Re: Dead Sea Scrolls
- Robert Feather offers an interesting statement, which in my view sheds
considerable light on the current crisis in Qumran (and Dead Sea
Scrolls) studies. Therefore, it is worth reflecting on some of what
Robert says. To encourage such reflection I will here reprint the key
paragraphs of his statement, following each paragraph with my own
> In general terms the [Magen & Peleg] thesis is that Qumran was not areligious
> centre, but mainly a front line military outpost and later became aSome readers may wonder exactly how we are to understand Robert's
> pottery making site. This contention sets itself against the
> heartland of Qumran scholars and archaeologists who maintain the
> essence of de Vaux's original conclusion that Qumran was a religious
> establishment, occupied by a group of so-called Essenes.
formulation of a "heartland" of scholars who agree with the "essence" of
De Vaux's conclusion. The tricky word "essence" seems to imply that a
little piece has been saved of De Vaux's conclusion, an essential grain
of it. But what, in fact, is that retained "essence"? That Qumran was
inhabited by Sadducees, as per Schiffman? That Essenes lived "around"
the site, as per Humbert? Robert speaks of the "so-called" Essenes.
Well, were they Essenes or not Essenes? What exactly does Robert mean by
that? And we can take this a bit farther. Does the "essence" of De
Vaux's theory hold that some, or many, or most of the scrolls were
written by these "so-called Essenes" at Qumran, as per one scholar or
another? Which of these alternatives constitutes that "essence"? The
fact is that De Vaux's theory has been going through many permutations
-- ultimately culminating in a fundamental paradigm shift. But instead
of acknowledging this, Robert invokes the interesting concept of a
"heartland" of scholars. Others, however, might conclude that the only
archaeologist who really seems to maintain the purity of De Vaux's
theory is Jodi Magness (see here
-conflict> for a recent article that mentions her ASOR and SBL
lectures). > Although Magen and Peleg do not specifically list those
> the basic de Vaux conclusions, the implication is that they, like deHere again, what does Robert mean by the "basic" De Vaux conclusions? Do
> Vaux, have all got it fundamentally wrong. By continually referring
> to de Vaux's religious centre conclusion as 'old' and the 'original
> theory', implying it is out-of date, they ignore the fact that the
> vast majority of current scholars hold to this conclusion. One could
> include people like Broshi, the Eshels, Cross, Zias, Magness,
> Roitman, Martinez, Schiffman, Davies, Freund, Metso, Vermes etc etc,
> and me.
those conclusions include the idea that the scrolls were written at
Qumran, or does it still qualify as a "basic De Vaux conclusion" to
argue that some sect, possibly not Essenes, lived at Qumran and may have
brought most of the scrolls "from elsewhere"?
Robert gives a list of scholars who, according to him, agree with De
Vaux. Well, let's take some of the names on this list. Does Davies, for
example, really agree with De Vaux? I recall that in Neusner's
Encyclopedia of Judaism, Davies stated that Golb's research had led to
fundamental change in the nature of the basic questions asked about
Qumran and the Scrolls. And how about Schiffman, who says the Scrolls
we're written by Sadducees -- does this fit under De Vaux's "basic"
conclusions? Have Rabbi Roitman, the director of the Shrine of the Book
who Robert includes in this list, as well as Mezzo and Freund critically
reexamined the old theory in the light of the research developments of
the past decade, or do they just presuppose the truth of that theory?
Most interestingly of all, Robert puts himself on this list. This leads
me to wonder if Robert's claims concerning the Copper Scroll
<http://www.psitalk.com/robertfeather.html> , and "the undeniable link
between the Dead Sea community responsible for the scrolls and the
religion of dynastic Egypt," fit under De Vaux's "basic theory"?
Note that Robert also says that Magen and Peleg "imply" the old theory
is out of date. Others might conclude that Magen and Peleg don't
sneakily "imply" this, but rather demonstrate it at length by virtue of
> Not content with attacking the main stream of scholarship, they alsoHere again, others might conclude that De Vaux's theory was the "main
> contend that a number of minority alternative theorists are quite
> wrong, notably Hirshfeld, Humbert, the Donceels, Crown and Cansdale --
> all proposing quite different conflicting theories.
stream" of scholarship many years ago, but that the piling up of
contradictory evidence exploited by various other scholars not mentioned
by Feather is such that that theory can in fact no longer be called the
"main stream." To be sure, it's a major stream, but no more than that.
Magen and Peleg do indeed argue that the scholars Robert calls "minority
alternative theorists" are wrong on certain points, but not on the
principal contention which they all share (apart from Humbert, oddly
included in Robert's list), that Qumran was not the site of an Essenic
sect. Incidentally, why does Robert put Humbert in this category of
"minority alternative theorists"? Humbert believes Essenes lived
"around" Qumran. Shouldn't that fall under De Vaux's "basic"
conclusion? Robert says that the "minority theorists" he lists "all
propose quite different, conflicting theories" -- but the theories
proposed by (for example) Martinez, Schiffman and Davies are all
conflicting with one another on fundamental points. Why is there
something important about differences among these "minority theorists,"
when there are so many deeper differences among those who share the
"essence" of De Vaux's theory? At any rate, there's certainly nothing
"disconcerting" about disagreements among scholars on various specific
points, it's just the normal nature of scholarship. Yet Robert
> Just as disconcerting is the lack of strict scientific detail inFirst, Robert here appears to be misrepresenting what Magen and Peleg
> their reporting. One wonders if something gets lost in translation,
> but some of the anomalous statements and inconsistencies cannot be
> explained by this mechanism. For instance on page 24 we are told:
> 'Its location both during the Iron Age and Hasmonean period was
> chosen with great care: this was an optimal (and perhaps the only)
> spot on the upper marl terrace along the northwestern shore of the
> Dead Sea whose topographical situation afforded natural protection,
> and where rainwater flowing from the fault scarp could be
> conveniently collected with no danger of flooding. These two
> advantages were the sole reason for the choice of location.'
> Later we are told the Hasmoneans established a chain of fortresses,
> of which Qumran was one, but because the Essenes were hostile to the
> Hasmoneans, the earlier occupants must have been Hasmonean soldiers
> and the Essenes came later (although confusingly, on page 32, we are
> told these previous soldiers once out of a job turned to pottery
> making). Then again, because Qumran was not capable of withstanding
> the assault of an attacking army, its description is later changed
> by the authors to 'a forward observation and supervision point'.
say: they never say that "the Essenes came later." Rather, Robert seems
to be confusing something he himself believes, with what Magen and Peleg
do say (namely, that Qumran was used as a pottery factory during a time
when it was not, or not principally, used as a fortress). Second,
there is no conflict in the propositions contained in these paragraphs
that Robert quotes. That Qumran was a "forward observation and
supervision point," benefiting from the "natural protection" of the
escarpment, but incapable of sustaining a full-scale military assault
(as demonstrated by the Roman mining of the massive watchtower)
certainly doesn't mean it wasn't a fortress. Indeed, it makes good
sense that one of the weaker Hasmonaean fortresses was put to an
alternative use during a period when its military capacity did not
respond to an actual need.
> Strangely enough the authors do not quote Golb as a supporter ofSome readers might be puzzled by this assertion that Golb "quotes" Magen
> their military fortress theories, which is rather surprising as he
> quotes them extensively to support his extreme minority theory.
and Peleg "extensively," and what's this about an "extreme minority
theory"? Last I recall, it certainly wasn't usual in scholarship for the
proponents of different views to claim "minority" or "majority" status.
Have I been missing something? Surely what matters is the evidence,
which Robert hardly cites in his statement.
> The numerous collection pools, 10 of which Reich identifies asRobert's argument based on Rabbinic-law shows a lack of sensitivity
> Miqvaout, Magen and Peleg reduce to only two. They argue most were
> for use in pottery manufacture and the others don't qualify because
> of halachic reasoning based on Rabbinic interpretations. This is
> really an invalid argument as we just do not know if Rabbinic law
> pertained some 200 years before it was developed.
towards the nature of many of the Qumran texts themselves, which show
legal rules very close to those later developed in the Mishna and
Tosseftah (see, e.g., MMT and the Damascus Covenant).
> When it comes to the cemetery we are shown sealed storage jars foundFirst, is Robert implying that Magen and Peleg are lawbreakers, when
> in two of the graves, but no detail of where exactly they were
> located. One wonders if the other graves that were excavated yielded
> skeletal material, but are not described, because the authors are
> aware excavating graves is against the law. Claiming that the form
> of burial at Qumran was quite common, they fail to give adequate
> examples, or explain why the bodies were all buried naked, with
> heads carefully turned to the south, and there is no evidence
> whatsoever of any military equipment.
they were engaged in an official project of the IAA?
Second, how on earth does Robert know that "the bodies were all buried
naked," and how can he say there is "no evidence whatsover of any
military equipment"? As is well known, only a small percentage of the
graves were excavated to begin with, so these claims are simply
unverifiable -- how does Robert know that none of the unopened graves
contain clothed bodies and military equipment? Furthermore, how does
Robert account for the broken bones in some of the skeletons that were
excavated? To the extent Robert is suggesting that no fight took place
at Qumran, he seems to be implying that De Vaux's description of the
Roman attack on the site requires paradigm change. But this surely
cannot be possible, since Robert is one of those scholars who share De
Vaux's "basic conclusions."
> The authors' final conclusion, that Qumran was the site of a largeWhat do any of the "odd items" cited by Robert have to do with the
> pottery manufacturing industry and not a religious centre,is far
> from convincing. When I met Magen and Peleg, at Qumran, they told me
> that they had discovered a small oil/perfume manufacturing facility
> nearby, connected to one of the larger cisterns on the main building
> site. They showed me some very unusual clay vessels, which one would
> be hard pressed to explain as being usable in pottery manufacture.
> So far I have not seen illustrations of these odd items.
identification of Qumran? Some readers might find these to be petty
> Unfortunately the weighting of archaeology seems to be far too greatMagen and Peleg of seeking controversy, and (2) suggests that they give
> in the authors' consideration of the Qumran role question. Having
> spent 10 years digging at Qumran, it looks like they did not want to
> end up producing a conclusion that was anything other than
> controversial. There is little mileage in supporting other people's
> ideas -- even if they are the correct ones! Robert here (1) accuses
too much weight to archaeology, while neglecting the "evidence of the
Scrolls." But where is Robert's recognition of the Copper Scroll and of
the generally accepted view of it? For someone who speaks of majority
and minority, why doesn't he acknowledge that the "majority" of scholars
view this document as being from Jerusalem and as having nothing to do
with any Egyptian religion, contrary to Robert's own claims? I have
offered these comments with full respect for Robert's own path-breaking
work on the Dead Sea Scrolls and, above all, on the Spear of Destiny.
Let us only hope that he and other defenders of De Vaux's "basic
conclusions" will extend the same respect to Drs. Magen and Peleg, who
have had the courage to persevere in their research despite the
opposition of the "heartland" of Scrolls scholars.
Paul Kessler (New
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