New JSAS 24 (2008) Volume
- NEW VOLUME!
Journal of the Serbian Archaeological Society 24 (2008)
[Glasnik Srpskog arheoloskog drustva]
CHALCOLITHIC COPPER MACES AND SCEPTERS
IN THE SOUTHERN LEVANT: ADDITIONAL REMARKS ON THEIR GENESIS
Sava P. Tutundzic
Abstract: Certain plain and ornamented copper maceheads, discoid, globular and pear shaped, from the Nahal Mishmar Cave of the Treasure demonstrate, in a specific way, the transition to the production of maces in one piece and the invention of diverse scepters, as a main goal. The metamorphosis from weapons to the symbols of authority was enabled by the emergence of a rank society and on the other hand thanks to the early development of casting in the lost wax technique.
Key words: Copper, maceheads, scepters, genesis, Chalcolithic, southern Levant.
CHALCOLITHIC METALLURGY OF THE SOUTHERN LEVANT:
PRODUCTION CENTERS AND SOCIAL CONTEXT
Abstract: The present paper discusses the relationship between copper production sites and copper mining areas in the southern Levant, claiming that metallurgy was embedded within the context of the Chalcolithic of the southern Levant, giving the mining area of Feinan a somewhat special status, although it was located not close to the centers of Chalcolithic settlements. Individuals who had knowledge of the sources of copper and who mastered the art of smelting and casting it, probably enjoyed enhanced social status and were likely concerned with maintaining it. Where and how smelting and casting took place, and the functions of objects created are additional aspects related to copper-based metallurgy that are particularly informative about the society with which it was associated.
Key words: Chalcolithic, southern Levant, copper, metallurgy, social context.
DECONSTRUCTING Y. GARFINKEL'S "BETH SHEAN WARE"
AND "MIDDLE CHALCOLITHIC": A REALISTIC LOOK AT TWO ARCHAEOLOGICAL CHIMERAS
Abstract: This paper surveys Y. Garfinkel's "Middle Chalcolithic" of the southern Levant and finds it seriously wanting as a useful chrono-cultural concept relating to the set of archaeological deposits he has specified it defines. This work specifically considers its problematic reliance on ceramics from G. F. FitzGerald's Level XVIII at Tell Beth Shan, offering a detailed critique based on a revised chrono-stratigraphic sequence for the site resulting from in depth research on Beth Shan XIX-XIII. It indicates there is no sound basis for Garfinkel's "Beth Shean Ware", which is an assemblage of ceramics shown to be associated with at least two diverse chrono-cultural horizons, Late Neolithic/Early Chalcolithic, and Early Bronze I. The critique further questions the utility of Garfinkel's "Middle Chalcolithic" cultural markers, silos with stone paved floors, infant jar burials and pedestaled basalt vessels as defining aspects of this particular chrono-cultural horizon.
Key words: Beth Shan, "Beth Shean Ware", "Middle Chalcolithic", pottery, periodization, terminology.
FLINT ASSEMBLAGES FROM LATE PREHISTORIC
PELLA AND TELEILAT GHASSUL
IN THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL COLLECTION
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF BELGRADE
Branislav Andelkovic and Josip Saric
Abstract: In the Archaeological Collection of the University of Belgrade there are 9 Neolithic flint objects from Pella and 41 Chalcolithic flint items (and 84 pottery fragments) from Teleilat Ghassul, kindly donated in 1982 by J. Basil Hennessy. All Teleilat Ghassul objects are 1975 surface finds from the immediate vicinity of trenches in Area A.. Despite their limited numbers the flint assemblages make a good basis for a study collection. Although modest, the diversity of Teleilat Ghassul lithics represents a basic typology of the South Levantine Chalcolithic. Macroscopic examination of the artifacts suggests relative homogeneity of the lithic materials used for making chipped stone tools since the raw materials were probably derived from similar geological formations.
Key words: Jordan, Pella, Teleilat Ghassul, Neolithic, Chalcolithic, flint, blades, chisels, axes.
(pp. 351-370, + two colour plates)
LATE PREDYNASTIC FALCONS ON A BOAT (BRUSSELS E.7067)
Stan Hendrickx, Merel Eyckerman and Frank Förster
Abstract: In the Egyptian collection of the Royal Museums for Art and History at Brussels there is a model boat with five birds on top, made of hippopotamus ivory (reg. no. E.7067). Although the object has been heavily restored, the details indicate the high level of the original craftsmanship. The birds on the boat are falcons characterised by the almost horizontal position of their bodies. This is typical for late Naqada II and early Naqada III falcon representations. We would like to suggest that objects with multiple representations of royal animals (such as falcons) are part of the popularisation of the royal iconography which had developed at least during the early Naqada III period. The object was probably a votive offering.
Key words: Boat model, falcon, ivory, royal iconography, votive offering, Naqada II-III.
(pp. 371-384, + one colour plate)
ON THE SOMBOR CITY MUSEUM
COLLECTION OF EGYPTIAN ANTIQUITIES
[pp. 385-391; Serbian; English Summary]
Journal of the Serbian Archaeological Society is an annual peer-reviewed periodical dedicated to the branches of study (Prehistoric, Classical, Medieval and Near Eastern archaeology) covered by the Society. JSAS (ISSN 0352-5678) is published by the Serbian Archaeological Society, Cika Ljubina 18-20, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.
JSAS 24 (2008); 477 pages + 32 colour plates.
Editor, Journal of the Serbian Archaeological Society
Dr. Branislav Andelkovic
Asst. Professor of Near Eastern Archaeology
Faculty of Philosophy, Department of Archaeology
Cika Ljubina 18-20, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
Tel.+381 11 3206 235; Fax.+381 11 2639 356
The Belgrade Mummy: http://www.f.bg.ac.rs/bemum/
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