Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

miralax

Expand Messages
  • cindi dressler
    OK, I was a bit off with the name it is polyethylene glycol. I havent used it for months now, so I forgot... Here is a post sent to me and some others because
    Message 1 of 3 , Oct 1, 2000
    • 0 Attachment
      OK, I was a bit off with the name it is polyethylene glycol. I havent
      used it for months now, so I forgot... Here is a post sent to me and
      some others because of our use of miralax. Which I might add was
      prescribed for constipation by Dr. Horvath, one of the leading autism/gi
      doctors. Some of it is very technical but you should be able to get the
      jist of it.
      cindi
      Teresa, Cindy and Cindi and Susan,

      I venture into this area cautiously, but my first
      exposure to polyethylene
      glycol was in immunology class four years ago when we
      learned that it was
      used to merge cell membranes of two different types of
      cells, to create a
      third type of cell with new characteristics. When a
      friend of mine
      recently mentioned to me that her son's GI doctor had
      put him on
      polyethylene glycol, I was a bit shocked, and poured
      through that package
      insert looking for "Why?"

      It certainly appears that the only thing they suspect
      this substance reacts
      to is the fecal mass, bringing in water, and I don't
      know what kind of
      research went into seeing what it did to the intestinal
      cells it was
      exposed to, but I wonder.

      Here below are some articles sampling what causes me
      concern. But just to
      summarize, PEG interacts with the cell membrane,
      allowing cells to form
      syncytia, which are multinucleated cells. One article
      mentioned a thirty
      second exposure caused drastic changes in the cells
      that did not show up
      for three weeks in culture. Apparently a good bit of
      DNA merging can take
      place too, which changes cell characteristics, and some
      cells can change
      their phenotype and act like cells at a different
      developmental stage. It
      also may allow viruses or whatever to have a new
      advantage...all very
      worrisome things, especially with Susan's experience
      with HSV.

      I can't imagine that these issues were not addressed
      when this product was
      approved for use to expand the water content of a fecal
      mass, but I suppose
      we as a group are a bit less trusting of the
      thoroughness of the approval
      process than most people.

      Please read below and wonder with me.

      Susan

      Virus Res 1998 Nov;58(1-2):21-34

      Stable attachment for herpes simplex virus penetration
      into human cells requires glycoprotein D in the virion
      and cell receptors that are missing for entry-defective

      porcine cells.

      Perez A, Fuller AO

      Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University
      of Michigan
      Medical School, Ann Arbor 48109-0620, USA.

      Clonal porcine kidney cell lines that are
      non-permissive for herpes
      simplex virus (HSV) infection produced five orders of
      magnitude less
      virus than human cells, contained heparan sulfate (HS),
      and are restricted
      only at HSV entry. By fluorescent activated cell
      sorting, we examined
      HSV attachments to porcine and human cells. Stable
      attachment to
      susceptible human embryonic lung (HEL) cells occurred
      with infectious
      wild-type virus, complemented gD or gH mutant viruses,
      or
      non-infectious virus lacking gH. On HEL cells, mutant
      virus lacking gD
      bound to heparan sulfate, but failed to stably bind.
      None of these viruses
      stably attached to SK6-A7 cells, one of the
      non-permissive porcine cell
      clones. ***However, HSV could replicate in these cells
      when entry was
      mediated by polyethylene glycol.*** These results
      confirm that, in neutral pH
      entry of HSV, (i) multiple attachments to HS and non-HS
      components
      lead to penetration, (2) stable attachment before
      penetration is one
      required function of gD, but not gH, and (3) for stable
      attachment, gD
      interacts directly, or indirectly through another viral
      or cellular
      component, with receptors that are present on human
      cells, but absent
      for entry-defective porcine cells. Easily propagated
      clonal porcine cells
      are a novel resource to investigate stable attachment,
      the molecular
      mechanisms of gD functions, and the viral and cellular
      components that
      allow HSV entry and spread.

      PMID: 9879759, UI: 99094368

      Biochim Biophys Acta 1994 Jan
      19;1189(2):175-80

      Related
      Articles, Books


      Real-time measurements of chemically-induced
      membrane fusion in cell monolayers, using a resonance
      energy transfer method.

      Partearroyo MA, Cabezon E, Nieva JL, Alonso A, Goni FM
      Department of Biochemistry, University of the Basque
      Country, Bilbao,
      Spain.

      Fusion of mouse melanoma cells grown in monolayers has
      been directly
      monitored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer
      between fluorescein
      and rhodamine probes attached to octadecanoic acid.
      Various
      poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEG), either alone or in
      combination with
      amphipathic molecules, have been used as fusogens.
      Fusion starts at a
      maximum rate as soon as PEG is removed from the medium
      and reaches
      a plateau after 20-30 min. Both the initial rate and
      extent of fusion have
      been recorded for each experiment. The extent of fusion
      shows in general
      a positive correlation with the initial rate, although
      PEGs with different
      molar masses appear to induce fusion at different
      rates, but to a similar
      extent. A good correlation has been found between the
      extent of fusion,
      as measured by fluorescence, and the 'fusion index'
      computed from cell
      and nucleus counting; a calibration curve is provided
      for the
      interconversion of both parameters. Optimum fusion
      values are obtained
      with 50% (w/v) PEG 1500. The effect of pre-treatments
      with surfactants
      (Triton X-100, sodium dodecylsulphate) on PEG-induced
      fusion has also
      been tested. Sodium dodecylsulphate, but not Triton,
      enhances
      considerably both the rate and extent of cell fusion.
      The in situ generation
      of the amphipathic molecule diacylglycerol, through the
      catalytic activity
      of a phospholipase C, also enhances significantly the
      fusion parameters.
      These results are in good agreement with previous
      studies based on
      syncytia counting.

      PMID: 8292622, UI: 94122207

      J Neurobiol 1995 Feb;26(2):283-93

      A human glial hybrid cell line differentially
      expressing
      genes subserving oligodendrocyte and astrocyte
      phenotype.

      McLaurin J, Trudel GC, Shaw IT, Antel JP, Cashman NR

      Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill
      University,
      Montreal Neurological Institute, Quebec, Canada.

      We have developed a series of immortal human-human
      hybrid cell lines
      that express phenotypic characteristics of primary
      oligodendrocytes, by
      fusing a 6-thioguanine-resistant mutant of the human
      rhabdomyosarcoma
      RD with adult human oligodendrocytes by a
      lectin-enhanced polyethylene
      glycol procedure.

      Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1996 Mar;78(3):215-22

      Polyethylene glycol-modified IL-2 abrogates
      superantigen-induced anergy without affecting
      peripheral clonal deletion in vivo.

      Gonzalez-Garcia A, Marchetti P, Castedo M, Zamzami N,
      Tarazona R, Martinez-A C, Kroemer G

      Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia (CSIC), Universidad
      Autonoma de
      Madrid, Spain.

      As compared with the native molecule, recombinant human
      interleukin-2
      that is modified by covalently attached polyethylene
      glycol residues
      (IL-2-PEG) exhibits a markedly enhanced half-life in
      vivo, thus facilitating
      its biological evaluation. We have characterized the
      effect of IL-2-PEG
      on the Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B
      (SEB)-induced tolerance of
      peripheral SEB-reactive (V beta 8+) T cells. Treatment
      with sublethal
      doses of IL-2-PEG does not modulate (inhibit or
      enhance) the
      SEB-triggered apoptosis and deletion of V beta 8+ T
      cells. In contrast,
      in vivo treatment with IL-2-PEG partially abolishes the
      SEB-triggered
      anergy of V beta 8+ T cells, i.e., the failure to
      proliferate in response to
      SEB in vitro. To abolish SEB-triggered anergy, IL-2-PEG
      must act for
      an extended period in vivo; short term treatment in
      vivo (2 days) or
      exposure of anergic T cells to IL-2 in vitro fails to
      reconstitute
      proliferative responses. Moreover, the effect of in
      vivo treatment with
      IL-2-PEG on lymphokine production by anergic T cells is
      partial.
      IL-2-PEG restores IL-4-dependent autocrine
      proliferation in response to
      SEB but does not reestablish defective IL-2 production.
      These data are
      compatible with the notion that IL-2 is a regulator of
      postdeletional rather
      than deletional T cell tolerance.

      PMID: 8605696, UI: 96180828 Susan

      Cancer Res 1988 May 1;48(9):2498-504

      Restoration by polyethylene glycol of characteristics
      of
      intestinal differentiation in subpopulations of the
      human
      colonic adenocarcinoma cell line HT29.

      Laboisse CL, Maoret JJ, Triadou N, Augeron C

      Laboratoire de Biologie et de Physiologie des Cellules
      Digestives (U239
      I.N.S.E.R.M.), Faculte X. Bichat, Paris, France.

      The human colonic cancer cell line HT29 is
      morphologically
      undifferentiated in standard culture conditions. The
      cells were incubated
      for 30 s in polyethylene glycol (27%, v/v), then
      washed, and refed with
      standard medium. In these conditions of treatment,
      polyethylene glycol
      was unable to induce a significant cell
      multinucleation. Three wk after the
      treatment, circular "flat-foci" developed in the
      culture, which consisted of
      circular monolayers of polarized cells. These
      subpopulations were
      isolated, then grown as independent lines (lines 27,
      28, 30, and 31) in
      standard culture conditions, and characterized. Two
      types of
      differentiated cells were present in these lines,
      namely, enterocytic cells
      and mucus-secreting goblet cells. These characteristics
      of intestinal
      differentiation were found to be stable during the
      long-term culture of
      these lines in standard medium. We were able to isolate
      from line 27 a
      clonal derivative (C1.27H) exhibiting 2 lineages of
      differentiation, as
      assessed by electron microscopy, immunofluorescence,
      and immunoblot
      analysis of cell membranes with anti-sucrase-isomaltase
      antibodies, and
      enzyme activities. Sucrase-isomaltase was present in
      two forms, namely,
      the high-molecular-weight precursor and the cleaved
      subunits. Finally, the
      C1.27H cells were found to be significantly less
      tumorigenic than the
      parental HT29 cells in both in vitro and in vivo
      tumorigenicity tests. This
      stably differentiated cell clone could represent the
      cancer derivative of the
      normal stem cells of the intestinal crypt. It is
      therefore a possible model
      system for the study of intestinal cell
      differentiation.

      PMID: 3281752, UI: 88184576

      Biull Eksp Biol Med 1985 Jul;100(7):86-9

      [Role of the cytoskeleton in the morphological
      normalization of transformed
      cells in culture].

      Liass LA

      The role of the cytoskeleton in morphological
      normalization of
      transformed cells was studied. Mouse cells of the
      L197/6 clonal line
      were fused by polyethylene glycol and replated. The
      multinuclear cells
      were more spread than control ones: the ratio of the
      cell-occupied area
      to the number of the nuclei increased 2-3 times as a
      result of
      multinucleation. Instead of the spindle-like morphology
      typical for control
      cells they became star-like with larger lamellar
      regions located between
      radially oriented cell processes. According to the
      immunofluorescent data
      these processes contained thick bundles of microtubules
      and intermediate
      filaments. Destruction of these bundles with colcemide
      led to a decrease
      in the area occupied by multinuclear cells but did not
      change significantly
      the area occupied by control cells. The role of
      microtubules and
      intermediate filaments in cell spreading is discussed.

      PMID: 3893562, UI: 85253130

      J Cell Physiol 1980 Aug;104(2):225-32

      Insertion of muntjac gene segment into hamster cells by
      cell fusion.

      Tsukamoto K, Klein R, Hatanaka M

      Indian muntjac diploid cells that have only three pairs
      of easily discernible
      large chromosomes were fused with hamster cells
      deficient in
      hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT)
      using
      polyethylene glycol. Cells that survived in
      hypoxanthine-aminopterine-thymidine (HAT)-oubaine
      medium were
      analyzed. Hybrid cells containing both muntjac and
      hamster
      chromosomes in a given cell were not found. Instead,
      the cells had the
      same chromosomal sets as those of either parental
      muntjac or hamster
      cells. A clonal isolate that had the same chromosomal
      sets as those of
      parental hamster cells were analyzed in detail and
      showed the following
      characteristics: (1) portions of the survival curve in
      various
      concentrationsof HAT medium were intermediate between
      those of parental
      cells; (2)
      expressions of both muntjac and hamster antigen(s) were
      detected by
      immunofluorescence staining; (3) the mobility of the
      enzyme HGPRT in
      gel electrophoresis differed from that of parental
      hamster or muntjac
      cells. These results indicate that the clonal isolate
      (AD202h) is a somatic
      cell hybrid of hamster and muntjac that contains
      chromosomal sets of
      hamster with an inserted segment of the muntjac genome,
      including
      HGPRT. The formation of such an unusual hybrid and a
      possible
      explanation of transfer of some gene segments in the
      hybrid cell in this
      system are discussed.
    • Laura Bourdeau
      My daughter, Brittany s gastroenterologist just told me he wants to put her on Miralax, and I ve been reading the posts, but find them too technical to really
      Message 2 of 3 , Oct 2, 2000
      • 0 Attachment
        My daughter, Brittany's gastroenterologist just told me he wants to put her
        on Miralax, and I've been reading the posts, but find them too technical to
        really use them as a basis to object to it. Can anyone give me some info on
        Miralax in less technical terms. I'm afraid to use it, but I don't know
        why.

        Thanks,
        Laura

        ------Original Message------
        From: cindi dressler <cincin1mom@...>
        To: autism-fbi <AUTISM-FBI@egroups.com>
        Sent: October 1, 2000 11:26:34 PM GMT
        Subject: [AUTISM-FBI] miralax


        OK, I was a bit off with the name it is polyethylene glycol. I havent
        used it for months now, so I forgot... Here is a post sent to me and
        some others because of our use of miralax. Which I might add was
        prescribed for constipation by Dr. Horvath, one of the leading autism/gi
        doctors. Some of it is very technical but you should be able to get the
        jist of it.
        cindi
        Teresa, Cindy and Cindi and Susan,

        I venture into this area cautiously, but my first
        exposure to polyethylene
        glycol was in immunology class four years ago when we
        learned that it was
        used to merge cell membranes of two different types of
        cells, to create a
        third type of cell with new characteristics. When a
        friend of mine
        recently mentioned to me that her son's GI doctor had
        put him on
        polyethylene glycol, I was a bit shocked, and poured
        through that package
        insert looking for "Why?"

        It certainly appears that the only thing they suspect
        this substance reacts
        to is the fecal mass, bringing in water, and I don't
        know what kind of
        research went into seeing what it did to the intestinal
        cells it was
        exposed to, but I wonder.

        Here below are some articles sampling what causes me
        concern. But just to
        summarize, PEG interacts with the cell membrane,
        allowing cells to form
        syncytia, which are multinucleated cells. One article
        mentioned a thirty
        second exposure caused drastic changes in the cells
        that did not show up
        for three weeks in culture. Apparently a good bit of
        DNA merging can take
        place too, which changes cell characteristics, and some
        cells can change
        their phenotype and act like cells at a different
        developmental stage. It
        also may allow viruses or whatever to have a new
        advantage...all very
        worrisome things, especially with Susan's experience
        with HSV.

        I can't imagine that these issues were not addressed
        when this product was
        approved for use to expand the water content of a fecal
        mass, but I suppose
        we as a group are a bit less trusting of the
        thoroughness of the approval
        process than most people.

        Please read below and wonder with me.

        Susan

        Virus Res 1998 Nov;58(1-2):21-34

        Stable attachment for herpes simplex virus penetration
        into human cells requires glycoprotein D in the virion
        and cell receptors that are missing for entry-defective

        porcine cells.

        Perez A, Fuller AO

        Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University
        of Michigan
        Medical School, Ann Arbor 48109-0620, USA.

        Clonal porcine kidney cell lines that are
        non-permissive for herpes
        simplex virus (HSV) infection produced five orders of
        magnitude less
        virus than human cells, contained heparan sulfate (HS),
        and are restricted
        only at HSV entry. By fluorescent activated cell
        sorting, we examined
        HSV attachments to porcine and human cells. Stable
        attachment to
        susceptible human embryonic lung (HEL) cells occurred
        with infectious
        wild-type virus, complemented gD or gH mutant viruses,
        or
        non-infectious virus lacking gH. On HEL cells, mutant
        virus lacking gD
        bound to heparan sulfate, but failed to stably bind.
        None of these viruses
        stably attached to SK6-A7 cells, one of the
        non-permissive porcine cell
        clones. ***However, HSV could replicate in these cells
        when entry was
        mediated by polyethylene glycol.*** These results
        confirm that, in neutral pH
        entry of HSV, (i) multiple attachments to HS and non-HS
        components
        lead to penetration, (2) stable attachment before
        penetration is one
        required function of gD, but not gH, and (3) for stable
        attachment, gD
        interacts directly, or indirectly through another viral
        or cellular
        component, with receptors that are present on human
        cells, but absent
        for entry-defective porcine cells. Easily propagated
        clonal porcine cells
        are a novel resource to investigate stable attachment,
        the molecular
        mechanisms of gD functions, and the viral and cellular
        components that
        allow HSV entry and spread.

        PMID: 9879759, UI: 99094368

        Biochim Biophys Acta 1994 Jan
        19;1189(2):175-80

        Related
        Articles, Books


        Real-time measurements of chemically-induced
        membrane fusion in cell monolayers, using a resonance
        energy transfer method.

        Partearroyo MA, Cabezon E, Nieva JL, Alonso A, Goni FM
        Department of Biochemistry, University of the Basque
        Country, Bilbao,
        Spain.

        Fusion of mouse melanoma cells grown in monolayers has
        been directly
        monitored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer
        between fluorescein
        and rhodamine probes attached to octadecanoic acid.
        Various
        poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEG), either alone or in
        combination with
        amphipathic molecules, have been used as fusogens.
        Fusion starts at a
        maximum rate as soon as PEG is removed from the medium
        and reaches
        a plateau after 20-30 min. Both the initial rate and
        extent of fusion have
        been recorded for each experiment. The extent of fusion
        shows in general
        a positive correlation with the initial rate, although
        PEGs with different
        molar masses appear to induce fusion at different
        rates, but to a similar
        extent. A good correlation has been found between the
        extent of fusion,
        as measured by fluorescence, and the 'fusion index'
        computed from cell
        and nucleus counting; a calibration curve is provided
        for the
        interconversion of both parameters. Optimum fusion
        values are obtained
        with 50% (w/v) PEG 1500. The effect of pre-treatments
        with surfactants
        (Triton X-100, sodium dodecylsulphate) on PEG-induced
        fusion has also
        been tested. Sodium dodecylsulphate, but not Triton,
        enhances
        considerably both the rate and extent of cell fusion.
        The in situ generation
        of the amphipathic molecule diacylglycerol, through the
        catalytic activity
        of a phospholipase C, also enhances significantly the
        fusion parameters.
        These results are in good agreement with previous
        studies based on
        syncytia counting.

        PMID: 8292622, UI: 94122207

        J Neurobiol 1995 Feb;26(2):283-93

        A human glial hybrid cell line differentially
        expressing
        genes subserving oligodendrocyte and astrocyte
        phenotype.

        McLaurin J, Trudel GC, Shaw IT, Antel JP, Cashman NR

        Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill
        University,
        Montreal Neurological Institute, Quebec, Canada.

        We have developed a series of immortal human-human
        hybrid cell lines
        that express phenotypic characteristics of primary
        oligodendrocytes, by
        fusing a 6-thioguanine-resistant mutant of the human
        rhabdomyosarcoma
        RD with adult human oligodendrocytes by a
        lectin-enhanced polyethylene
        glycol procedure.

        Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1996 Mar;78(3):215-22

        Polyethylene glycol-modified IL-2 abrogates
        superantigen-induced anergy without affecting
        peripheral clonal deletion in vivo.

        Gonzalez-Garcia A, Marchetti P, Castedo M, Zamzami N,
        Tarazona R, Martinez-A C, Kroemer G

        Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia (CSIC), Universidad
        Autonoma de
        Madrid, Spain.

        As compared with the native molecule, recombinant human
        interleukin-2
        that is modified by covalently attached polyethylene
        glycol residues
        (IL-2-PEG) exhibits a markedly enhanced half-life in
        vivo, thus facilitating
        its biological evaluation. We have characterized the
        effect of IL-2-PEG
        on the Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B
        (SEB)-induced tolerance of
        peripheral SEB-reactive (V beta 8+) T cells. Treatment
        with sublethal
        doses of IL-2-PEG does not modulate (inhibit or
        enhance) the
        SEB-triggered apoptosis and deletion of V beta 8+ T
        cells. In contrast,
        in vivo treatment with IL-2-PEG partially abolishes the
        SEB-triggered
        anergy of V beta 8+ T cells, i.e., the failure to
        proliferate in response to
        SEB in vitro. To abolish SEB-triggered anergy, IL-2-PEG
        must act for
        an extended period in vivo; short term treatment in
        vivo (2 days) or
        exposure of anergic T cells to IL-2 in vitro fails to
        reconstitute
        proliferative responses. Moreover, the effect of in
        vivo treatment with
        IL-2-PEG on lymphokine production by anergic T cells is
        partial.
        IL-2-PEG restores IL-4-dependent autocrine
        proliferation in response to
        SEB but does not reestablish defective IL-2 production.
        These data are
        compatible with the notion that IL-2 is a regulator of
        postdeletional rather
        than deletional T cell tolerance.

        PMID: 8605696, UI: 96180828 Susan

        Cancer Res 1988 May 1;48(9):2498-504

        Restoration by polyethylene glycol of characteristics
        of
        intestinal differentiation in subpopulations of the
        human
        colonic adenocarcinoma cell line HT29.

        Laboisse CL, Maoret JJ, Triadou N, Augeron C

        Laboratoire de Biologie et de Physiologie des Cellules
        Digestives (U239
        I.N.S.E.R.M.), Faculte X. Bichat, Paris, France.

        The human colonic cancer cell line HT29 is
        morphologically
        undifferentiated in standard culture conditions. The
        cells were incubated
        for 30 s in polyethylene glycol (27%, v/v), then
        washed, and refed with
        standard medium. In these conditions of treatment,
        polyethylene glycol
        was unable to induce a significant cell
        multinucleation. Three wk after the
        treatment, circular "flat-foci" developed in the
        culture, which consisted of
        circular monolayers of polarized cells. These
        subpopulations were
        isolated, then grown as independent lines (lines 27,
        28, 30, and 31) in
        standard culture conditions, and characterized. Two
        types of
        differentiated cells were present in these lines,
        namely, enterocytic cells
        and mucus-secreting goblet cells. These characteristics
        of intestinal
        differentiation were found to be stable during the
        long-term culture of
        these lines in standard medium. We were able to isolate
        from line 27 a
        clonal derivative (C1.27H) exhibiting 2 lineages of
        differentiation, as
        assessed by electron microscopy, immunofluorescence,
        and immunoblot
        analysis of cell membranes with anti-sucrase-isomaltase
        antibodies, and
        enzyme activities. Sucrase-isomaltase was present in
        two forms, namely,
        the high-molecular-weight precursor and the cleaved
        subunits. Finally, the
        C1.27H cells were found to be significantly less
        tumorigenic than the
        parental HT29 cells in both in vitro and in vivo
        tumorigenicity tests. This
        stably differentiated cell clone could represent the
        cancer derivative of the
        normal stem cells of the intestinal crypt. It is
        therefore a possible model
        system for the study of intestinal cell
        differentiation.

        PMID: 3281752, UI: 88184576

        Biull Eksp Biol Med 1985 Jul;100(7):86-9

        [Role of the cytoskeleton in the morphological
        normalization of transformed
        cells in culture].

        Liass LA

        The role of the cytoskeleton in morphological
        normalization of
        transformed cells was studied. Mouse cells of the
        L197/6 clonal line
        were fused by polyethylene glycol and replated. The
        multinuclear cells
        were more spread than control ones: the ratio of the
        cell-occupied area
        to the number of the nuclei increased 2-3 times as a
        result of
        multinucleation. Instead of the spindle-like morphology
        typical for control
        cells they became star-like with larger lamellar
        regions located between
        radially oriented cell processes. According to the
        immunofluorescent data
        these processes contained thick bundles of microtubules
        and intermediate
        filaments. Destruction of these bundles with colcemide
        led to a decrease
        in the area occupied by multinuclear cells but did not
        change significantly
        the area occupied by control cells. The role of
        microtubules and
        intermediate filaments in cell spreading is discussed.

        PMID: 3893562, UI: 85253130

        J Cell Physiol 1980 Aug;104(2):225-32

        Insertion of muntjac gene segment into hamster cells by
        cell fusion.

        Tsukamoto K, Klein R, Hatanaka M

        Indian muntjac diploid cells that have only three pairs
        of easily discernible
        large chromosomes were fused with hamster cells
        deficient in
        hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT)
        using
        polyethylene glycol. Cells that survived in
        hypoxanthine-aminopterine-thymidine (HAT)-oubaine
        medium were
        analyzed. Hybrid cells containing both muntjac and
        hamster
        chromosomes in a given cell were not found. Instead,
        the cells had the
        same chromosomal sets as those of either parental
        muntjac or hamster
        cells. A clonal isolate that had the same chromosomal
        sets as those of
        parental hamster cells were analyzed in detail and
        showed the following
        characteristics: (1) portions of the survival curve in
        various
        concentrationsof HAT medium were intermediate between
        those of parental
        cells; (2)
        expressions of both muntjac and hamster antigen(s) were
        detected by
        immunofluorescence staining; (3) the mobility of the
        enzyme HGPRT in
        gel electrophoresis differed from that of parental
        hamster or muntjac
        cells. These results indicate that the clonal isolate
        (AD202h) is a somatic
        cell hybrid of hamster and muntjac that contains
        chromosomal sets of
        hamster with an inserted segment of the muntjac genome,
        including
        HGPRT. The formation of such an unusual hybrid and a
        possible
        explanation of transfer of some gene segments in the
        hybrid cell in this
        system are discussed.





        Fighting For Our Children
      • katteyd@aol.com
        My 3 year old daughter is on miralax, quite a dose too. 2 teaspoons twice a day. It seems to be working, although I m a liitle more concerned after reading
        Message 3 of 3 , Oct 5, 2000
        • 0 Attachment
          My 3 year old daughter is on miralax, quite a dose too. 2 teaspoons twice a
          day. It seems to be working, although I'm a liitle more concerned after
          reading this post. Does anyone else have any input? She's been on it for a
          few weeks and two different Ped G.I. doctors that we went to recommended it
          for her.

          Thanks,
          Katie
        Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.