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Ahiram Sarcophagus

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  • David Hall
    After the recent thread about the Jezebel Seal I wanted to learn more about the tomb of Ahiram and the Ithobaal inscription and found some more information:
    Message 1 of 8 , Oct 29, 2007
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      After the recent thread about the Jezebel Seal I wanted to learn more about the tomb of Ahiram and the Ithobaal inscription and found some more information:

      Pierre Montet excavated Byblos/Gebail. In 1929 he published a photo atlas, Byblos et L'Egypte, Quatre Capaignes de Fouilles A Gebeil, 1921-1922-1923-1924, Paris. While excavating some shaft tombs located in the side of a collapsed hill, he found one that was unique. It was the tomb of Ahiram. He had his workers dig shafts, using ladders, a windlass, and narrow gauge rail to clear the debris. He discovered the stone sarcophagus of Ahiram that is currently on display in a museum in Beirut. On a side of the rectangular box there was a scene of the king or a god on a winged cherub throne. Facing the throne were supplicants with hands raised, palms turned toward the throne worshiping or showing adoration. The attire was Canaanite. There was a Phoenician inscription warning grave robbers of a curse upon them if they were to disturb the coffin and credit to (It)tobaal for making the sarcophagus.
      There were LBA and EIA sherds found in the shaft including a cartouche of Ramesses II. Some dated the tomb to the 13th century BCE on the basis of cartouche. Others have used the epigraphy of the inscriptions on the limestone sarcophagus to date it to the 11th or 10th century BCE. There were two other coffins found in the Ahiram tomb V that were not inscribed. Since the tomb was excavated through thick sequences of strata there was likelihood some of the sherds in the bottom of the shaft were from levels above. It was also stated that the Ramesses II cartouche might be from an antique object of high esteem placed in the tomb as an offering. The dates of the other two boxes found in the tomb are not known.

      See also:

      Byblos Through the Ages, Nina Jidejian, Beirut, 1986
      Byways of Byblos, Bruce Conde, Beirut, 1962

      Images of the sarcophagus via Yahoo:

      http://images.search.yahoo.com/search/images?_adv_prop=image&fr=yfp-t-501&va=ahiram+sarcophagus&sz=all

      David Q. Hall
      dqhall59@...




      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • David Hall
      The cartouche of Ramesses II found in Tomb V, tomb of Ahiram, might have been inscribed on a fragment of white stone. It was difficult to determine the
      Message 2 of 8 , Oct 30, 2007
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        The cartouche of Ramesses II found in Tomb V, tomb of Ahiram, might have been inscribed on a fragment of white stone. It was difficult to determine the substance of the material from the B&W photo. Did not want to state that it was a potsherd.

        David Q. Hall
        dqhall59@...


        David Hall <dqhall59@...> wrote:
        After the recent thread about the Jezebel Seal I wanted to learn more about the tomb of Ahiram and the Ithobaal inscription and found some more information:

        Pierre Montet excavated Byblos/Gebail. In 1929 he published a photo atlas, Byblos et L'Egypte, Quatre Capaignes de Fouilles A Gebeil, 1921-1922-1923-1924, Paris. While excavating some shaft tombs located in the side of a collapsed hill, he found one that was unique. It was the tomb of Ahiram. He had his workers dig shafts, using ladders, a windlass, and narrow gauge rail to clear the debris. He discovered the stone sarcophagus of Ahiram that is currently on display in a museum in Beirut. On a side of the rectangular box there was a scene of the king or a god on a winged cherub throne. Facing the throne were supplicants with hands raised, palms turned toward the throne worshiping or showing adoration. The attire was Canaanite. There was a Phoenician inscription warning grave robbers of a curse upon them if they were to disturb the coffin and credit to (It)tobaal for making the sarcophagus.
        There were LBA and EIA sherds found in the shaft including a cartouche of Ramesses II. Some dated the tomb to the 13th century BCE on the basis of cartouche. Others have used the epigraphy of the inscriptions on the limestone sarcophagus to date it to the 11th or 10th century BCE. There were two other coffins found in the Ahiram tomb V that were not inscribed. Since the tomb was excavated through thick sequences of strata there was likelihood some of the sherds in the bottom of the shaft were from levels above. It was also stated that the Ramesses II cartouche might be from an antique object of high esteem placed in the tomb as an offering. The dates of the other two boxes found in the tomb are not known.

        See also:

        Byblos Through the Ages, Nina Jidejian, Beirut, 1986
        Byways of Byblos, Bruce Conde, Beirut, 1962

        Images of the sarcophagus via Yahoo:

        http://images.search.yahoo.com/search/images?_adv_prop=image&fr=yfp-t-501&va=ahiram+sarcophagus&sz=all

        David Q. Hall
        dqhall59@...



        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]






        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • Trudy Kawami
        Alas the photos provided via Yahoo! are mostly of small copies of the sarcophagus or portions of the reliefs. Far clearer line drawings are readily available
        Message 3 of 8 , Oct 30, 2007
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          Alas the photos provided via Yahoo! are mostly of small copies of the
          sarcophagus or portions of the reliefs. Far clearer line drawings are
          readily available in the paperback editions of H. Frankfort's ART &
          ARCHITECTURE OF THE ANCIENT ORIENT, pp. 271-271. One should keep in mind
          that since the inscription is on the side of the lid and is not an
          integral part of the imagery, there is no reason to assume that the
          reliefs of the box, the lid & the inscription were all done at the same
          time. "Recycling" has a long tradition in western Asia.

          Trudy Kawami



          ________________________________

          From: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com [mailto:ANE-2@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
          David Hall
          Sent: Monday, October 29, 2007 6:15 PM
          To: ANE
          Subject: [ANE-2] Ahiram Sarcophagus



          After the recent thread about the Jezebel Seal I wanted to learn more
          about the tomb of Ahiram and the Ithobaal inscription and found some
          more information:

          Pierre Montet excavated Byblos/Gebail. In 1929 he published a photo
          atlas, Byblos et L'Egypte, Quatre Capaignes de Fouilles A Gebeil,
          1921-1922-1923-1924, Paris. While excavating some shaft tombs located in
          the side of a collapsed hill, he found one that was unique. It was the
          tomb of Ahiram. He had his workers dig shafts, using ladders, a
          windlass, and narrow gauge rail to clear the debris. He discovered the
          stone sarcophagus of Ahiram that is currently on display in a museum in
          Beirut. On a side of the rectangular box there was a scene of the king
          or a god on a winged cherub throne. Facing the throne were supplicants
          with hands raised, palms turned toward the throne worshiping or showing
          adoration. The attire was Canaanite. There was a Phoenician inscription
          warning grave robbers of a curse upon them if they were to disturb the
          coffin and credit to (It)tobaal for making the sarcophagus.
          There were LBA and EIA sherds found in the shaft including a cartouche
          of Ramesses II. Some dated the tomb to the 13th century BCE on the basis
          of cartouche. Others have used the epigraphy of the inscriptions on the
          limestone sarcophagus to date it to the 11th or 10th century BCE. There
          were two other coffins found in the Ahiram tomb V that were not
          inscribed. Since the tomb was excavated through thick sequences of
          strata there was likelihood some of the sherds in the bottom of the
          shaft were from levels above. It was also stated that the Ramesses II
          cartouche might be from an antique object of high esteem placed in the
          tomb as an offering. The dates of the other two boxes found in the tomb
          are not known.

          See also:

          Byblos Through the Ages, Nina Jidejian, Beirut, 1986
          Byways of Byblos, Bruce Conde, Beirut, 1962

          Images of the sarcophagus via Yahoo:

          http://images.search.yahoo.com/search/images?_adv_prop=image&fr=yfp-t-50
          1&va=ahiram+sarcophagus&sz=all
          <http://images.search.yahoo.com/search/images?_adv_prop=image&fr=yfp-t-5
          01&va=ahiram+sarcophagus&sz=all>

          David Q. Hall
          dqhall59@... <mailto:dqhall59%40yahoo.com>



          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]





          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • Reinhard G. Lehmann
          As for the Ahiram sarcophagus, I would like to pride myself on my new edition of the sarcophagus and the shaft inscription: Reinhard G. Lehmann, Die
          Message 4 of 8 , Oct 30, 2007
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            As for the Ahiram sarcophagus, I would like to pride myself on my new
            edition of the sarcophagus and the shaft inscription:
            Reinhard G. Lehmann, Die Inschrift(en) des Ahirom-Sarkophags und die
            Schachtinschrift des Grabes V in Jbeil (Byblos), Mainz: Zabern 2005
            (Forschungen zur ph���nizisch-punischen und zyprischen Plastik, hg. von
            Renate Bol, II.1. Dynastensarkophage mit szenischen Reliefs aus Byblos
            und Zypern Teil I.2) (IX und 80 Seiten mit 328 Schwarzwei���abbildungen; 4
            Farb- und 12 Schwarzwei���tafeln).

            Besides new photographs and a new interpretation of the sarcophagus
            inscription - and a new reading of its end - there is a thoroughly new
            reading of the shaft inscription, which has been wrongly deciphered by
            Montet and has nothig to do with warning grave robbers, as was suggested
            by former editions.

            Dr. Reinhard G. Lehmann
            Academical Director
            Research Unit on Ancient Hebrew and Epigraphy
            Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz




            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • paulina albenda
            For a study of the relief decorations on the Ahiram sarcophagus, see the article by E. Porada, in Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society (JANES) 5 1973
            Message 5 of 8 , Oct 31, 2007
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              For a study of the relief decorations on the Ahiram sarcophagus, see the article by E. Porada, in Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society (JANES) 5 1973 (with illustrations).
              Pauline Albenda

              "Reinhard G. Lehmann" <lehmann@...> wrote:
              As for the Ahiram sarcophagus, I would like to pride myself on my new
              edition of the sarcophagus and the shaft inscription:
              Reinhard G. Lehmann, Die Inschrift(en) des Ahirom-Sarkophags und die
              Schachtinschrift des Grabes V in Jbeil (Byblos), Mainz: Zabern 2005
              (Forschungen zur ph�nizisch-punischen und zyprischen Plastik, hg. von
              Renate Bol, II.1. Dynastensarkophage mit szenischen Reliefs aus Byblos
              und Zypern Teil I.2) (IX und 80 Seiten mit 328 Schwarzwei�abbildungen; 4
              Farb- und 12 Schwarzwei�tafeln).

              Besides new photographs and a new interpretation of the sarcophagus
              inscription - and a new reading of its end - there is a thoroughly new
              reading of the shaft inscription, which has been wrongly deciphered by
              Montet and has nothig to do with warning grave robbers, as was suggested
              by former editions.

              Dr. Reinhard G. Lehmann
              Academical Director
              Research Unit on Ancient Hebrew and Epigraphy
              Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz




              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]




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            • Yitzhak Sapir
              ... This article is now available online: http://www.jtsa.edu/Documents/pagedocs/JANES/1973%205/Porada5.pdf http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ANE-2/message/6346
              Message 6 of 8 , Oct 31, 2007
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                On 10/31/07, paulina albenda <palbenda@...> wrote:
                > For a study of the relief decorations on the Ahiram sarcophagus, see
                > the article by E. Porada, in Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern
                > Society (JANES) 5 1973 (with illustrations).
                > Pauline Albenda

                This article is now available online:
                http://www.jtsa.edu/Documents/pagedocs/JANES/1973%205/Porada5.pdf
                http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ANE-2/message/6346

                Yitzhak Sapir
              • Reinhard G. Lehmann
                As a matter of fact, the cartouche was inscribed on a alabaster vase, as is reported by Montet. The cartouche of Ramesses II found in Tomb V, tomb of Ahiram,
                Message 7 of 8 , Oct 31, 2007
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                  As a matter of fact, the cartouche was inscribed on a alabaster vase, as
                  is reported by Montet.

                  The cartouche of Ramesses II found in Tomb V, tomb of Ahiram, might
                  have been inscribed on a fragment of white stone. It was difficult
                  to determine the substance of the material from the B&W photo. Did
                  not want to state that it was a potsherd.

                  David Q. Hall
                  dqhall59@... <mailto:dqhall59%40yahoo.com>




                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                • David Hall
                  The base of the vase was shown in a photo reconstructed from several fragments, the top was broken off and missing. I was unable to see whether it was a
                  Message 8 of 8 , Oct 31, 2007
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                    The base of the "vase" was shown in a photo reconstructed from several fragments, the top was broken off and missing. I was unable to see whether it was a vase or cup. No other parts were shown. The photo from the 1929 French publication is yet protected by French copyright law as Montet passed away in 1966. It may not be placed on the Internet. I have not yet seen the existence of the names Ahiram and (It)tobaal on the sarcophagus challenged. Classical Tyrian regnal lists included more than one Ahiram reigning during historical times. If Ithobaal was a son of Ahiram, he may or may not have been a king. The accuracy of the published regnal lists is questionable as there was more than one version on the Internet, and older historical texts were also found to contain errors.

                    David Q. Hall
                    dqhall59@...


                    "Reinhard G. Lehmann" <lehmann@...> wrote:
                    As a matter of fact, the cartouche was inscribed on a alabaster vase, as
                    is reported by Montet.

                    The cartouche of Ramesses II found in Tomb V, tomb of Ahiram, might
                    have been inscribed on a fragment of white stone. It was difficult
                    to determine the substance of the material from the B&W photo. Did
                    not want to state that it was a potsherd.

                    David Q. Hall
                    dqhall59@... <mailto:dqhall59%40yahoo.com>

                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]






                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
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