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Shasu of Yahweh

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  • Doug Weller
    I ve just found this statement: Shasu of Yahweh is a term that appears in Egyptian inscriptions of the 18th and 19th Dynasties (c. 1540-1190 B.C.). One, found
    Message 1 of 3 , Jul 1, 2008
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      I've just found this statement:

      Shasu of Yahweh is a term that appears in Egyptian inscriptions of
      the 18th and 19th Dynasties (c. 1540-1190 B.C.). One, found at Amarah
      or Amrah in Upper Nubia, dates to the reign of Seti I (c. 1300 B.C.).
      An earlier inscription, probably from the reign of Amenhotep III (c.
      1400 B.C.) was found at the Temple of Amun in Soleb, Sudan. Early
      identifications of this name were cautious, as Siegfried H. Horn
      stated, "Whether one of the Edomite tribal names bearing the name
      Yahweh (t3 š3sw yhw) implies that Edomites were followers of the god
      Yahweh or whether the name of the tribe has only a curious coincidence
      with the name of the Israelite god is still undecided." [5] With time,
      however, it has generally become recognized for what it is. Redford
      states that "For half a century it has been generally admitted that we
      have here the tetragrammaton, the name of the Israelite god, 'Yahweh';
      and if this be the case, as it undoubtedly is, the passage constitutes
      a most precious indication of the whereabouts during the late
      fifteenth century B.C. of an enclave revering this god." [6] Redford
      even goes so far as to call this group "nascent Israel." [7]

      Redford, Donald B. (1992). Egypt, Canaan and Israel In Ancient Times
      # ^ Redford (1992), p. 272-3
      # ^ Redford (1992), p. 279

      This is generally recognised as the tetragrammaton now?

      Thanks
      Doug


      --
      Doug Weller Moderator, sci.archaeology.moderated
      Director and Moderator The Hall of Ma'at http://www.hallofmaat.com
      Doug's Skeptical Archaeology Site: http://www.ramtops.co.uk
    • David Hall
      The Temple of Amon at Soleb inscription from the reign of Amenophis III of the 18th dynasty described, Yahwe en terre de Shosou. In a short list with Beth
      Message 2 of 3 , Jul 1, 2008
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        The Temple of Amon at�Soleb inscription from the reign of Amenophis III of the 18th dynasty described, "Yahwe en terre de Shosou." In a short list with�Beth A[nath?].

        Beth Anath was in Soshenq's conquest list; probably in/near the Negev or N. Sinai.�

        Another inscription described a campaign of Merneptah (yr 8)�into Seir to destroy people among the tribes of Shosu, Ramesses III, Harris Papyri.� The Shosu were�nomadic peoples not specific to Seir (Edom) alone, but were also found in�other areas with different tribal territories and affiliations.�

        Seti I fought Shosu people on his route to Kadesh before the Kadesh campaign of his son Ramesses II.

        The Egyptians frequent campaigns into the north may be one of the reasons for the sparse population density there during the LBA.

        See Raphael Giveon's, Bedouins Shosu des Documents Egyptiens, 1971.
        See also Shmuel Ahituv's, Canaanite Toponyms in Ancient Egyptian Documents, 1984

        Another Egyptian Yahwe inscription exists, but I cannot currently locate it, the location of the land of Yahwe could not be determined from the reading of the incription.�

        One person theorized Yahweh was a son of El�after reading�an Ugaritic tablet, but I am not qualified to confirm nor deny the reading of the tablet.�

        David Q. Hall
        dqhall59@...



        --- On Tue, 7/1/08, Doug Weller <dweller@...> wrote:

        From: Doug Weller <dweller@...>
        Subject: [ANE-2] Shasu of Yahweh
        To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com
        Date: Tuesday, July 1, 2008, 4:43 PM

        I've just found this statement:

        Shasu of Yahweh is a term that appears in Egyptian inscriptions of
        the 18th and 19th Dynasties (c. 1540-1190 B.C.). One, found at Amarah
        or Amrah in Upper Nubia, dates to the reign of Seti I (c. 1300 B.C.).
        An earlier inscription, probably from the reign of Amenhotep III (c.
        1400 B.C.) was found at the Temple of Amun in Soleb, Sudan. Early
        identifications of this name were cautious, as Siegfried H. Horn
        stated, "Whether one of the Edomite tribal names bearing the name
        Yahweh (t3 �3sw yhw) implies that Edomites were followers of the god
        Yahweh or whether the name of the tribe has only a curious coincidence
        with the name of the Israelite god is still undecided." [5] With time,
        however, it has generally become recognized for what it is. Redford
        states that "For half a century it has been generally admitted that we
        have here the tetragrammaton, the name of the Israelite god, 'Yahweh';
        and if this be the case, as it undoubtedly is, the passage constitutes
        a most precious indication of the whereabouts during the late
        fifteenth century B.C. of an enclave revering this god." [6] Redford
        even goes so far as to call this group "nascent Israel." [7]

        Redford, Donald B. (1992). Egypt, Canaan and Israel In Ancient Times
        # ^ Redford (1992), p. 272-3
        # ^ Redford (1992), p. 279

        This is generally recognised as the tetragrammaton now?

        Thanks
        Doug


        --
        Doug Weller Moderator, sci.archaeology.moderated
        Director and Moderator The Hall of Ma'at http://www.hallofmaat.com
        Doug's Skeptical Archaeology Site: http://www.ramtops.co.uk


        ------------------------------------

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        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • Jack Kilmon
        ... From: Doug Weller To: Sent: Tuesday, July 01, 2008 3:43 PM Subject: [ANE-2] Shasu of Yahweh ... I believe
        Message 3 of 3 , Jul 1, 2008
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          ----- Original Message -----
          From: "Doug Weller" <dweller@...>
          To: <ANE-2@yahoogroups.com>
          Sent: Tuesday, July 01, 2008 3:43 PM
          Subject: [ANE-2] Shasu of Yahweh


          > I've just found this statement:
          >
          > Shasu of Yahweh is a term that appears in Egyptian inscriptions of
          > the 18th and 19th Dynasties (c. 1540-1190 B.C.). One, found at Amarah
          > or Amrah in Upper Nubia, dates to the reign of Seti I (c. 1300 B.C.).
          > An earlier inscription, probably from the reign of Amenhotep III (c.
          > 1400 B.C.) was found at the Temple of Amun in Soleb, Sudan. Early
          > identifications of this name were cautious, as Siegfried H. Horn
          > stated, "Whether one of the Edomite tribal names bearing the name
          > Yahweh (t3 š3sw yhw) implies that Edomites were followers of the god
          > Yahweh or whether the name of the tribe has only a curious coincidence
          > with the name of the Israelite god is still undecided." [5] With time,
          > however, it has generally become recognized for what it is. Redford
          > states that "For half a century it has been generally admitted that we
          > have here the tetragrammaton, the name of the Israelite god, 'Yahweh';
          > and if this be the case, as it undoubtedly is, the passage constitutes
          > a most precious indication of the whereabouts during the late
          > fifteenth century B.C. of an enclave revering this god." [6] Redford
          > even goes so far as to call this group "nascent Israel." [7]
          >
          > Redford, Donald B. (1992). Egypt, Canaan and Israel In Ancient Times
          > # ^ Redford (1992), p. 272-3
          > # ^ Redford (1992), p. 279
          >
          > This is generally recognised as the tetragrammaton now?
          >
          > Thanks
          > Doug


          I believe Yahweh is the earliest usage going back to 1400 BCE Syria
          (probably Ugaritic origins) and Egyptian accounts (Amenhotep II, Raamses) of
          the Shasu who may have been nomadic "pre-Israelites." The next extant use
          in epigraphy that comes to mind is line 18 of the Mesha stele
          . Yah and Yahu are, IMO, terminal theophorics of names that
          are contractions of Yahweh, hence Yahweh is the oldest. The earliest use of
          the terminal theophoric that comes to my mind as I type is the Pithos A from
          Samaria of "Egeliah" which means "Bull calf of YAH/YHWH."
          . There appears to have been some form of
          orthographic rule for the use of theophorics in NW Semitic names where the
          leading theophoric is "Yeho" as in Yehoichim, Yehosaphat, Yehoshua, etc and
          the terminal theophoric as YAH or YAHU as in Yeshayahu (Isaiah), Yirimyahu
          (Jeremiah), etc. In the very earliest use of theophorics they may have been
          attached to royal names. Perhaps a leading or terminal theophoric was
          exclusive to class...that's just a conjecture. This is an area (the use of
          theophorics in Semitic naming practices) that I have been meaning to
          research and document but I am sure its been done before and perhaps there
          is a literature base on it which some here may have on the use
          of YHWH and its contractions.
          The inscription on one of the Ugaritic tablets (The Epic of Ba'al) is (El
          talking to his adopted son YAW, the god of the primordial chaos) "Your name
          is beloved of EL, YAM"..he changes the name from YAW to YAM. YAHU, YAM and
          YAW are all mentioned in Eblaite 2250 BCE. I am of the opinion that the
          trajectory was from the Negev desert to Canaan where YAH was used. This
          includes the region of the Midianites which is preserved in the Moses story.
          There are many Old Negev inscriptions found at Har Karkom=Mt. Gerizim (Mt.
          Sinai?) and Nahal Avidat dating from the late bronze age. Some refer to EL
          and others to YAH, YAHU and YAHH and IMO one inscription comes from a time
          (around 1600 BCE) when EL and YAH were being merged. It is written in Old
          Negev and in Hebrew it is l)( lh )l yh (dt "For him in the time of evil, El
          Yah. OK...stay with me on this because I am thinking on my
          feet..er..butt..while typing. If we think of a hypocoristicon from a title
          easily seen in the Ugaritic inscription "El causes YAM to come into being"
          and we focus on the proto-Canaanite in the Negev as "El causes YAH to come
          into being" then we would have a YAH HAWAH which, over the centuries, would
          shift to a Qal YHAWAH and later, in folk etymology to the Hip'hil. The Old
          Negev HAWAH (heh-waw-heh) "To be" is also found in Aramaic but is HYH in
          Hebrew. YHWH, therefore, comes from a very archaic proto-Canaanite and
          where the inscription of YAHH may be shortened from YHHAWAH, eventually lost
          a heh.

          I think I even lost myself on this one.

          Jack


          Jack Kilmon
          San Antonio, TX
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