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Answering comments on Efficiency vs. Productivity

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  • Dean Oliver
    ... Let me address a few things: 1. This is definitely still a bit on the experimental side (a few weeks old), so the feedback is useful. One of the things
    Message 1 of 8 , Mar 30, 2002

      --- In APBR_analysis@y..., "Michael K. Tamada" <tamada@o...> wrote:
      >
      > Interesting stuff, although I don't completely understand the
      methodology.

      Let me address a few things:

      1.  This is definitely still a bit on the experimental side (a few weeks old), so the feedback is useful.  One of the things is whether the y and x axes should be swapped.  I tried it the other way, but I like it this way better, primarily because the possession rate is the unknown I am looking at more these days.  Also, I can't take the time now to explain the full methodology, though I do a little bit below.  Drawing full conclusions right now is a bit premature. 

      2.  "All things equal"  (I don't know why economists use "ceteris parabus".)  'Tis mostly true.  All things being equal on average because conditions do change over a couple years.  What I'm hoping to do is to narrow down the effects and isolate what is what.  Getting a sense for how much a change in responsibility changes efficiency is one step.  I always imagined that some players really don't know how to be role players -- they take the same shots even if they take less.  That's generally what I saw, too.  By isolating this part, I can start understanding how teammate influences work or how age changes things.  There is definitely an effect of teammates on the curve.  Good teammates seem to shift to the right.  Big scoring teammates seem to shift it down. 

      3.  One thing I do want to improve is to illustrate in the plots how much of the curve is significant.  Having Shaq, Kobe really doesn't get the opportunity to test the very high possession games that Vince Carter gets on a regular basis, so the left side of the curve isn't very significant.  That seems to be a problem for a lot of guys at the left end of their curves.  That's also why some of the curves drop to 0 when they really should just end.  There is also no significant period for which Kobe has shown 115 rating.  He definitely has games that high, but not a significant enough period with that kind of performance.  I definitely would extrapolate the curve differently based on subjective thoughts.  I'm looking at ways to do this better, but there is only limited time.

      4.  These plots are not easily mass produced yet.  The process is fairly complicated (which I'll get to).  I agree that it would be nice to overlay multiple players on one plot.  Working on it.  It would be nice to have a lot more plots for many other players.  Working on that too.  It would be nice to have player plots for guys that changed teams in the last two years.  Working on it.  It would be nice to do statistically significant defensive ability.  Working on that.  It would be nice to get Project Defensive Scoresheet out the door.  Working on that.  You get the point.

      5.  These plots do incorporate the statistics used to assess critical points in a subtle way.  These plots are all based on the 90% significant critical points (95% doesn't look very different for many players).  Basically, when I look to make these curves, I only make the jumps (I only use the moving avg value) if the split shows that there is statistical significance between lower and higher possession rates.  The critical point curves with the confidence intervals are really noisy, unfortunately....  I also do make curves of just the moving averages (of offensive rating) as a function of possession rate.  These are fairly smooth, but don't show the predictive behavior I want and also do not incorporate the statistical significance. (Oh yeah, I do not use games where a guy gets less than 10 minutes, something that I can relax for testing scrubs.)

      6.  Yeah, game performance doesn't necessarily make for a good predictor of season performance.  That's partly why this is a complicated procedure.  That's why I did percentile moving averages as well as tests for significance.  What I was going for was something that seemed to do ok in estimating season performance (without normalization) of possession rate and efficiency.

      7.  Not sure why Wallace didn't show up.  Trying again.   I've looked at a lot of different players in testing things, but not really printed things out (or made gifs).  I've included more bad players here (how is Tsakalidis for bad), though I did throw in a bunch of those Lakers.  MacCulloch's curve is really good, but it is based on limited data (not many games in the last couple yrs).  I threw in Eric Snow twice with different levels of significance testing (the lower significance has "4" at the end of the name).  Basically, the left side of his curve changes a lot, showing that, yes, he can have high possession rate games with modest ratings, but it's not statistically significant at the level I normally like.  (I've also thrown in Kobe Bryant's and Keith Van Horn's with lower statistical significance, signified by the "4".)

      Definitely a work in progress.

      (I threw in a couple plots at the end of writing.  One shows the standard curves for several players at the same time.  The other shows the same players with a lower level of significance testing.  I dunno.  I think I believe the lower significance stuff at the left end and the higher significance stuff at the right end.  Maybe I'll take some time in the next couple weeks to refine the procedure.  )

      >
      > On Fri, 29 Mar 2002, Dean Oliver wrote:
      >
      > >
      > > One of the things I've done fairly recently is to look at how
      efficient
      > > players are as a function of how frequently they try to
      score.  Since I do
      > > have estimates of how efficient players are that I trust, I
      have always
      > > felt that some of these efficient guys can increase their
      scoring rate,
      > > while others can't.  I've taken a stab at looking at this
      by looking at
      > > boxscores and the "possession rate" of players. 
      Basically, my hypothesis
      > > was that players are less efficient -- have lower offensive
      ratings -- as
      > > they have higher possession rates (possessions/minute). 
      I've looked for
      >
      > A good hypothesis, but only if qualified in certain ways.  Such
      as
      > "ceteris parabus":  holding all other things equal,
      if we ask one player
      > to do more things per minute, his efficiency is likely to
      decrease.
      > Although the graphs have efficiency on the horizontal axis, which
      seems
      > hard to justify...we can try to say that high efficiency nights put
      a cap
      > on a player's possessions per minute, but in reality there is no
      such cap.
      > We could shove the ball in his hands a few more times.  That
      would
      > probably lead to more missed shots or turnovers, and lower
      efficiency, but
      > that simply shows that efficiency is not really the independent
      variable
      > here, it seems to me it should be the dependent variable.
      >
      > I don't know if the hypothesis works as well if we look at all of
      a
      > player's games.  There could be some causality that goes in the
      reverse
      > direction and leads to a reverse relationship:  on nights when
      a player
      > is doing well (and I don't think we have to invoke potentially
      mythical
      > hot streaks to justify the existence of such games, it could simply
      be a
      > mistmatch that night), he is probably more likely to get fed the
      ball by
      > his teammates and will have more possessions.  So on those hot
      nights
      > compared to regular nights, the relationship would be high effic
      --> high
      > possessions, instead of high possesions --> low effic.
      >
      >
      > > this a few ways.  First, I looked to see whether there
      were "critical
      > > points" of possession rate, where players are
      statistically significantly
      > > better at lower possession rates than they are at higher
      possession
      > > rates.  Second, I looked at moving averages (of every 10th
      percentile) to
      > > see whether there were general trends.  Finally, I
      summarized the results
      >
      > This is the part where I'm trying to follow.  From the graphs,
      it looks
      > like you're doing calculations, or at least plots, at offensive
      ratings
      > values of 120, 115, 110, 105, etc.  Are those the percentiles
      that you
      > speak of?  What are you calculating a moving average of -- a
      moving
      > average of possessions per minute?  and calculated over what
      set of
      > observations -- all of the preceding ones?
      >
      > Are the critical points part of the graphs you drew up, or is that
      a
      > separate analysis?
      >
      > > in a plot of possession rate vs. observed offensive
      rating.  Those seem to
      >
      > The plots and their labels are not quite clear.  Are you
      looking at all
      > the games in which a player achieved, say efficiency of 120 or
      better, and
      > calculating the possessions per minute of those games, compared to
      this
      > games of <= 119 efficiency, and if the difference is significant
      plotting
      > the max possessions per minute among those games?  I would
      expect an
      > occasional non-downward-sloping line segment, just from random
      variations,
      > even though the overall hypothesis of a downward-sloping could be
      (and
      > evidently is) correct.
      >
      > Also, the interpretation above doesn't explain why most of the
      graphs dip
      > down into 0 possessions per minute, with efficiencies that are
      positive
      > (and large) rather than undefined.  I would think that 0
      possesions per
      > minute would require extrapolation, since it would almost never
      be
      > observed in any actual game, except for the occasional
      "trillion" game
      > where a player plays 1 minute and has a box score line that goes 1
      0-0 0-0
      > 0-0 0 0 0 etc. 
      >
      > So I'm not understanding what's behind these graphs.
      >
      >
      >
      > The notion of looking at maxima brings up a possible statistical
      technique
      > to use:  econometricians often estimate what is called a
      frontier
      > regression line, one which basically looks at the outer hull of a
      set of
      > data points -- possibly required to be convex, and usually with
      a
      > couple of random error terms assumed to exist, so that a player
      can
      > ocasionally perform at better than 100% of his long run potential,
      due to
      > the occasional random good night.  I.e. it's not literally the
      outer hull,
      > just outside "most" of the point.
      >
      > > be doing fairly well in matching up with observed season
      possession rates
      > > and observed offensive ratings.  So I'm hoping to predict
      players who can
      >
      > Aggregate statistics such as season stats don't always show the
      same
      > relationship as the underlying individual game stats.  E.g.
      John Stockton
      > and Rashard Lewis probably had different, and lower, graphs during
      their
      > rookie seasons than they did later in their careers (Stockton shot
      a
      > career low 47%, Lewis scored fewer than 16 points per 48
      minutes).  Once a
      > player's career reaches maturity, then one could probably
      compare
      > different seasons -- although one could imagine changes in the
      quality of
      > the player's team and role could affect what his season stats were
      like.
      >
      >
      > > increase their productivity without significant loss of
      efficiency.
      > >
      > > A few plots are attached that show the relationships I'm seeing
      (based on
      > > last 2 years of data).  Some players haven't shown any
      ability to maintain
      > > high possession rates.  Some are about the same efficiency
      no matter what
      > > rate.  Some show steep drop-offs, others more
      gradual.  The plots just take
      > > a little bit of looking at.  I've selected the players
      somewhat at
      > > random.  Rashard Lewis, Ben Wallace, Jerry Stackhouse,
      Allen Iverson, Aaron
      > > McKie, Jason Terry, Antawn Jamison, Reggie Miller, Tim Duncan,
      David
      > > Robinson, Vince Carter, Kobe, Shaq, Derek Fisher, Rick Fox,
      Robert Horry,
      > > Michael Finley, Steve Nash, Dirk Nowitzki.  That's enough
      for now.
      >
      > I would've like to have seen a few more non-superstar non-scorer
      types in
      > the mix...e.g. Ben Wallace, whose graph wasn't in the set of
      attachments
      > that I received.  Some of them high efficiency types such as
      Todd
      > McCulloch -- how fast would his efficiency plunged if he was given
      more
      > possessions?  And for comparison, some players who are just
      plain bad.
      >
      > Putting several of the plotted lines in a single graph would make
      it
      > easier to compare players.
      >
      > It was surprising that Kobe's max possessions didn't max out
      at
      > particularly high numbers per minute.  I would've thought that
      Shaq's been
      > absent enough for there to be a good number of Shaq-less and
      presumably
      > high possession nights for Kobe.  Or ... was Kobe enjoying high
      efficiency
      > on those Shaq-less nights, which would cause them to not show up on
      the
      > plots (no statistically significant drop off in possessions per
      minute)?
      > If so, those games might not show up on the graphs but Kobe's
      high
      > possessions and high efficiency on those nights would be
      important
      > observations.
      >
      > >
      > > I'm not sure how to summarize all of this in quick numbers, but
      I'm pretty
      > > pleased with where it's going and what it's saying.
      >
      > It's comforting that the graphs show such strong consistent
      downward
      > slopes but I'd want to know more about the methodology before
      drawing
      > conclusions.
      >
      >
      > --MKT
    • Michael K. Tamada
      ... Probably for the same reason they have the horizontal and vertical axes on their supply and demand curves switched -- tradition. Some economist back in
      Message 2 of 8 , Mar 31, 2002
        On Sat, 30 Mar 2002, Dean Oliver wrote:


        >2. "All things equal" (I don't know why economists use "ceteris
        >parabus".)

        Probably for the same reason they have the horizontal and vertical axes on
        their supply and demand curves switched -- tradition. Some economist back
        in the old days, and I wouldn't be surprised if it was Alfred Marshall,
        probably started it and everyone's followed along ever since.

        [...]

        >MacCulloch's
        >curve is really good, but it is based on limited data (not many games in
        >the last couple yrs).

        Better than Kobe's and close to Shaq's if I'm reading it correctly.
        Astounding both for how far to the right it goes (offensive rating) and
        even more so for how far up it goes (high ratings maintained at high
        possessions per minute).

        Given that you're using statistical significance to find the points on
        the curve, I would've expected the limited data on MacCulloch to fix this
        problem automatically: wouldn't his small sample size mean lack of
        significance at most cutoff points, and thus his graph should "die off"
        pretty quickly?

        >(I've also
        >thrown in Kobe Bryant's and Keith Van Horn's with lower statistical
        >significance, signified by the "4".)

        The graphs change a fair amount, which makes me leery ... choosing a level
        of significance usually shouldn't change one's results per se, but instead
        one's interpretation of the results.

        Instead of basing the graphs on at what point one finds statistical
        significance, maybe they should be based on at what point the player's
        performance (either possesions per minute or offensive rating) changes by
        some set amount (which could differ at the different offensive rating
        levels).


        --MKT
      • HoopStudies
        ... games in ... and ... on ... fix this ... off ... Yeah, it should, but the differences are pretty big, more easily suggesting differences between low and
        Message 3 of 8 , Mar 31, 2002
          --- In APBR_analysis@y..., "Michael K. Tamada" <tamada@o...> wrote:
          >
          > >MacCulloch's
          > >curve is really good, but it is based on limited data (not many
          games in
          > >the last couple yrs).
          >
          > Better than Kobe's and close to Shaq's if I'm reading it correctly.
          > Astounding both for how far to the right it goes (offensive rating)
          and
          > even more so for how far up it goes (high ratings maintained at high
          > possessions per minute).
          >
          > Given that you're using statistical significance to find the points
          on
          > the curve, I would've expected the limited data on MacCulloch to
          fix this
          > problem automatically: wouldn't his small sample size mean lack of
          > significance at most cutoff points, and thus his graph should "die
          off"
          > pretty quickly?
          >

          Yeah, it should, but the differences are pretty big, more easily
          suggesting differences between low and high possession games. What
          is in MacCulloch's numbers that is weird is that he doesn't play many
          games of a lot of minutes. So he scores a bunch in a few minutes.

          As I say, I dunno. Yet. I'll keep an eye on him.

          > >(I've also
          > >thrown in Kobe Bryant's and Keith Van Horn's with lower statistical
          > >significance, signified by the "4".)
          >
          > The graphs change a fair amount, which makes me leery ... choosing
          a level
          > of significance usually shouldn't change one's results per se, but
          instead
          > one's interpretation of the results.
          >

          Except that I use the level of significance to create the charts. If
          we are actually confident that the curve is changing, I then define a
          cutoff. If we are not confident that the curve is changing, I use
          the lowest previous rating where it was significant. So, because I
          use level of significance a little differently here (to say whether
          the underlying raw curve is changing), it does show some
          sensitivity. It's a weird application of significance testing, I
          admit.

          > Instead of basing the graphs on at what point one finds statistical
          > significance, maybe they should be based on at what point the
          player's
          > performance (either possesions per minute or offensive rating)
          changes by
          > some set amount (which could differ at the different offensive
          rating
          > levels).

          Really gets too noisy. I also wanted to be robust to the different
          number of points over which I was using the moving average (fewer at
          the higher and lower percentiles and for fewer number of games).
          Absolute differences are too sensitive to this.

          There really could be a lot of econometrics in evaluating
          basketball. For anyone interested, especially those in the Seattle
          area, the Western Economics Association is having a meeting in
          Seattle June 29 - July 3 this year and they do have a couple sessions
          on sports economics. Could be very boring or tedious if they get
          into details of the math, but could also be very interesting and
          educashenal. I've never gone, but will be going this year. Let me
          know if any of you want to go and want to meet, more importantly, for
          beer after the sessions...

          Dean Oliver
        • Michael K. Tamada
          On Mon, 1 Apr 2002, HoopStudies wrote: [...] ... They don t appear to have set the program yet...most economics of sports stuff that I ve seen is literally
          Message 4 of 8 , Apr 1, 2002
            On Mon, 1 Apr 2002, HoopStudies wrote:

            [...]

            > There really could be a lot of econometrics in evaluating
            > basketball. For anyone interested, especially those in the Seattle
            > area, the Western Economics Association is having a meeting in
            > Seattle June 29 - July 3 this year and they do have a couple sessions
            > on sports economics. Could be very boring or tedious if they get

            They don't appear to have set the program yet...most economics of sports
            stuff that I've seen is literally economics of sports: cost-benefit
            analysis of stadiums, effects of salary caps, long-run competitive balance
            in leagues, effects of free agency, revenue sharing, etc.

            But very little analysis of sports statistics. Most of that sort of stuff
            that I've seen, from academic researchers, comes from operations
            researchers or else mathematicians.

            > into details of the math, but could also be very interesting and
            > educashenal. I've never gone, but will be going this year. Let me
            > know if any of you want to go and want to meet, more importantly, for
            > beer after the sessions...

            Usually it's worse than getting into the details of the math -- they don't
            bother to explain the details of the math, but barge into the middle of it
            anyway. (This is economics presentations that I'm talking about.) The
            audience is left to their own devices to try to follow along.

            Economics of sports does seem to be a very small but reasonably growing
            field in economics, certainly the pace of books getting published is
            increasing. But they all seem to be about economics of sports rather than
            sports statistics.



            --MKT
          • HoopStudies
            ... Seattle ... sessions ... sports ... balance ... I have the program and will try to post it later (when I get home). I know Dave Berri has a hand in setting
            Message 5 of 8 , Apr 2, 2002
              --- In APBR_analysis@y..., "Michael K. Tamada" <tamada@o...> wrote:
              >
              >
              > On Mon, 1 Apr 2002, HoopStudies wrote:
              >
              > [...]
              >
              > > There really could be a lot of econometrics in evaluating
              > > basketball. For anyone interested, especially those in the
              Seattle
              > > area, the Western Economics Association is having a meeting in
              > > Seattle June 29 - July 3 this year and they do have a couple
              sessions
              > > on sports economics. Could be very boring or tedious if they get
              >
              > They don't appear to have set the program yet...most economics of
              sports
              > stuff that I've seen is literally economics of sports: cost-benefit
              > analysis of stadiums, effects of salary caps, long-run competitive
              balance
              > in leagues, effects of free agency, revenue sharing, etc.
              >

              I have the program and will try to post it later (when I get home).

              I know Dave Berri has a hand in setting up the sessions and he is
              interested in the statistical analysis. He is applying the type of
              value analysis to economics questions, but obviously is looking at
              the stats.

              > Economics of sports does seem to be a very small but reasonably
              growing
              > field in economics, certainly the pace of books getting published is
              > increasing. But they all seem to be about economics of sports
              rather than
              > sports statistics.

              I can send a couple citations where economics journals have verged
              into the realm of sports statistics analysis.

              DeanO
            • Michael K. Tamada
              On Tue, 2 Apr 2002, HoopStudies wrote: [...] ... [...] ... Okay, the WEA website didn t have any program info, just registration info. ... Yes, I d like to see
              Message 6 of 8 , Apr 3, 2002
                On Tue, 2 Apr 2002, HoopStudies wrote:

                [...]

                > > > area, the Western Economics Association is having a meeting in
                > > > Seattle June 29 - July 3 this year and they do have a couple
                > sessions
                > > > on sports economics. Could be very boring or tedious if they get

                [...]

                > I have the program and will try to post it later (when I get home).

                Okay, the WEA website didn't have any program info, just registration
                info.

                > I can send a couple citations where economics journals have verged
                > into the realm of sports statistics analysis.

                Yes, I'd like to see them -- economists should be capable of doing good
                work in this field, but as I said, most of the stuff, including especially
                the good stuff, that I've seen is by operations researchers.


                --MKT
              • HoopStudies
                What Operations Research things have you seen? I think I saw some baseball stuff a few years ago. I haven t seen anything in basketball. I haven t looked in
                Message 7 of 8 , Apr 3, 2002
                  What Operations Research things have you seen? I think I saw some
                  baseball stuff a few years ago. I haven't seen anything in
                  basketball. I haven't looked in a while. I saw something in
                  Management Science, too.

                  Here is the program for some of the sports econ stuff (apologies for
                  all the address info between the actual presentation titles):

                  SESSION 1


                  Session Organizers: Elizabeth Gustafson and Lawrence Hadley

                  Department of Economics
                  University of Dayton
                  Dayton, OH 45469-2251
                  PHONE: 937-229-2403 FAX: 937-229-2477
                  E-mail: HADLEYLA@...

                  Session Title: SPORTS ECONOMICS

                  Topic Area Code: L83

                  Scheduling Requests: If possible, please schedule the six sports
                  economics sessions organized by Gustafson and Hadley on Sunday, June
                  30 and Monday, July 1 so that they do not conflict. We prefer to
                  have three sessions on each day. We would also prefer to have a "one
                  session break" each day.

                  Chair: Lawrence Hadley, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH.

                  Lawrence Hadley
                  Department of Economics
                  University of Dayton
                  Dayton, OH 45469-2251
                  PHONE: 937-229-2403 FAX: 937-229-2477
                  E-Mail: HADLEYLA@...


                  Paper 1: Robert Baade and Victor Matheson, Lake Forest College, Lake
                  Forest, IL.

                  Title: The Quest for the Cup: Assessing the Economic Impact of the
                  World Cup.

                  Robert Baade
                  Lake Forest College
                  555 N. Sheridan
                  Lake Forest, IL 60640
                  847-735-5136 FAX: 847-735-6193
                  E-mail: baade@...

                  Victor Matheson
                  Lake Forest College
                  555 N. Sheridan
                  Lake Forest, IL 60640
                  847-735-5196 FAX: 847-735-6193
                  E-mail: matheson@...


                  Paper 2: David Berri, California State University-Bakersfield,
                  Bakersfield, CA, and Todd Jewell, University of North Texas, Denton,
                  TX.

                  Title: Can You Buy the Fans' Love? An Inter-Sport Comparison.

                  David Berri
                  Department of Economics
                  California State University—Bakersfield
                  9001 Stockdale Highway
                  Bakersfield, CA 93311
                  661-664-2027 FAX: 661-664-2049
                  E-mail: dberri@...

                  Todd Jewell
                  Department of Economics
                  University of North Texas
                  PO Box 311457
                  Denton, TX 76203-1457
                  940-565-3337
                  E-mail: tjewell@...


                  Paper 3: Donald Coffin, Indiana University Northwest, Gary, IN.

                  Title: So That's What It's Worth.

                  Donald Coffin
                  Division of Business and Economics
                  Indiana University Northwest
                  3400 Broadway
                  Gary, IN 46408-1197
                  219-980-6630 FAX: 219-980-6579
                  E-mail: don@...


                  Paper 4: Stephen Spurr, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI and
                  Anthony Krautmann, DePaul University, Chicago, IL.

                  Title: Baseball Errors Revisited

                  Stephen Spurr
                  Department of Economics
                  Wayne State University
                  Detroit, MI 48202
                  313-577-3345 FAX: 313-577-0149
                  E-mail: sspurr@...

                  Anthony Krautmann
                  Economics Department
                  DePaul University
                  1 East Jackson
                  Chicago, IL 60604
                  312-362-6176 FAX: 312-362-5452




                  Discussant 1: Peter von Allmen, Moravian College, Bethlehem, PA.

                  Peter von Allmen
                  Moravian College
                  1200 Main Street
                  Bethlehem, PA 18018
                  Phone: 610-861-1430 FAX: 610-861-3980
                  E-mail: pvonallmen@...

                  Discussant 2: John Leadley, Western Oregon University, Monmouth, OR.

                  John Leadley
                  Division of Business and Economics
                  Western Oregon University
                  Monmouth, OR 97361
                  503-838-8719 FAX: 503-838-8723
                  E-mail: leadlej@...

                  Discussant 3: Michael Leeds, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA.

                  Michael Leeds
                  Department of Economics
                  Temple University
                  Philadelphia, PA 19122
                  215-204-8030 FAX: 215-204-6828
                  E-mail: mleeds@...

                  Discussant 4: Joel Maxcy, SUNY-Courtland, Courtland, NY.

                  Joel Maxcy
                  Department of Economics
                  SUNY-Cortland
                  PO Box 2000
                  Cortland, NY 13045
                  Phone: 607-753-2440 FAX: 607-753-5983
                  E-mail: maxcy@...















                  SESSION 2

                  Session Organizers: Elizabeth Gustafson and Lawrence Hadley
                  Department of Economics
                  University of Dayton
                  Dayton, OH 45469-2251
                  PHONE: 937-229-2406 FAX: 937-229-2477
                  E-mail: GUSTAFSO@...

                  Session Title: ATTENDANCE IN THE SPORTS INDUSTRY

                  Topic Area Code: L83

                  Scheduling Requests: If possible, please schedule the six sports
                  economics sessions organized by Gustafson and Hadley on Sunday, June
                  30 and Monday, July 1 so that they do not conflict. We prefer to
                  have three sessions on each day. We would also prefer to have a "one
                  session break" each day.

                  Chair: Elizabeth Gustafson, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH.

                  Elizabeth Gustafson
                  Department of Economics
                  University of Dayton
                  Dayton, OH 45469-2251
                  PHONE: 937-229-2406 FAX: 937-229-2477
                  E-mail: GUSTAFSO@...


                  Paper 1: David K. Forrest and Rob Simmons, University of Salford,
                  Salford, UK.

                  Title: Spatial Demand Modeling of Demand for Sports

                  David K. Forrest
                  Centre for the Study of Gambling and Commercial Gaming
                  University of Salford
                  Salford, M5 4WT, UK
                  PHONE: 44 (0)161 295 3674 FAX: 44 (0)161 295 2130
                  E-mail: D.K.Forrest@...

                  Rob Simmons
                  Centre for the Study of Gambling and Commercial Gaming
                  University of Salford
                  Salford, M5 4WT, UK
                  PHONE: 44 (0)161 295 3205 FAX: 44 (0)161 295 2130



                  Paper 2: David Berri, California State University—Bakersfield,
                  Bakersfield, CA, Martin Schmidt, Portland State University, Portland,
                  OR, and Stacy Brook, University of Sioux Falls, Sioux Falls, SD.

                  Title: What Attracts the Fan? Team Wins and/or the Star Attraction
                  in the NBA

                  David Berri
                  Department of Economics
                  California State University—Bakersfield
                  9001 Stockdale Highway
                  Bakersfield, CA 93311
                  661-664-2028 FAX: 661-664-2049
                  E-mail: dberri@...

                  Martin Schmidt
                  PO Box 751
                  Portland State University
                  Portland, OR 97207-0751
                  503-725-3930 FAX: 503-725-3945
                  E-mail: Schmidtm@...

                  Stacey Brook
                  University of Sioux Falls
                  1101 West 22nd St.
                  Sioux Falls, SD 57105
                  605-331-6706 FAX: 605-331-6615
                  E-Mail: Stacey.Brook@...

                  Paper 3: John Leadley and Zenon Zygmont, Western Oregon University,
                  Monmouth, OR.

                  Title: When Is the Honeymoon Over: NBA Attendance 1970-2000

                  John Leadley
                  Division of Business and Economics
                  Western Oregon University
                  Monmouth, OR 97361
                  503-838-8719 FAX: 503-838-8723
                  E-mail: leadlej@...

                  Zenon Zygmont
                  Division of Business and Economics
                  Western Oregon University
                  Monmouth, OR 97361
                  503-838-8244 FAX: 503-838-8723

                  Paper 4: Young Hoon Lee, Hansung University, Seoul, Korea.

                  Title: Attendance Decline in Korean Professional Baseball League:
                  Economic Crisis or Competitive Imbalance?

                  Young Hoon Lee
                  Department of Economics
                  Hansung University
                  389, Samsun-dong, Sungbuk-gu
                  Seoul 136-792, Korea
                  822-760-4066 FAX: 822-760-4217
                  E-mail: yhnlee@...


                  Discussant 1: Stephen Shmanske, California State University- Hayward,
                  Hayward, CA.

                  Stephen Shmanske
                  Department of Economics
                  California State University-Hayward
                  Hayward, CA 94542-3068
                  Phone: 510-885-3339 FAX: 510-885-4699
                  E-mail: sshmansk@...

                  Discussant 2: Patrick Rishe, Webster University, St. Louis, MO.

                  Patrick Rishe
                  Webster University
                  470 East Lockwood Av.
                  St. Louis, MO 63119
                  314-961-2660 x-7553 E-mail: prishe@...

                  Discussant 3: Stefan Szymanski, Imperial College, London, UK.

                  Stefan Szymanski
                  Imperial College Management School
                  53 Prince's Gate
                  Exhibition Road
                  London SW7 2PG, UK
                  44-20-7594-9107 FAX: 44-20-7823-7685
                  E-mail: szy@...

                  Discussant 4: Craig A. Depken, II, University of Texas at Arlington,
                  Arlington, TX.

                  Craig A. Depken, II
                  Department of Economics
                  University of Texas at Arlington
                  Box 19479
                  Arlington, TX 76019








                  SESSION 3

                  Session Organizers: Elizabeth Gustafson and Lawrence Hadley

                  Department of Economics
                  University of Dayton
                  Dayton, OH 45469-2251
                  PHONE: 937-229-2403 FAX: 937-229-2477
                  E-mail: HADLEYLA@...

                  Session Title: COMPETITIVE BALANCE IN SPORTS LEAGUES

                  Topic Area Code: L83

                  Scheduling Requests: If possible, please schedule the six sports
                  economics sessions organized by Gustafson and Hadley on Sunday, June
                  30 and Monday, July 1 so that they do not conflict. We prefer to
                  have three sessions on each day. We would also prefer to have a "one
                  session break" each day.

                  Chair: Lawrence Hadley, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH.

                  Lawrence Hadley
                  Department of Economics
                  University of Dayton
                  Dayton, OH 45469-2251
                  PHONE: 937-229-2403 FAX: 937-229-2477
                  E-Mail: HADLEYLA@...


                  Paper 1: Rodney Fort, Washington State University, Pullman, WA and
                  Young Hoon Lee, Hansung University, Seoul, Korea.

                  Title: Explaining the Behavior of Competitive Balance Over Time

                  Rodney Fort
                  Department of Economics
                  Washington State University
                  Pullman, WA 99164-4741
                  509-335-6651 FAX: 509-335-4362
                  E-mail: fort@...

                  Young Hoon Lee
                  Department of Economics
                  Hansung University
                  389, Samsun-dong, Sungbuk-gu
                  Seoul 136-792, Korea
                  822-760-4066 FAX: 822-760-4217
                  E-mail: yhnlee@...


                  Paper 2: Stefan Szymanski, Imperial College, London, UK.

                  Title: Competitive Balance and Income Redistribution in Team Sports

                  Stefan Szymanski
                  Imperial College Management School
                  53 Prince's Gate
                  Exhibition Road
                  London SW7 2PG, UK
                  44-20-7594-9108 FAX: 44-20-7823-7685
                  E-mail: szy@...


                  Paper 3: Anthony Krautmann, DePaul University, Chicago, IL.

                  Title: Buying a Pennant in Major League Baseball

                  Anthony Krautmann
                  Economics Department
                  DePaul University
                  1 East Jackson
                  Chicago, IL 60604
                  312-362-6176 FAX: 312-362-5452

                  Paper 4: Joel Maxcy, SUNY—Cortland, Cortland, NY.

                  Title: Revenue Sharing in MLB: A Paradoxical Reversal of Fortune?

                  Joel Maxcy
                  Department of Economics
                  SUNY-Cortland
                  PO Box 2000
                  Cortland, NY 13045
                  Phone: 607-753-2440 FAX: 607-753-5983
                  E-mail: maxcy@...


                  Discussant 1: Bernd Frick, University of Witten/Herdecke, Witten,
                  Germany.

                  Bernd Frick
                  University of Witten/Herdecke
                  Department of Economics
                  Alfred-Herrhausen-Strasse 50
                  D-58448 Witten, Germany
                  49(0) 2302 926-575 FAX: 49(0) 2302 926-587
                  E-mail: bfrick@...

                  Discussant 2: Rodney Fort, Washington State University, Pullman, WA.

                  Rodney Fort
                  Department of Economics
                  Washington State University
                  Pullman, WA 99164-4741
                  509-335-6651 FAX: 509-335-4362
                  E-mail: fort@...


                  Discussant 3: Lisa O'Keeffe, Daniel Webster College, Nashua, NH and
                  Sheffield Hallam University, Yorkshire, England.

                  Lisa O'Keeffe
                  Archway, 5 Old Welton Rd.
                  Welton
                  East Riding, Yorkshire
                  HU10 7UH, England, UK
                  PHONE: 011 44 1482 665115 FAX: 011 44 1482 325587
                  E-mail: drokeeffe@...

                  Discussant 4: Victor Matheson, Lake Forest College, Lake Forest, IL.

                  Victor Matheson
                  Lake Forest College
                  555 N. Sheridan
                  Lake Forest, IL 60640
                  847-735-5197 FAX: 847-735-6193
                  E-mail: matheson@...


                  SESSION 4


                  Session Organizers: Elizabeth Gustafson and Lawrence Hadley
                  Department of Economics
                  University of Dayton
                  Dayton, OH 45469-2251
                  PHONE: 937-229-2406 FAX: 937-229-2477
                  E-mail: GUSTAFSO@...

                  Session Title: PAY AND PERFORMANCE IN SPORTS I

                  Topic Area Code: L83

                  Scheduling Requests: If possible, please schedule the six sports
                  economics sessions organized by Gustafson and Hadley on Sunday, June
                  30 and Monday, July 1 so that they do not conflict. We prefer to
                  have three sessions on each day. We would also prefer to have a "one
                  session break" each day.

                  Chair: Elizabeth Gustafson, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH.

                  Elizabeth Gustafson
                  Department of Economics
                  University of Dayton
                  Dayton, OH 45469-2251
                  PHONE: 937-229-2406 FAX: 937-229-2477
                  E-mail: GUSTAFSO@...


                  Paper 1: Bernd Frick, Alexander Dilger, and Joachim Prinz,
                  University of Witten/Herdecke, Witten, Germany.

                  Title: The Performance Effects of Up-Front Payments: Signing
                  Bonuses and Player Opportunism in the NFL

                  Bernd Frick
                  University of Witten/Herdecke
                  Department of Economics
                  Alfred-Herrhausen-Strasse 50
                  D-58448 Witten, Germany
                  49(0) 2302 926-575 FAX: 49(0) 2302 926-587
                  E-mail: bfrick@...

                  Alexander Dilger
                  University of Witten/Herdecke
                  Department of Economics
                  Alfred-Herrhausen-Strasse 50
                  D-58448 Witten, Germany

                  Joachim Prinz
                  University of Witten/Herdecke
                  Department of Economics
                  Alfred-Herrhausen-Strasse 50
                  D-58448 Witten, Germany


                  Paper 2: John Fizel and Tim Smaby, Pennsylvania State University,
                  Erie, PA.

                  Title: Economic Value of Athlete Endorsement Contracts: An Event
                  Study

                  John Fizel
                  Economics Department
                  Penn State--Erie
                  Station Road
                  Erie, PA 16563-1400
                  814-898-6323 FAX: 814-898-6223
                  E-mail: fzk@...

                  Tim Smaby
                  Finance Department
                  Penn State--Erie
                  Station Road
                  Erie, PA 16563-1400

                  Paper 3: Donn Johnson and Mark Gius, Quinnipiac University, Hamden,
                  CT.

                  Title: Factors That Affect the Salaries of NFL Players by Position
                  Revisited

                  Donn Johnson
                  Economics Department
                  Quinnipiac University
                  Hamden, CT 06473
                  203-582-8205 FAX: 203-582-8664
                  E-mail: donn.johnson@...

                  Mark Gius
                  Economics Department
                  Quinnipiac University
                  Hamden, CT 06473

                  Paper 4: Patrick Rishe, Webster University, St. Louis, MO.

                  Title: The Mythical Correlation between Ticket Prices and Team
                  Payroll: Evidence from the `Big Four'

                  Patrick Rishe
                  Webster University
                  470 East Lockwood Av.
                  St. Louis, MO 63119
                  314-961-2660 x-7553
                  E-mail: prishe@...


                  Discussant 1: Anthony Krautmann, DePaul University, Chicago, IL.

                  Anthony Krautmann
                  Economics Department
                  DePaul University
                  1 East Jackson
                  Chicago, IL 60604
                  312-362-6176 FAX: 312-362-5452

                  Discussant 2: Martin Schmidt, Portland State University, Portland,
                  OR.

                  Martin Schmidt
                  PO Box 751
                  Portland State University
                  Portland, OR 97207-0751
                  503-725-3930 FAX: 503-725-3945
                  E-mail: Schmidtm@...

                  Discussant 3: David Berri, California State University-Bakersfield,
                  Bakersfield, CA.

                  David Berri
                  Department of Economics
                  California State University—Bakersfield
                  9001 Stockdale Highway
                  Bakersfield, CA 93311
                  661-664-2029 FAX: 661-664-2049
                  E-mail: dberri@...

                  Discussant 4: Stacey Brook, University of Sioux Falls, Sioux Falls,
                  SD.

                  Stacey Brook
                  University of Sioux Falls
                  1101 West 22nd St.
                  Sioux Falls, SD 57105
                  605-331-6707 FAX: 605-331-6615
                  E-Mail: Stacey.Brook@...


                  SESSION 5


                  Session Organizers: Elizabeth Gustafson and Lawrence Hadley

                  Department of Economics
                  University of Dayton
                  Dayton, OH 45469-2251
                  PHONE: 937-229-2403 FAX: 937-229-2477
                  E-mail: HADLEYLA@...

                  Session Title: PAY AND PERFORMANCE IN SPORTS II

                  Topic Area Code: L83

                  Scheduling Requests: If possible, please schedule the six sports
                  economics sessions organized by Gustafson and Hadley on Sunday, June
                  30 and Monday, July 1 so that they do not conflict. We prefer to
                  have three sessions on each day. We would also prefer to have a "one
                  session break" each day.

                  Chair: Lawrence Hadley, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH.

                  Lawrence Hadley
                  Department of Economics
                  University of Dayton
                  Dayton, OH 45469-2251
                  PHONE: 937-229-2403 FAX: 937-229-2477
                  E-Mail: HADLEYLA@...


                  Paper 1: Martin Schmidt, Portland State University, Portland, OR,
                  and David Berri, California State University—Bakersfield,
                  Bakersfield, CA.

                  Title: On the Evolution of Player Performance in Major League
                  Baseball.

                  Martin Schmidt
                  PO Box 751
                  Portland State University
                  Portland, OR 97207-0751
                  503-725-3930 FAX: 503-725-3945
                  E-mail: Schmidtm@...

                  David Berri
                  Department of Economics
                  California State University—Bakersfield
                  9001 Stockdale Highway
                  Bakersfield, CA 93311
                  661-664-2030 FAX: 661-664-2049
                  E-mail: dberri@...


                  Paper 2: Bernd Frick, Alexander Dilger, and Joachim Prinz,
                  University of Witten/Herdecke, Witten, Germany.

                  Title: Pay and Performance in Professional Road Running: The Case
                  of City Marathons
                  Bernd Frick
                  University of Witten/Herdecke
                  Department of Economics
                  Alfred-Herrhausen-Strasse 50
                  D-58448 Witten, Germany
                  49(0) 2302 926-575 FAX: 49(0) 2302 926-587
                  E-mail: bfrick@...

                  Alexander Dilger
                  University of Witten/Herdecke
                  Department of Economics
                  Alfred-Herrhausen-Strasse 50
                  D-58448 Witten, Germany

                  Joachim Prinz
                  University of Witten/Herdecke
                  Department of Economics
                  Alfred-Herrhausen-Strasse 50
                  D-58448 Witten, Germany



                  Paper 3: Peter von Allmen, Moravian College, Bethlehem, PA.

                  Title: A Comparison of the Season Championship Rewards and
                  Incentives in NASCAR Winston Cup and Championship Auto Racing Teams
                  (CART)

                  Peter von Allmen
                  Moravian College
                  1200 Main Street
                  Bethlehem, PA 18018
                  Phone: 610-861-1430 FAX: 610-861-3980
                  E-mail: pvonallmen@...

                  Paper 4: Michael Leeds, Irina Pistolet, and Elizabeth Wheaton, Temple
                  University, Philadelphia, PA.

                  Title: The Impact of Race on Playing Time in the National Basketball
                  Association

                  Michael Leeds
                  Department of Economics
                  Temple University
                  Philadelphia, PA 19122
                  215-204-8030 FAX: 215-204-6828
                  E-Mail: mleeds@...


                  Irina Pistolet
                  Department of Economics
                  Temple University
                  Philadelphia, PA 19122
                  FAX: 215-204-6828 E-mail: ipistole@...

                  Elizabeth Wheaton
                  Department of Economics
                  Temple University
                  Philadelphia, PA 19122
                  FAX: 215-204-6828 E-mail: ewheaton@...



                  Discussant 1: Young Hoon Lee, Hansung University, Seoul, Korea.

                  Young Hoon Lee
                  Department of Economics
                  Hansung University
                  389, Samsun-dong, Sungbuk-gu
                  Seoul 136-792, Korea
                  822-760-4066 FAX: 822-760-4217
                  E-mail: yhnlee@...

                  Discussant 2: Lawrence Hadley, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH.

                  Lawrence Hadley
                  Department of Economics
                  University of Dayton
                  Dayton, OH 45469-2251
                  PHONE: 937-229-2403 FAX: 937-229-2477
                  E-Mail: HADLEYLA@...

                  Discussant 3: Donn Johnson, Quinnipiac University, Hamden, CT.

                  Donn Johnson
                  Economics Department
                  Quinnipiac University
                  Hamden, CT 06473
                  203-582-8206 FAX: 203-582-8664
                  E-mail: donn.johnson@...

                  Discussant 4: Elizabeth Gustafson, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH.

                  Elizabeth Gustafson
                  Department of Economics
                  University of Dayton
                  Dayton, OH 45469-2251
                  PHONE: 937-229-2406 FAX: 937-229-2477
                  E-mail: GUSTAFSO@...


                  SESSION 6


                  Session Organizers: Elizabeth Gustafson and Lawrence Hadley
                  Department of Economics
                  University of Dayton
                  Dayton, OH 45469-2251
                  PHONE: 937-229-2406 FAX: 937-229-2477
                  E-mail: GUSTAFSO@...

                  Session Title: MARKET STRUCTURE IN SPORTS

                  Topic Area Code: L83

                  Scheduling Requests: If possible, please schedule the six sports
                  economics sessions organized by Gustafson and Hadley on Sunday, June
                  30 and Monday, July 1 so that they do not conflict. We prefer to
                  have three sessions on each day. We would also prefer to have a "one
                  session break" each day.

                  Chair: Elizabeth Gustafson, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH.

                  Elizabeth Gustafson
                  Department of Economics
                  University of Dayton
                  Dayton, OH 45469-2251
                  937-229-2406 FAX: 937-229-2477
                  E-mail: GUSTAFSO@...

                  Paper 1: Lisa O'Keeffe, Daniel Webster College, Nashua, NH and
                  Sheffield Hallam University, Yorkshire, England.

                  Title: The Economic and Financal Effects of Applying the American
                  Professional Team Sports Model to British Rugby

                  Lisa O'Keeffe
                  Archway, 5 Old Welton Rd.
                  Welton
                  East Riding, Yorkshire
                  HU10 7UH, England, UK
                  PHONE: 011 44 1482 665115 FAX: 011 44 1482 325587
                  E-mail: drokeeffe@...

                  Paper 2: Rodney Fort, Jason Winfree, Dan Axelson, and Jill
                  McCluskey, Washington State University, Pullman, WA.

                  Title: Vertical Integration in Professional Baseball

                  Rodney Fort
                  Department of Economics
                  Washington State University
                  Pullman, WA 99164-4741
                  509-335-6651 FAX: 509-335-4362
                  E-mail: fort@...




                  Jason Winfree
                  Department of Economics
                  Washington State University
                  Pullman, WA 99164-4741

                  Dan Axelson
                  Department of Economics
                  Washington State University
                  Pullman, WA 99164-4741

                  Jill McCluskey
                  Department of Economics
                  Washington State University
                  Pullman, WA 99164-4741

                  Paper 3: Craig A. Depken, II and Dennis P. Wilson, University of
                  Texas, Arlington, TX.

                  Title: The Impacts of Cartel Enforcement in NCAA Division IA Football

                  Craig A. Depken, II
                  Department of Economics
                  University of Texas at Arlington
                  Box 19479
                  Arlington, TX 76019

                  Dennis P. Wilson
                  Department of Economics
                  University of Texas at Arlington
                  Box 19479
                  Arlington, TX 76019

                  Paper 4: Stephen Shmanske, California State University, Hayward, CA.

                  Title: Market Preemption and Entry Deterrence: Evidence from the
                  Golf Course Industry


                  Stephen Shmanske
                  Department of Economics
                  California State University-Hayward
                  Hayward, CA 94542-3068
                  Phone: 510-885-3339 FAX: 510-885-4699
                  E-mail: sshmansk@...















                  Discussant 1: Rodney Fort, Washington State University, Pullman, WA.

                  Rodney Fort
                  Department of Economics
                  Washington State University
                  Pullman, WA 99164-4741
                  509-335-6651 FAX: 509-335-4362
                  E-mail: fort@...

                  Discussant 2: Donald Coffin, Indiana University Northwest, Gary, IN.

                  Donald Coffin
                  Division of Business and Economics
                  Indiana University Northwest
                  3400 Broadway
                  Gary, IN 46408-1197
                  219-980-6631 FAX: 219-980-6579
                  E-mail: don@...

                  Discussant 3: John Fizel, Pennsylvania State University, Erie, PA.

                  John Fizel
                  Economics Department
                  Penn State--Erie
                  Station Road
                  Erie, PA 16563
                  814-898-6323 FAX: 814-898-6223
                  E-mail: fzk@...

                  Discussant 4: Stephen Spurr, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI

                  Stephen Spurr
                  Department of Economics
                  Wayne State University
                  Detroit, MI 48202
                  313-577-3345 FAX: 313-577-0149
                  E-mail: sspurr@...








                  --- In APBR_analysis@y..., "Michael K. Tamada" <tamada@o...> wrote:
                  >
                  >
                  > On Tue, 2 Apr 2002, HoopStudies wrote:
                  >
                  > [...]
                  >
                  > > > > area, the Western Economics Association is having a meeting
                  in
                  > > > > Seattle June 29 - July 3 this year and they do have a couple
                  > > sessions
                  > > > > on sports economics. Could be very boring or tedious if they
                  get
                  >
                  > [...]
                  >
                  > > I have the program and will try to post it later (when I get
                  home).
                  >
                  > Okay, the WEA website didn't have any program info, just
                  registration
                  > info.
                  >
                  > > I can send a couple citations where economics journals have
                  verged
                  > > into the realm of sports statistics analysis.
                  >
                  > Yes, I'd like to see them -- economists should be capable of doing
                  good
                  > work in this field, but as I said, most of the stuff, including
                  especially
                  > the good stuff, that I've seen is by operations researchers.
                  >
                  >
                  > --MKT
                • Michael K. Tamada
                  ... Actually, by far, most of the research is done in baseball, I was refering to work on sports statistics in general, not basketball statistics. [...] ...
                  Message 8 of 8 , Apr 4, 2002
                    On Wed, 3 Apr 2002, HoopStudies wrote:

                    > What Operations Research things have you seen? I think I saw some
                    > baseball stuff a few years ago. I haven't seen anything in
                    > basketball. I haven't looked in a while. I saw something in
                    > Management Science, too.

                    Actually, by far, most of the research is done in baseball, I was
                    refering to work on sports statistics in general, not basketball
                    statistics.

                    [...]

                    > Paper 4: Stephen Spurr, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI and
                    > Anthony Krautmann, DePaul University, Chicago, IL.
                    >
                    > Title: Baseball Errors Revisited

                    Interesting title, but I'll bet it's about baseball's business errors, not
                    on-field errors.


                    > Paper 4: Young Hoon Lee, Hansung University, Seoul, Korea.
                    >
                    > Title: Attendance Decline in Korean Professional Baseball League:
                    > Economic Crisis or Competitive Imbalance?

                    Another intriguing title, I didn't even know there was a Korean
                    professional baseball league. Competitive imbalance is a hot topic in
                    baseball, much less so in basketball. Despite the recent Bulls dynasty
                    and an ongoing potential Laker dynasty.


                    > Paper 1: Rodney Fort, Washington State University, Pullman, WA and
                    > Young Hoon Lee, Hansung University, Seoul, Korea.
                    >
                    > Title: Explaining the Behavior of Competitive Balance Over Time

                    Fort's one of the big names in the economics of sports, I forget the name
                    of his frequent co-author -- Quirk? -- who I think was at Caltech.


                    > Session Title: PAY AND PERFORMANCE IN SPORTS I

                    These are the papers which presumably will have to use sports statistics
                    to measure players' performances levels and value. Economists should be
                    capable of coming up with sophisticated measures, but the stuff I've seen
                    usually uses just a simple Tendex-type measure, or batting average plus
                    other stats, or etc.


                    > Title: Pay and Performance in Professional Road Running: The Case
                    > of City Marathons
                    > Bernd Frick
                    > University of Witten/Herdecke

                    Almost certainly a model of a marathon as a tounrnament and an
                    investigation into the effects of different compensation schemes (big
                    prize to the winner only? Lots of little prizes to lots of top
                    finishers?) Economists have been entranced by tournament theory for about
                    20 years now.


                    > Paper 3: Peter von Allmen, Moravian College, Bethlehem, PA.
                    >
                    > Title: A Comparison of the Season Championship Rewards and
                    > Incentives in NASCAR Winston Cup and Championship Auto Racing Teams
                    > (CART)

                    I'd kind of expect the author to be from Auburn Univ or Florida State or
                    something like that. ;) Another investigation into tournament
                    incentives I bet.


                    > Paper 4: Michael Leeds, Irina Pistolet, and Elizabeth Wheaton, Temple
                    > University, Philadelphia, PA.
                    >
                    > Title: The Impact of Race on Playing Time in the National Basketball
                    > Association

                    Labor economists have done some studies of race and salary in sports,
                    because it's one job category where the employee's performance is
                    relatively easy to measure objectively. Again however, they usually focus
                    on the economic issues and salary differentials, rather than on creating
                    a sophisticated performance measure.


                    > Paper 3: Craig A. Depken, II and Dennis P. Wilson, University of
                    > Texas, Arlington, TX.
                    >
                    > Title: The Impacts of Cartel Enforcement in NCAA Division IA Football

                    Nothing to do with basketball or sports statistics, just one of my
                    favorite examples of one of the most successful cartels in the world: the
                    NCAA. Forget OPEC, it faces substantial competition from non-OPEC
                    suppliers such as Russia, Norway, Mexico, etc. The NCAA only had to
                    compete with the NAIA -- until the hardship draft and increasing flood of
                    Darryl Dawkins's, Kobes, Chandlers, etc. created a major competitor for
                    the supply of labor, in the form of the NBA.


                    > Paper 4: Stephen Shmanske, California State University, Hayward, CA.
                    >
                    > Title: Market Preemption and Entry Deterrence: Evidence from the
                    > Golf Course Industry

                    Apropos of nothing: I hate golf. The only good thing is that even golf
                    fanatics are unable to bear listening to a golf broadcast, so golf doesn't
                    pollute the radio airwaves.




                    --MKT
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