## [APBR_analysis] And while I'm at it...

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• [A veritable posting explosion from your usually lurking author...] Speaking of goofy ratings... Whenever I look at a boxscore, I ve always subtracted misses
Message 1 of 5 , Feb 4, 2003
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[A veritable posting explosion from your usually lurking author...]

Speaking of goofy ratings...

Whenever I look at a boxscore, I've always subtracted misses from points. It just seems
like an easy way to mentally calculate scoring efficiency. Recently, I decided to
formalise the calculations, and give it a little stronger theoretical basis. This is
what I came up with:

Efficiency Points = pts + 1*(2pointers made) - 1*(2pointers missed)
+ 2*(3pointers made) - 1*(3pointers missed)
+ 0.5*(free throws made) - 0.5*(FT missed)
- 1*(turnovers) + 1*(offensive rebounds)

The assumption is this: teams generally average pretty close to 1 point per possession.
That means that whenever a player ends a possession without scoring, he "costs" his
team 1 point -- the point his team could normally expect. A missed 3 pointer ends a
possession with zero points -- as does a missed 2 -- so that player has 1 EffPT
subtracted from his total. Similarly, a turnover ends a possession with zero points,
and the player will be docked 1 EffPT for each one.

On the other hand, a made 2 pointer gives a team 1 point more the
expected-one-point-per-possession. That extra point gets added to that players total. A
trey is 2 points more than the expected.

Offensive rebounds take a zero-point possession, and turn it into a normal
expected-one-point-possession. One EffPT goes to that player.

The free throws get a 0.5 coefficient, for purely arbitrary reasons. I can't figure out
how much they are actually worth, or even conceive of a way to calculate it.

Assists are not included because there's no easy way to deduct the EffPTS from the
assistee. This, I think, limits the usefulness of the rating.

That's all there is to it. As an example, here's the box of tonight's Rap-Bucks game.
EffPts are in parentheses.

Bucks 95, Raptors 98

Raptors

PLAYER POS MIN FGM-A 3GM-A FTM-A OFF AST TO PTS EffPTS
VINCE CARTER G 34 11-24 1-3 2-2 2 4 0 25 [27]
ALVIN WILLIAMS G 34 5-12 1-2 0-2 0 2 2 11 [7]
JEROME WILLIAMS F 39 5-7 0-0 3-6 4 1 1 13 [19]
MORRIS PETERSON F 27 6-9 1-2 1-3 2 1 1 14 [19]
ANTONIO DAVIS C 44 7-13 0-0 2-2 7 3 3 16 [22]
Voshon Lenard 35 3-12 1-3 6-7 2 2 2 13 [11]
Rafer Alston 14 2-5 0-2 0-0 0 3 2 4 [1]
Michael Bradley 13 1-1 0-0 0-0 1 1 2 2 [2]

TOTAL 240 40-83 4-12 14-22 18 17 13 98 [107]

Bucks

PLAYER POS MIN FGM-A 3GM-A FTM-A OFF AST TO PTS
SAM CASSELL G 39 8-14 1-1 3-4 2 7 2 20 [24]
RAY ALLEN G 35 9-17 3-7 0-0 1 3 2 21 [24]
ANTHONY MASON F 36 5-13 0-0 3-4 1 7 2 13 [10]
TIM THOMAS F 21 1-6 0-1 0-0 0 0 3 2 [-5]
ERVIN JOHNSON C 25 0-2 0-0 0-0 6 0 2 0 [2]
Michael Redd 30 10-14 2-5 2-2 1 0 1 24 [33]
Toni Kukoc 20 2-5 1-3 2-2 0 2 2 7 [6]
Kevin Ollie 18 0-4 0-0 0-0 0 0 0 0 [-4]
Jason Caffey 16 4-6 0-0 0-0 2 1 1 8 [11]

TOTAL 240 39-81 7-17 10-12 13 20 15 95 [101]

Note that EffPTS don't add up exactly to actual points. I've run this test on about a
dozen games so far, and while they never seem to add up exactly, EffPTS is almost
always within 10 points of the actual total, usually overestimating. Considering the
shaky basis of my assumptions, I think that's pretty good -- although I'd like to get
it closer. The one rule I gave myself: I'm not allowed to change any of the weights,
except for free throws. I still have no idea how much they are worth with regards to
possessions. Anybody have any ideas?

ed
• Ed -- Take a look back at Message 14. That message discusses some of the other methods for weighting stats. JohnH of this group wrote a book with different
Message 2 of 5 , Feb 5, 2003
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Ed --

Take a look back at Message 14. That message discusses some of the
other methods for weighting stats. JohnH of this group wrote a book
with different weights. There is an economist named Dave Berri who
also has something effectively similar. There are a few more on the
web, too. I've developed a matrix showing the relative weights that
the developers put on the different stats. I can't put that matrix
out here since it's in the book I've got coming out.

Yours is slightly different, of course, because you don't include any
defensive stats, making it purely an offensive tool. That makes it
somewhat unique.

DeanO

--- In APBR_analysis@yahoogroups.com, <igorkupfer@r...> wrote:
> [A veritable posting explosion from your usually lurking author...]
>
> Speaking of goofy ratings...
>
> Whenever I look at a boxscore, I've always subtracted misses from
points. It just seems
> like an easy way to mentally calculate scoring efficiency.
Recently, I decided to
> formalise the calculations, and give it a little stronger
theoretical basis. This is
> what I came up with:
>
> Efficiency Points = pts + 1*(2pointers made) - 1*(2pointers missed)
> + 2*(3pointers made) - 1*(3pointers missed)
> + 0.5*(free throws made) - 0.5*(FT missed)
> - 1*(turnovers) + 1*(offensive rebounds)
>
> The assumption is this: teams generally average pretty close to 1
point per possession.
> That means that whenever a player ends a possession without
scoring, he "costs" his
> team 1 point -- the point his team could normally expect. A missed
3 pointer ends a
> possession with zero points -- as does a missed 2 -- so that player
has 1 EffPT
> subtracted from his total. Similarly, a turnover ends a possession
with zero points,
> and the player will be docked 1 EffPT for each one.
>
> On the other hand, a made 2 pointer gives a team 1 point more the
> expected-one-point-per-possession. That extra point gets added to
that players total. A
> trey is 2 points more than the expected.
>
> Offensive rebounds take a zero-point possession, and turn it into a
normal
> expected-one-point-possession. One EffPT goes to that player.
>
> The free throws get a 0.5 coefficient, for purely arbitrary
reasons. I can't figure out
> how much they are actually worth, or even conceive of a way to
calculate it.
>
> Assists are not included because there's no easy way to deduct the
EffPTS from the
> assistee. This, I think, limits the usefulness of the rating.
>
> That's all there is to it. As an example, here's the box of
tonight's Rap-Bucks game.
> EffPts are in parentheses.
>
> Bucks 95, Raptors 98
> 2/4/2003 Bradley Center, Milwaukee, WI
>
> Raptors
>
> PLAYER POS MIN FGM-A 3GM-A FTM-A OFF AST TO PTS
EffPTS
> VINCE CARTER G 34 11-24 1-3 2-2 2 4 0
25 [27]
> ALVIN WILLIAMS G 34 5-12 1-2 0-2 0 2 2
11 [7]
> JEROME WILLIAMS F 39 5-7 0-0 3-6 4 1 1
13 [19]
> MORRIS PETERSON F 27 6-9 1-2 1-3 2 1 1
14 [19]
> ANTONIO DAVIS C 44 7-13 0-0 2-2 7 3 3
16 [22]
> Voshon Lenard 35 3-12 1-3 6-7 2 2 2
13 [11]
> Rafer Alston 14 2-5 0-2 0-0 0 3 2
4 [1]
> Michael Bradley 13 1-1 0-0 0-0 1 1 2
2 [2]
>
> TOTAL 240 40-83 4-12 14-22 18 17 13
98 [107]
>
>
> Bucks
>
> PLAYER POS MIN FGM-A 3GM-A FTM-A OFF AST TO PTS
> SAM CASSELL G 39 8-14 1-1 3-4 2 7 2
20 [24]
> RAY ALLEN G 35 9-17 3-7 0-0 1 3 2
21 [24]
> ANTHONY MASON F 36 5-13 0-0 3-4 1 7 2
13 [10]
> TIM THOMAS F 21 1-6 0-1 0-0 0 0 3
2 [-5]
> ERVIN JOHNSON C 25 0-2 0-0 0-0 6 0 2
0 [2]
> Michael Redd 30 10-14 2-5 2-2 1 0 1
24 [33]
> Toni Kukoc 20 2-5 1-3 2-2 0 2 2
7 [6]
> Kevin Ollie 18 0-4 0-0 0-0 0 0 0
0 [-4]
> Jason Caffey 16 4-6 0-0 0-0 2 1 1
8 [11]
>
> TOTAL 240 39-81 7-17 10-12 13 20 15
95 [101]
>
> Note that EffPTS don't add up exactly to actual points. I've run
> dozen games so far, and while they never seem to add up exactly,
EffPTS is almost
> always within 10 points of the actual total, usually
overestimating. Considering the
> shaky basis of my assumptions, I think that's pretty good --
although I'd like to get
> it closer. The one rule I gave myself: I'm not allowed to change
any of the weights,
> except for free throws. I still have no idea how much they are
worth with regards to
> possessions. Anybody have any ideas?
>
>
> ed
• ... From: To: Sent: Wednesday, February 05, 2003 10:29 AM Subject: [APBR_analysis] Re: And while I m at it...
Message 3 of 5 , Feb 5, 2003
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----- Original Message -----
From: <deano@...>
To: <APBR_analysis@yahoogroups.com>
Sent: Wednesday, February 05, 2003 10:29 AM
Subject: [APBR_analysis] Re: And while I'm at it...

> Ed --
>
> Take a look back at Message 14. That message discusses some of the
> other methods for weighting stats. JohnH of this group wrote a book
> with different weights. There is an economist named Dave Berri who
> also has something effectively similar. There are a few more on the
> web, too. I've developed a matrix showing the relative weights that
> the developers put on the different stats. I can't put that matrix
> out here since it's in the book I've got coming out.
>

Hmm, mostly 0.5 - 1.0, which is what I guessed.

> Yours is slightly different, of course, because you don't include any
> defensive stats, making it purely an offensive tool. That makes it
> somewhat unique.
>

I focus only on offense (and only part of the offense, for that matter) because I'm
incapable of developing an all-encompassing system. I prefer to let you guys slug out a
more comprehensive model -- I've seen how difficult it is. I'll focus on the small
stuff.

I think what makes it different than the others is it's theoretical basis. Most of the
methods you describe are linear weights-type systems, the
(First of all, I wanted it to look like a player's points total for a game, so you
would have an easy way of grasping what the rating means.) I assume those other ratings
used some kind of regression to arrive at weights that would produce results that jibe
with a qualitative assessment of player ability. I don't do that (I share your distaste
with linear weights). I only add and subtract stuff with regards to a teams expected
points per possession: Teams can expect 1 point per possession. If a player misses a
shot, he cost the team 1 point. If he turns the ball over, he cost the team 1 point.

Like I said, it's a pretty shaky basis on which to construct a rating system -- but it
seems to produce half decent results. I'd like it to be more accurate, but I can't seem
to do that without changing weights. I'm thinking that there may be a conceptual
problem with my approach that I'm overlooking. (Here's one: since missed shots usually
result in an offensive board 30% of the time, they can't possibly be worth -1 with
regards to a possession. But why does -1 give good results? I don't know.)
• ... rating system -- but it ... accurate, but I can t seem ... a conceptual ... missed shots usually ... be worth -1 with ... know.) Would -0.7 per missed FGA
Message 4 of 5 , Feb 15, 2003
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--- In APBR_analysis@yahoogroups.com, <igorkupfer@r...> wrote:

> Like I said, it's a pretty shaky basis on which to construct a
rating system -- but it
> seems to produce half decent results. I'd like it to be more
accurate, but I can't seem
> to do that without changing weights. I'm thinking that there may be
a conceptual
> problem with my approach that I'm overlooking. (Here's one: since
missed shots usually
> result in an offensive board 30% of the time, they can't possibly
be worth -1 with
> regards to a possession. But why does -1 give good results? I don't
know.)

Would -0.7 per missed FGA give better results?
• ... conceptual ... don t ... There s not a lot of solid guidance on what the weights should be. If all you want are better results -- better is a personal
Message 5 of 5 , Feb 18, 2003
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--- In APBR_analysis@yahoogroups.com, "dlirag <dlirag@h...>" > a
conceptual
> > problem with my approach that I'm overlooking. (Here's one: since
> missed shots usually
> > result in an offensive board 30% of the time, they can't possibly
> be worth -1 with
> > regards to a possession. But why does -1 give good results? I
don't
> know.)
>
> Would -0.7 per missed FGA give better results?

There's not a lot of solid guidance on what the weights should be.
If all you want are better results -- "better" is a personal
decision, so you can try it and see whether the results
are "better". Whether you also account for some teams rebounding
only 20% of their misses and other teams rebounding close to 40% is a
question. And if you modify the weight on missed FGA, should you
also modify the weight on offensive rebounds?

DeanO
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