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Re: [ANE-2] "Gabriel stone" location(??); and Essenes

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  • David Hall
    RE: Gabriel Stone, the Lisan peninsula during Roman times, sedimentary strata, etc.   A 1928 report published by M.G. Kyle (Explorations at Sodom, Revell,
    Message 1 of 4 , Jul 22 12:07 PM
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      RE: Gabriel Stone, the Lisan peninsula during Roman times, sedimentary strata, etc.
       
      A 1928 report published by M.G. Kyle (Explorations at Sodom, Revell, London and N.Y.) after an expedition to Jebel Usdum (Mt. Sodom) trying to verify the story of Sodom and Gomorrah reported a Roman mile marker found alongside a road track on the Lisan Peninsula.  In 1928 the Lisan was underwater.  Currently it is above water except for the canal built to carry water to the potash-salt works south of the Lisan.  He stated he thought the Roman mile marker on the Lisan must have meant a road to a ferry, bridge, or ford providing access to the other side as the Romans did not build roads to nowhere. 
       
      On the east side of the Lisan Peninsula was Bab Edh Drah; an EB city thought by early explorers to be one of the cities of the plain (story of Sodom and Gomorrah).  They had to abandon this theory when pottery studies as early as 1928 indicated the city was derelicted about 2500 B.C. They had presumed the story of Abraham to be dated to c. 1800 B.C.  A more recent report indicated Bab Edh Drah was abandoned about 2400 B.C.  A road from Bab Edh Drah above the eastern edge of the Lisan peninsula leads up to Kerak in the less arid highlands.
       
      As for rock strata, some may be local in aspect, others might extend for hundreds of miles.  The base of Mt. Sodom is a special rock, halite, about 30-45 meters thick and seven miles long.  There is no other place like it in Israel. 

      The tablet is not provenenced, nor was it usual to find such tablets in Jewish tombs. Some wealthy Egyptians published a variety of works in their tombs.  
       
      David Q. Hall
      dqhall59@...
       
       
       
       
       
       

      --- On Tue, 7/22/08, goranson@... <goranson@...> wrote:

      From: goranson@... <goranson@...>
      Subject: [ANE-2] "Gabriel stone" location(??); and Essenes
      To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com
      Date: Tuesday, July 22, 2008, 7:30 AM






      Two notes on a Jerusalem Report/Post article, "The Qumran Quandry" By Ziv
      Hellman
      http://www.jpost com/servlet/ Satellite? apage=1&cid= 1215331033237& pagename= JPost%2FJPArticl e%2FShowFull

      1) Reportedly, David Jesselsohn (the owner) and Israel Knohl speculated that
      the--I add, possibly fake--inscription was found "apparently on the east coast
      of the Dead Sea. Knohl says that based on the geological composition of the
      stone, it was hewn near the narrow peninsula between the two main basins of the
      Dead Sea - and that there was a Jewish community in that vicinity in antiquity.
      He also posits the existence of another tablet containing earlier parts of the
      story, which seems to begin in the middle in the stone Jeselsohn purchased." I
      am not a geologist; is this claim of a Lisan-limited provenance technically
      plausible? Positing a second tablet seems imaginative to say the least. This
      inscription does not appear to resemble known tomb inscriptions. Knohl's
      interpretation may mix two streams of thought.

      2) Reportedly, "[Lawrence] Schiffman points to a major puzzle relating to the
      Essenes - they are not mentioned in any ancient Hebrew text. "The first time
      the word 'Essenes' is written in Hebrew is during the Renaissance, " asserts
      Schiffman. This is particularly anomalous given that Josephus portrayed the
      Essenes as the third major political-religious movement in the late Second
      Temple period, alongside the Pharisees and Sadducees - yet, in contrast to the
      latter two groupings, neither the New Testament nor the entire corpus of
      Talmudic writings ever once speak of the Essenes. Nor does the word appear in
      the Dead Sea Scrolls themselves."
      Though the Modern Hebrew for Essenes is not in the scrolls, the Hebrew
      original for the Greek spellings of Essenes, 'osey hatorah, observers of torah,
      is in the Qumran mss, in texts (the pesharim) recognized on other grounds as
      Essene. That "Essenes" came from Hebrew was recognized, and in effect
      predicted, as early as 1532 by Philip Melanchthon in J. Carion, Chronica
      (Wittenberg, 1532)
      folio 68 verso: "Essei / das ist / Operarii / vom vort Assa / das ist
      wirken." And N. Serarius cited D. Chytraeus [Kochhafe], Onomasticon, as
      deriving Essenes from the Hebrew root 'asah and calling Essenes "factores
      legis" in J. Triglandius, Trium scriptorium illustrium de tribus judaeorum
      sectis syntagma (Delft: A. Berman, 1703) 107.

      Stephen Goranson
      http://www.duke edu/~goranson
    • B.E.Colless
      neither the New Testament nor the entire corpus of Talmudic writings ever once speak of the Essenes. Nor does the word appear in the Dead Sea Scrolls
      Message 2 of 4 , Jul 23 12:58 AM
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        "neither the New Testament nor the entire corpus of
        Talmudic writings ever once speak of the Essenes. Nor does the word appear
        in the Dead Sea Scrolls themselves." Lawrence Schiffman

        Stephen,

        I am very glad you have given us this reminder. "Essei" as "factores legis"
        supplies excellent support to your case: `osey hatorah, observers of torah,
        is in the Qumran mss.

        This very day (Wednesday) I have read Schiffman's account of his own DSS
        journey (in an issue of BAR), and I am disappointed to see him making this
        negative statement.

        To my mind, we should break away from the Greek noun *Essene* (Essênoi) and
        speak of *Esseans* (after Essaioi); cp. Essei.

        The -n- in Essene muddies the waters; Esse-an clears them. It should at
        least be used when the adjective is called for: "Essean (not Essene)
        doctrine.

        Looking for other views, I tried F M Cross (1958), 37, n.1:
        'âssayâ, cp. therapeutai, 'healers' is rejected, because the transcription
        ess- suggests h.as-, and so he favours h.asên, h.assayâ, E Aramaic
        equivalent of Hebrew h.asîdîm, 'pious'; and Pliny twice connects the name
        with hosiotês 'pious'; but I would add to the definition 'observance of
        divine law' (hosia)!!

        By analogy, you don't find the word Christian very often in the New
        Testament (3 x). Interestingly, you also find Paulos (Romans 2:13) using
        the expression 'doers of the law' (poiêtai nomou), and similarly, of course,
        Iacobos (James 1:22-25, 4:11), alongside 'doers of the word'.

        But Schiffman also denies any connection between Esseanism and Christianity,
        especially with Jesus and John the Baptist (even though it is said that
        "John came in the way of righteousness" (Matthew 21:32, Jesus speaking).
        I often turn to Frank Cross's chapter (5:146-180) on the comparisons (if not
        connections) between these two sects. But perhaps he rejected them in the
        second edition.

        But, back to the point, can we have it both ways? H.assay- and `osey
        (hatorah) both went into the naming of the group? But `osey becoming Essai-
        is not as convincing as h.asay becoming Essai-, though you have brought a
        variant Oss- into the discussion; I don't know where it comes from.

        And what is the Renaissance Hebrew word for Essean?

        I had been hoping that the origin of this name would have been settled
        before I pass on.

        Brian Colless
        Research Associate. Massey University, NZ

        ----------
        From: goranson@...
        Reply-To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com
        Date: Tue, 22 Jul 2008 07:30:42 -0400
        To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com
        Subject: [ANE-2] "Gabriel stone" location(??); and Essenes

        Jerusalem Report/Post article, "The Qumran Quandry" By Ziv
        Hellman
        http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?apage=1&cid=1215331033237&pagename=JP
        ost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull

        Reportedly, "[Lawrence] Schiffman points to a major puzzle relating to the
        Essenes - they are not mentioned in any ancient Hebrew text. "The first time
        the word 'Essenes' is written in Hebrew is during the Renaissance," asserts
        Schiffman. This is particularly anomalous given that Josephus portrayed the
        Essenes as the third major political-religious movement in the late Second
        Temple period, alongside the Pharisees and Sadducees - yet, in contrast to
        the latter two groupings, neither the New Testament nor the entire corpus of
        Talmudic writings ever once speak of the Essenes. Nor does the word appear
        in the Dead Sea Scrolls themselves."

        Though the Modern Hebrew for Essenes is not in the scrolls, the Hebrew
        original for the Greek spellings of Essenes, 'osey hatorah, observers of
        torah, is in the Qumran mss, in texts (the pesharim) recognized on other
        grounds as Essene. That "Essenes" came from Hebrew was recognized, and in
        effect predicted, as early as 1532 by Philip Melanchthon in J. Carion,
        Chronica (Wittenberg, 1532) folio 68 verso:
        *"Essei* / das ist / Operarii / vom vort Assa / das ist wirken."

        And N. Serarius cited D. Chytraeus [Kochhafe], Onomasticon, as
        deriving Essenes from the Hebrew root 'asah and calling Essenes "factores
        legis" in J. Triglandius, Trium scriptorium illustrium de tribus judaeorum
        sectis syntagma (Delft: A. Berman, 1703) 107.

        Stephen Goranson
        http://www.duke.edu/~goranson
      • Kevin P. Edgecomb
        B.E.Colless scripsit: I had been hoping that the origin of this name would have been settled before I pass on. I write: May we all live so long! Regards, Kevin
        Message 3 of 4 , Jul 23 10:38 AM
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          B.E.Colless scripsit:
          I had been hoping that the origin of this name would have been settled
          before I pass on.

          I write:
          May we all live so long!

          Regards,
          Kevin P. Edgecomb
          Berkeley, California
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