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Re: Dead Sea Scrolls

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  • kessler_paul
    Robert Feather offers an interesting statement, which in my view sheds considerable light on the current crisis in Qumran (and Dead Sea Scrolls) studies.
    Message 1 of 3 , Dec 28, 2007
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      Robert Feather offers an interesting statement, which in my view sheds
      considerable light on the current crisis in Qumran (and Dead Sea
      Scrolls) studies. Therefore, it is worth reflecting on some of what
      Robert says. To encourage such reflection I will here reprint the key
      paragraphs of his statement, following each paragraph with my own

      > In general terms the [Magen & Peleg] thesis is that Qumran was not a
      > centre, but mainly a front line military outpost and later became a
      > pottery making site. This contention sets itself against the
      > heartland of Qumran scholars and archaeologists who maintain the
      > essence of de Vaux's original conclusion that Qumran was a religious
      > establishment, occupied by a group of so-called Essenes.
      Some readers may wonder exactly how we are to understand Robert's
      formulation of a "heartland" of scholars who agree with the "essence" of
      De Vaux's conclusion. The tricky word "essence" seems to imply that a
      little piece has been saved of De Vaux's conclusion, an essential grain
      of it. But what, in fact, is that retained "essence"? That Qumran was
      inhabited by Sadducees, as per Schiffman? That Essenes lived "around"
      the site, as per Humbert? Robert speaks of the "so-called" Essenes.
      Well, were they Essenes or not Essenes? What exactly does Robert mean by
      that? And we can take this a bit farther. Does the "essence" of De
      Vaux's theory hold that some, or many, or most of the scrolls were
      written by these "so-called Essenes" at Qumran, as per one scholar or
      another? Which of these alternatives constitutes that "essence"? The
      fact is that De Vaux's theory has been going through many permutations
      -- ultimately culminating in a fundamental paradigm shift. But instead
      of acknowledging this, Robert invokes the interesting concept of a
      "heartland" of scholars. Others, however, might conclude that the only
      archaeologist who really seems to maintain the purity of De Vaux's
      theory is Jodi Magness (see here
      -conflict> for a recent article that mentions her ASOR and SBL
      lectures). > Although Magen and Peleg do not specifically list those
      who support
      > the basic de Vaux conclusions, the implication is that they, like de
      > Vaux, have all got it fundamentally wrong. By continually referring
      > to de Vaux's religious centre conclusion as 'old' and the 'original
      > theory', implying it is out-of date, they ignore the fact that the
      > vast majority of current scholars hold to this conclusion. One could
      > include people like Broshi, the Eshels, Cross, Zias, Magness,
      > Roitman, Martinez, Schiffman, Davies, Freund, Metso, Vermes etc etc,
      > and me.
      Here again, what does Robert mean by the "basic" De Vaux conclusions? Do
      those conclusions include the idea that the scrolls were written at
      Qumran, or does it still qualify as a "basic De Vaux conclusion" to
      argue that some sect, possibly not Essenes, lived at Qumran and may have
      brought most of the scrolls "from elsewhere"?

      Robert gives a list of scholars who, according to him, agree with De
      Vaux. Well, let's take some of the names on this list. Does Davies, for
      example, really agree with De Vaux? I recall that in Neusner's
      Encyclopedia of Judaism, Davies stated that Golb's research had led to
      fundamental change in the nature of the basic questions asked about
      Qumran and the Scrolls. And how about Schiffman, who says the Scrolls
      we're written by Sadducees -- does this fit under De Vaux's "basic"
      conclusions? Have Rabbi Roitman, the director of the Shrine of the Book
      who Robert includes in this list, as well as Mezzo and Freund critically
      reexamined the old theory in the light of the research developments of
      the past decade, or do they just presuppose the truth of that theory?
      Most interestingly of all, Robert puts himself on this list. This leads
      me to wonder if Robert's claims concerning the Copper Scroll
      <http://www.psitalk.com/robertfeather.html> , and "the undeniable link
      between the Dead Sea community responsible for the scrolls and the
      religion of dynastic Egypt," fit under De Vaux's "basic theory"?

      Note that Robert also says that Magen and Peleg "imply" the old theory
      is out of date. Others might conclude that Magen and Peleg don't
      sneakily "imply" this, but rather demonstrate it at length by virtue of
      new discoveries.

      > Not content with attacking the main stream of scholarship, they also
      > contend that a number of minority alternative theorists are quite
      > wrong, notably Hirshfeld, Humbert, the Donceels, Crown and Cansdale --
      > all proposing quite different conflicting theories.

      Here again, others might conclude that De Vaux's theory was the "main
      stream" of scholarship many years ago, but that the piling up of
      contradictory evidence exploited by various other scholars not mentioned
      by Feather is such that that theory can in fact no longer be called the
      "main stream." To be sure, it's a major stream, but no more than that.
      Magen and Peleg do indeed argue that the scholars Robert calls "minority
      alternative theorists" are wrong on certain points, but not on the
      principal contention which they all share (apart from Humbert, oddly
      included in Robert's list), that Qumran was not the site of an Essenic
      sect. Incidentally, why does Robert put Humbert in this category of
      "minority alternative theorists"? Humbert believes Essenes lived
      "around" Qumran. Shouldn't that fall under De Vaux's "basic"
      conclusion? Robert says that the "minority theorists" he lists "all
      propose quite different, conflicting theories" -- but the theories
      proposed by (for example) Martinez, Schiffman and Davies are all
      conflicting with one another on fundamental points. Why is there
      something important about differences among these "minority theorists,"
      when there are so many deeper differences among those who share the
      "essence" of De Vaux's theory? At any rate, there's certainly nothing
      "disconcerting" about disagreements among scholars on various specific
      points, it's just the normal nature of scholarship. Yet Robert
      > Just as disconcerting is the lack of strict scientific detail in
      > their reporting. One wonders if something gets lost in translation,
      > but some of the anomalous statements and inconsistencies cannot be
      > explained by this mechanism. For instance on page 24 we are told:
      > 'Its location both during the Iron Age and Hasmonean period was
      > chosen with great care: this was an optimal (and perhaps the only)
      > spot on the upper marl terrace along the northwestern shore of the
      > Dead Sea whose topographical situation afforded natural protection,
      > and where rainwater flowing from the fault scarp could be
      > conveniently collected with no danger of flooding. These two
      > advantages were the sole reason for the choice of location.'
      > Later we are told the Hasmoneans established a chain of fortresses,
      > of which Qumran was one, but because the Essenes were hostile to the
      > Hasmoneans, the earlier occupants must have been Hasmonean soldiers
      > and the Essenes came later (although confusingly, on page 32, we are
      > told these previous soldiers once out of a job turned to pottery
      > making). Then again, because Qumran was not capable of withstanding
      > the assault of an attacking army, its description is later changed
      > by the authors to 'a forward observation and supervision point'.
      First, Robert here appears to be misrepresenting what Magen and Peleg
      say: they never say that "the Essenes came later." Rather, Robert seems
      to be confusing something he himself believes, with what Magen and Peleg
      do say (namely, that Qumran was used as a pottery factory during a time
      when it was not, or not principally, used as a fortress). Second,
      there is no conflict in the propositions contained in these paragraphs
      that Robert quotes. That Qumran was a "forward observation and
      supervision point," benefiting from the "natural protection" of the
      escarpment, but incapable of sustaining a full-scale military assault
      (as demonstrated by the Roman mining of the massive watchtower)
      certainly doesn't mean it wasn't a fortress. Indeed, it makes good
      sense that one of the weaker Hasmonaean fortresses was put to an
      alternative use during a period when its military capacity did not
      respond to an actual need.

      > Strangely enough the authors do not quote Golb as a supporter of
      > their military fortress theories, which is rather surprising as he
      > quotes them extensively to support his extreme minority theory.
      Some readers might be puzzled by this assertion that Golb "quotes" Magen
      and Peleg "extensively," and what's this about an "extreme minority
      theory"? Last I recall, it certainly wasn't usual in scholarship for the
      proponents of different views to claim "minority" or "majority" status.
      Have I been missing something? Surely what matters is the evidence,
      which Robert hardly cites in his statement.
      > The numerous collection pools, 10 of which Reich identifies as
      > Miqvaout, Magen and Peleg reduce to only two. They argue most were
      > for use in pottery manufacture and the others don't qualify because
      > of halachic reasoning based on Rabbinic interpretations. This is
      > really an invalid argument as we just do not know if Rabbinic law
      > pertained some 200 years before it was developed.
      Robert's argument based on Rabbinic-law shows a lack of sensitivity
      towards the nature of many of the Qumran texts themselves, which show
      legal rules very close to those later developed in the Mishna and
      Tosseftah (see, e.g., MMT and the Damascus Covenant).
      > When it comes to the cemetery we are shown sealed storage jars found
      > in two of the graves, but no detail of where exactly they were
      > located. One wonders if the other graves that were excavated yielded
      > skeletal material, but are not described, because the authors are
      > aware excavating graves is against the law. Claiming that the form
      > of burial at Qumran was quite common, they fail to give adequate
      > examples, or explain why the bodies were all buried naked, with
      > heads carefully turned to the south, and there is no evidence
      > whatsoever of any military equipment.
      First, is Robert implying that Magen and Peleg are lawbreakers, when
      they were engaged in an official project of the IAA?
      Second, how on earth does Robert know that "the bodies were all buried
      naked," and how can he say there is "no evidence whatsover of any
      military equipment"? As is well known, only a small percentage of the
      graves were excavated to begin with, so these claims are simply
      unverifiable -- how does Robert know that none of the unopened graves
      contain clothed bodies and military equipment? Furthermore, how does
      Robert account for the broken bones in some of the skeletons that were
      excavated? To the extent Robert is suggesting that no fight took place
      at Qumran, he seems to be implying that De Vaux's description of the
      Roman attack on the site requires paradigm change. But this surely
      cannot be possible, since Robert is one of those scholars who share De
      Vaux's "basic conclusions."

      > The authors' final conclusion, that Qumran was the site of a large
      > pottery manufacturing industry and not a religious centre,is far
      > from convincing. When I met Magen and Peleg, at Qumran, they told me
      > that they had discovered a small oil/perfume manufacturing facility
      > nearby, connected to one of the larger cisterns on the main building
      > site. They showed me some very unusual clay vessels, which one would
      > be hard pressed to explain as being usable in pottery manufacture.
      > So far I have not seen illustrations of these odd items.
      What do any of the "odd items" cited by Robert have to do with the
      identification of Qumran? Some readers might find these to be petty
      > Unfortunately the weighting of archaeology seems to be far too great
      > in the authors' consideration of the Qumran role question. Having
      > spent 10 years digging at Qumran, it looks like they did not want to
      > end up producing a conclusion that was anything other than
      > controversial. There is little mileage in supporting other people's
      > ideas -- even if they are the correct ones! Robert here (1) accuses
      Magen and Peleg of seeking controversy, and (2) suggests that they give
      too much weight to archaeology, while neglecting the "evidence of the
      Scrolls." But where is Robert's recognition of the Copper Scroll and of
      the generally accepted view of it? For someone who speaks of majority
      and minority, why doesn't he acknowledge that the "majority" of scholars
      view this document as being from Jerusalem and as having nothing to do
      with any Egyptian religion, contrary to Robert's own claims? I have
      offered these comments with full respect for Robert's own path-breaking
      work on the Dead Sea Scrolls and, above all, on the Spear of Destiny.
      Let us only hope that he and other defenders of De Vaux's "basic
      conclusions" will extend the same respect to Drs. Magen and Peleg, who
      have had the courage to persevere in their research despite the
      opposition of the "heartland" of Scrolls scholars.

      Paul Kessler (New
      York, NY)

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