan 
              Museum 
              > of Art and New Haven/London: Yale University Press. 2007).
              > 
              > One element suggestive that the figure which you have presented may 
              be 
              > a commercial reproduction is the inclusion of the zoomorphic figure 
              on 
              > the reverse, an element of which I am not aware as an ordinary 
              feature 
              > of such ritual objects. The referenced publications indicated in 
              the 
              > messages to which I have referred may provide you with comparative 
              > examples through which to determine more conclusively the origin 
              and 
              > function of the figure which you have presented.
              > 
              > Lee
              > 
              > On Dec 13, 2008, at 4:49 PM, giacomomorganti wrote:
              > 
              > > Hello, i am Giacomo from Italy.
              > > I recently acquired a reliquary for me very beautifull!! I have 
              created
              > > an album, section Photos, link "Giacomo": 
              http://groups. yahoo.com/ group/African_ Arts/photos/ album/1253118286 /pic
              /list
              > > Excuse me for not very good photos!
              > > I hope to find information about this figure. I would like to 
              know 
              > > what
              > > you think and if you believe that it is a good piece.
              > > I would like to know also, as it is dirt and dust of the earth, 
              how to
              > > clean and restorations. What used to do the restoration? Thank you
              > > Giacomo
              > >
              > >
              > >
              >




            • Bob Ibold
              Lee, I agree with your comments to Giacomo. Lets also acknowledge that the inclusion of non-traditional elements, as well as the utilization of new materials,
              Message 6 of 7 , Dec 16, 2008
              • 0 Attachment
                Lee,

                I agree with your comments to Giacomo. Lets also acknowledge that the inclusion of non-traditional elements, as well as the utilization of new materials, is always happening and is natural to the evolution of traditional folk art. I find this fascinating and purposely try to collect African masks that break with tradition.

                On the subject of artificial aging, I too find it troubling and usually avoid collecting such pieces. There are African carvers whose skills at distressing surfaces and layering patinas are so advanced even an expert will be fooled. The artificial aging of reproductions also occurs in other cultures. Mostly it is done hastily and is much easier to detect than on those from Africa. This should come as no surprise. The market for African traditional art has been growing since the 19th century and appears to me to be way larger than any other.

                Bob
                MasksoftheWorld.com


                At 06:58 PM 12/15/2008, you wrote:

                Giacomo:

                You raise an interesting question regarding the inclusion of non-traditional elements in the contemporary crafting of reproductions of well-known traditional African forms.  The motivations for these "unexpected" or innovative inclusions are likely as diverse as they are ambiguous.  There are many traditional masks and figures which are used as the basis for contemporary reproductions and then embellished with animals and other decorative elements which generally do not appear in the original documented examples -- possibly because these added elements are believed to appeal to the intended buyer.  Too, reproductions are often created in workshops outside of the areas where the forms originate, and the introduction of anomalous elements may represent  the insertion of details common to works which are traditional in the areas of production rather than in the locales/cultures where the reproduced forms originate.  Who can say whether the motivation behind innovation is simply creative or intentionally deceptive and at what point in the commercial chain the suggestion of authenticity is attached to the object and by whom -- by the maker, the purveyor, the reseller?  When is the misidentification intentional, and when is it merely based on an erroneous assumption?

                With regard to aged appearance which can be quite convincing and highly suggestive of an object's age and authenticity, the practices to create patinas which correspond to collectors' preferences is well documented.  It is but one of the aspects of ambiguity and confusion that challenges the ability of collectors, appreciators and even museum curators to determine conclusively the age and authenticity of seemingly authentic works.  Among the publications that consider the various aspects of this difficulty is the April, 1976 issue of African Arts  (Vol. 9, Issue 3):  entitled FAKES, FAKERS, AND FAKERY: AUTHENTICITY IN AFRICAN ART.

                Some resources in Italian which you may find helpful in exploring some of the issues you query are included below:

                http://www.museoartescienza.com/index-ita.htm

                http://www.africarte.it/

                Perhaps other group members can suggest additional resources in Italian.  Qualcuno sa risorse aggiuntive???

                Best, Lee

                On Dec 15, 2008, at 4:10 PM, giacomomorganti wrote:

                Hello Lee,
                thanks for your very detailed response, you were very kind. Excuse my
                english!!!
                I also thought that I could be a reproduction, but I do not
                understand why they would have made a representation different from
                the original inserting a figure very different from traditional ones.
                This is my doubt, especially being able to see the way in which it
                was achieved. I would deepen the study of this figure physically
                submitting an expert in order to understand if one is playing or not.
                I assure you that if a representation, is made really well in all the
                details, including land, oxidation, wear, signs of the time!
                Thanks in advance for the information that you can give me.

                Best Regards
                Giacomo

                --- In African_Arts@yahoogroups.com, Lee Rubinstein
                <LeeRubinstein@...> wrote:
                >
                > Giacomo:
                >
                > For more information about your reliquary figure, which is
                > stylistically related to or inspired by Mahongwe Bwiti or Bwété
                > reliquary forms, see recent Messages regarding both reliquaries
                from
                > the Mahongwe and the broader Kota cultural complex. Relevant
                messages
                > include Message 3654 referring to the example recently offered at
                > Sotheby's on Paris as Lot 138 as well as Message 3655 Several
                > previous discussions with relevant links are also referenced in
                > Message 3322 with which include various applicable references to
                > studies by Louis Perrois and Alain Chaffin as well as the 2007
                > exhibition, "Eternal Ancestors" at the Metropolitan Museum in New
                York
                > and the accompanying publication: Alisa LaGamma, Eternal
                Ancestors:
                > The Art of Central African Reliquary (New York: Metropolitan
                Museum
                > of Art and New Haven/London: Yale University Press. 2007).
                >
                > One element suggestive that the figure which you have presented may
                be
                > a commercial reproduction is the inclusion of the zoomorphic figure
                on
                > the reverse, an element of which I am not aware as an ordinary
                feature
                > of such ritual objects. The referenced publications indicated in
                the
                > messages to which I have referred may provide you with comparative
                > examples through which to determine more conclusively the origin
                and
                > function of the figure which you have presented.
                >
                > Lee
                >
                > On Dec 13, 2008, at 4:49 PM, giacomomorganti wrote:
                >
                > > Hello, i am Giacomo from Italy.
                > > I recently acquired a reliquary for me very beautifull!!I have
                created
                > > an album, section Photos, link "Giacomo":
                http://groups.yahoo.com/group/African_Arts/photos/album/1253118286/pic
                /list
                > > Excuse me for not very good photos!
                > > I hope to find information about this figure. I would like to
                know
                > > what
                > > you think and if you believe that it is a good piece.
                > > I would like to know also, as it is dirt and dust of the earth,
                how to
                > > clean and restorations. What used to do the restoration? Thank you
                > > Giacomo
                > >
                > >
                > >
                >


                No virus found in this incoming message.
                Checked by AVG - http://www.avg.com
                Version: 8.0.176 / Virus Database: 270.9.18/1849 - Release Date: 12/15/2008 9:01 AM
              • Ricardo de Matos
                Hello Lee, Regarding italian african arts related websites, this one is by very far the best : www.*artesafricanae*.org (Have a
                Message 7 of 7 , Dec 16, 2008
                • 0 Attachment
                  Hello Lee,
                   
                  Regarding italian african arts related websites, this one is by very far the best :
                   
                   
                  Best,
                  Ricardo

                   



                   
                  2008/12/16, Lee Rubinstein <LeeRubinstein@...>:

                  An additional and very valuable resource  -- richly illustrated, with text in French and an English summary -- for those who have recently queried Mahongwe-style reliquary figures  is Louis Perrois' "L'Art Kota-Mahongwe:  Les figures funéraires du Bassin de l'Ivindo (Gabon-Congo) which appeared in Arts d'Afrique Noire 20 (Winter/Hiver, 1976), pp. 15-37.  The article is accessible on-line complete with illustrations at http://horizon.documentation.ird.fr/exl-doc/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_5/b_fdi_08-09/08873.pdf


                   
                  Lee

                  On Dec 15, 2008, at 6:58 PM, Lee Rubinstein wrote:

                  Giacomo:


                   
                  You raise an interesting question regarding the inclusion of non-traditional elements in the contemporary crafting of reproductions of well-known traditional African forms.  The motivations for these "unexpected" or innovative inclusions are likely as diverse as they are ambiguous.  There are many traditional masks and figures which are used as the basis for contemporary reproductions and then embellished with animals and other decorative elements which generally do not appear in the original documented examples -- possibly because these added elements are believed to appeal to the intended buyer.  Too, reproductions are often created in workshops outside of the areas where the forms originate, and the introduction of anomalous elements may represent  the insertion of details common to works which are traditional in the areas of production rather than in the locales/cultures where the reproduced forms originate.  Who can say whether the motivation behind innovation is simply creative or intentionally deceptive and at what point in the commercial chain the suggestion of authenticity is attached to the object and by whom -- by the maker, the purveyor, the reseller?  When is the misidentification intentional, and when is it merely based on an erroneous assumption?

                   
                  With regard to aged appearance which can be quite convincing and highly suggestive of an object's age and authenticity, the practices to create patinas which correspond to collectors' preferences is well documented.  It is but one of the aspects of ambiguity and confusion that challenges the ability of collectors, appreciators and even museum curators to determine conclusively the age and authenticity of seemingly authentic works.  Among the publications that consider the various aspects of this difficulty is the April, 1976 issue of African Arts  (Vol. 9, Issue 3):  entitled FAKES, FAKERS, AND FAKERY: AUTHENTICITY IN AFRICAN ART.

                   
                  Some resources in Italian which you may find helpful in exploring some of the issues you query are included below:

                   

                   

                   
                  Perhaps other group members can suggest additional resources in Italian.  Qualcuno sa risorse aggiuntive???

                   
                  Best, Lee 

                   
                  On Dec 15, 2008, at 4:10 PM, giacomomorganti wrote:

                  Hello Lee,
                  thanks for your very detailed response, you were very kind. Excuse my 
                  english!!!
                  I also thought that I could be a reproduction, but I do not 
                  understand why they would have made a representation different from 
                  the original inserting a figure very different from traditional ones. 
                  This is my doubt, especially being able to see the way in which it 
                  was achieved. I would deepen the study of this figure physically 
                  submitting an expert in order to understand if one is playing or not. 
                  I assure you that if a representation, is made really well in all the 
                  details, including land, oxidation, wear, signs of the time! 
                  Thanks in advance for the information that you can give me. 

                  Best Regards
                  Giacomo

                  --- In African_Arts@yahoogroups.com, Lee Rubinstein 
                  <LeeRubinstein@...> wrote:
                  >
                  > Giacomo:
                  > 
                  > For more information about your reliquary figure, which is 
                  > stylistically related to or inspired by Mahongwe Bwiti or Bwété 
                  > reliquary forms, see recent Messages regarding both reliquaries 
                  from 
                  > the Mahongwe and the broader Kota cultural complex. Relevant 
                  messages 
                  > include Message 3654 referring to the example recently offered at 
                  > Sotheby's on Paris as Lot 138 as well as Message 3655 Several 
                  > previous discussions with relevant links are also referenced in 
                  > Message 3322 with which include various applicable references to 
                  > studies by Louis Perrois and Alain Chaffin as well as the 2007 
                  > exhibition, "Eternal Ancestors" at the Metropolitan Museum in New 
                  York 
                  > and the accompanying publication: Alisa LaGamma, Eternal 
                  Ancestors: 
                  > The Art of Central African Reliquary (New York: Metropolitan 
                  Museum 
                  > of Art and New Haven/London: Yale University Press. 2007).
                  > 
                  > One element suggestive that the figure which you have presented may 
                  be 
                  > a commercial reproduction is the inclusion of the zoomorphic figure 
                  on 
                  > the reverse, an element of which I am not aware as an ordinary 
                  feature 
                  > of such ritual objects. The referenced publications indicated in 
                  the 
                  > messages to which I have referred may provide you with comparative 
                  > examples through which to determine more conclusively the origin 
                  and 
                  > function of the figure which you have presented.
                  > 
                  > Lee
                  > 
                  > On Dec 13, 2008, at 4:49 PM, giacomomorganti wrote:
                  > 
                  > > Hello, i am Giacomo from Italy.
                  > > I recently acquired a reliquary for me very beautifull!!I have 
                  created
                  > > an album, section Photos, link "Giacomo": 
                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/African_Arts/photos/album/1253118286/pic
                  /list
                  > > Excuse me for not very good photos!
                  > > I hope to find information about this figure. I would like to 
                  know 
                  > > what
                  > > you think and if you believe that it is a good piece.
                  > > I would like to know also, as it is dirt and dust of the earth, 
                  how to
                  > > clean and restorations. What used to do the restoration? Thank you
                  > > Giacomo
                  > >
                  > >
                  > >
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