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**COMMUNICATOR UPDATE: December 2003**

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  • ckoeppel@dirksencenter.org
    COMMUNICATOR UPDATE: December 2003 Welcome to The Dirksen Congressional Center s Communicator - a web- based e-newsletter providing educators with news and
    Message 1 of 1 , Dec 16, 2003
      COMMUNICATOR UPDATE: December 2003

      Welcome to The Dirksen Congressional Center's "Communicator" - a web-
      based e-newsletter providing educators with news and ideas to
      enhance civic education and improve the understanding of Congress --


      <<< Congressional Research Awards >>>

      * DEADLINE: Proposals must be postmarked no later than February 1,

      The Dirksen Center invites applications for grants to fund research
      on congressional leadership and the U.S. Congress. A total of up to
      $35,000 will be available in 2004. Applications are accepted at any
      time, but the deadline is February 1, 2004, for the annual
      selections, which are announced in March.

      Complete information about eligibility and application procedures
      may be found at The Center's Web site:
      http://www.dirksencenter.org/grantcongresearchaward.htm Frank
      Mackaman is the program officer -- mailto:fmackaman@...

      Since 1978, the Congressional Research Awards program has paid out
      $585,000 to support 315 projects.

      <<< Open Enrollment -- Dirksen Center Friends >>>

      Membership enrollment in The Center's Friends organization is now
      open. Your $25 annual membership dues will help support a wide range
      of educational and research programs for scholars, teachers, and

      Join now and enjoy the benefits listed at:
      http://www.dirksencenter.org/friends.htm. Instructions for becoming
      a Dirksen Center Friend can be found at:


      <<< Civil Liberties: The First Amendment (Freedom of Speech) >>>

      What constitutes "speech" itself? One view separates public or
      political speech from private speech with the latter limited with
      respect to the rights of others. This issue of "Communicator" will
      provide resources to help your students learn more about the First
      Amendment and freedom of speech.

      Learn more about the Supreme Court and how the courts can influence
      legislation. For example, see how the courts have protected speech
      in certain circumstances but not all kinds of speech. Find "Congress
      and the Courts" at:

      Learn more about the Supreme Court case that established "clear and
      present danger" as an acceptable reason for limiting free
      expression. Find "Schenck v. United States (1919)" at:

      The Supreme Court has had to consider laws that restrict
      nonpolitical public speech. Learn about two historic Supreme Court
      decisions related to unprotected speech, sometimes called "fighting
      words." Find "Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire, 315 U.S. 568 (1942)
      (USSC+)" and "Street v. New York, 394 U.S. 576 (1969) (USSC+)" on
      AboutGovernment at:

      Introduce CongressLink's related lesson plan to teach students that
      some forms of speech involve not words but actions, usually as part
      of a political protest, and to show students the role of the Supreme
      Court in interpreting the law and how the courts affect our personal
      freedoms. Find "Symbolic Speech" at:

      <<< Featured Grant-funded Project >>>

      Suppose you would like to develop lesson plans or student activities
      that will allow students to weigh the rights of students (and
      others) to free speech versus the responsibilities that come with
      those rights. Sound intriguing? Consider applying for a Robert H.
      Michel Civic Education Grant. Find information about the program,
      including a sample grant proposal and a list of previously awarded
      grants at: http://www.dirksencenter.org/grantmichelciviced.htm

      *NEW* Can you burn the flag? Test your "Freedom of Speech" knowledge

      *** More Freedom Frenzy ***

      1. Which form of speech did the Supreme Court label as unprotected
      by the First Amendment in "Roth v. US (1957)?"

      A) Libel
      B) Fighting words
      C) Symbolic Speech
      D) Obscenity

      2. "Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969)" provided further protection for
      dangerous speech by adding what requirement to the clear and present
      danger test?

      A) Lucidity
      B) Severity
      C) Imminence
      D) Sedition

      3. Texas v. Johnson (1989) is an important case concerning symbolic
      speech. Which form of symbolic speech did the Supreme Court uphold
      in this case?

      A) Wearing arm bands in school
      B) Cross burning
      C) Flag burning
      D) Draft card burning

      *** Critical Thinking ***

      The "fighting words" doctrine suggests that a speaker may be
      silenced because his or her words might provoke a violent
      retaliation from the listener. This approach to free speech
      effectively gives the audience the power to silence any message that
      they consider offensive enough to warrant violence. What do you
      think? To what extent should government be able to quiet someone in
      order to protect them from the backlash created by their own words?
      Is a "fighting words" exception to the First Amendment a dangerous
      loophole in protection of free expression? Or is it a reasonable
      relaxation of those protections, available for public authorities
      when they lack adequate resources to protect an unpopular minority?

      Answers to the November issue of "Fun, Facts, and Trivia" link here:

      Happy Holidays! Encourage your colleagues to subscribe to the
      Communicator. If you have questions, comments, or suggestions,
      contact Cindy Koeppel at mailto:ckoeppel@... Your
      feedback makes a difference!

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