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RE: [ANE-2] Cross-cultural marriages in the ANE

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  • Cooper, Marc
    Of course you are right. I was thinking of The Bride of Simanum, P. Michalowski, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 95:4 (1975) 716-719. ... Marc
    Message 1 of 18 , Feb 16 11:12 AM
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      Of course you are right. I was thinking of "The Bride of Simanum," P.
      Michalowski, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 95:4 (1975)
      716-719.

      ------------------------------------------------------------
      Marc Cooper
      History
      Missouri State University



      >-----Original Message-----
      >From: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com [mailto:ANE-2@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
      >victor avigdor hurowitz
      >Sent: Thursday, February 16, 2006 12:15 PM
      >To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com
      >Subject: RE: [ANE-2] Cross-cultural marriages in the ANE
      >
      >Wtih your kind indulgence, just a minor point - the composition you
      refer
      >to is better known, I think, as
      >"the Marriage of Martu". That is how it is called, at least, in Samuel
      >Kramer's edition in the Pinhas Artzi Festschrift published by Bar Ilan
      >University and in the comments to it published by Jacob Klein in the
      >Rafael Kutscher Memorial Volume (Tel Aviv Occasional Publications 1)
      >Victor
      >
      >
      >
      >On Thu, 16 Feb 2006, Cooper, Marc wrote:
      >
      >> There's a Sumerian composition called the "Bride of Martu." Also, Ur
      III
      >> kings made it policy to send some of their daughters off to marry
      >> foreigners. I have the impression that the Ur III folks believed that
      a
      >> princess could civilize even the Marhashi people.
      >>
      >> Marc Cooper
      >> Missouri State - History
      >>
      >> -----Original Message-----
      >> From: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com [mailto:ANE-2@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf
      Of
      >> Gerald A. Klingbeil
      >> Sent: Thursday, February 16, 2006 3:36 AM
      >> To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com
      >> Subject: [ANE-2] Cross-cultural marriages in the ANE
      >>
      >> Well, seeing that Victor challenged us to stay a bit away from
      >> the Bible, or the historicity of the Bible, let me throw in
      >> something that I have been thinking about recently. Where in
      >> the ANE (texts, images, etc.) can you see traces of cross-
      >> cultural marriages? Obviously, this firstly requires a definition
      >> of what would one consider a cultural boundary. We all know
      >> of politically motivated marriages in the ANE in order to
      >> cement the relationship between two reigning families from
      >> different city states/tribes, etc. I remember a reference about
      >> Shamshi-Adad I, king of Ekallatum and contemporary of
      >> Hammurabi who mentions a strategic marriage of his family
      >> with the kings of Qatna. I think there is also evidence that
      >> Beltum, the daughter of Ishi-Adad of Qatna was married to
      >> Yasmah-Adad, king of Mari.
      >>
      >> It seems to me that a definition of culture in the context of the
      >> ANE would focus upon language, customs and material culture,
      >> and possibly also religion. Differences in these key areas
      >> should be considered cross-cultural. Cross-cultural marriage
      >> always are wonderfully difficult as well as surprising (I am
      >> talking from experience :-))... so let me hear what you think.
      >> Can you provide some relevant bibliography? Texts? Ideas?
      >> Feedback? The Egyptologists on this list: do you see
      >> documentation for this phenomenon in Egyptian texts? How
      >> would Egyptians have described a cross-cultural marriage?
      >>
      >> I am looking forward to hear from feedback.
      >>
      >> Gerald
      >>
      >> Gerald A. Klingbeil, D.Litt.
      >> Adventist International Institute of Advanced Studies,
      >> P.O. Box 038, Silang, Cavite 4118
      >> PHILIPPINES
      >>
      >> Professor of Hebrew Bible and Ancient Near Eastern Studies
      >> Editor Asia Adventist Seminary Studies
      >> e-mail: gklingbeil@...
      >> Phone: +63-46-414-4348 (office) 63-46-414-4409 (home)
      >>
      >>
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    • Ariel L. Szczupak
      ... Zimri-Lim too. ... I m not sure to which degree it would qualify as cross-cultural, but I recall there s a case of an Assyrian-Babylonian political
      Message 2 of 18 , Feb 16 1:27 PM
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        At 11:36 16/02/2006, Gerald A. Klingbeil wrote:
        >Well, seeing that Victor challenged us to stay a bit away from
        >the Bible, or the historicity of the Bible, let me throw in
        >something that I have been thinking about recently. Where in
        >the ANE (texts, images, etc.) can you see traces of cross-
        >cultural marriages? Obviously, this firstly requires a definition
        >of what would one consider a cultural boundary. We all know
        >of politically motivated marriages in the ANE in order to
        >cement the relationship between two reigning families from
        >different city states/tribes, etc. I remember a reference about
        >Shamshi-Adad I, king of Ekallatum and contemporary of
        >Hammurabi who mentions a strategic marriage of his family
        >with the kings of Qatna. I think there is also evidence that
        >Beltum, the daughter of Ishi-Adad of Qatna was married to
        >Yasmah-Adad, king of Mari.

        Zimri-Lim too.

        >It seems to me that a definition of culture in the context of the
        >ANE would focus upon language, customs and material culture,
        >and possibly also religion. Differences in these key areas
        >should be considered cross-cultural. Cross-cultural marriage
        >always are wonderfully difficult as well as surprising (I am
        >talking from experience :-))... so let me hear what you think.
        >Can you provide some relevant bibliography? Texts? Ideas?
        >Feedback? The Egyptologists on this list: do you see
        >documentation for this phenomenon in Egyptian texts? How
        >would Egyptians have described a cross-cultural marriage?

        I'm not sure to which degree it would qualify as cross-cultural, but
        I recall there's a case of an Assyrian-Babylonian political marriage.

        But I'm functioning on memory alone, and with my dysnomia the names
        won't surface. If no one else can get more details quickly I'll try
        and look up specific refs Saturday.


        Ariel.

        [100% bona fide dilettante ... delecto ergo sum!]

        ---
        Ariel L. Szczupak
        AMIS-JLM (Ricercar Ltd.)
        POB 4707, Jerusalem, Israel 91401
        Phone: +972-2-5619660 Fax: +972-2-5634203
        ane.als@... http://amis-jlm.co.il
      • Stern, Richard H.
        How come none of you mention Ruth and Boaz, Tamar and Judah and sons? ===================================== Best regards. Richard H. Stern rstern@computer.org
        Message 3 of 18 , Feb 16 1:40 PM
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          How come none of you mention Ruth and Boaz, Tamar and Judah and sons?
          =====================================
          Best regards.

          Richard H. Stern
          rstern@... rstern@...
          Washington, DC
          http://docs.law.gwu.edu/facweb/claw/rhs1.htm
          =====================================


          -----Original Message-----
          From: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com [mailto:ANE-2@yahoogroups.com]On Behalf Of
          Ariel L. Szczupak
          Sent: Thursday, February 16, 2006 4:27 PM
          To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com
          Subject: Re: [ANE-2] Cross-cultural marriages in the ANE


          At 11:36 16/02/2006, Gerald A. Klingbeil wrote:
          >Well, seeing that Victor challenged us to stay a bit away from
          >the Bible, or the historicity of the Bible, let me throw in
          >something that I have been thinking about recently. Where in
          >the ANE (texts, images, etc.) can you see traces of cross-
          >cultural marriages? Obviously, this firstly requires a definition
          >of what would one consider a cultural boundary. We all know
          >of politically motivated marriages in the ANE in order to
          >cement the relationship between two reigning families from
          >different city states/tribes, etc. I remember a reference about
          >Shamshi-Adad I, king of Ekallatum and contemporary of
          >Hammurabi who mentions a strategic marriage of his family
          >with the kings of Qatna. I think there is also evidence that
          >Beltum, the daughter of Ishi-Adad of Qatna was married to
          >Yasmah-Adad, king of Mari.

          Zimri-Lim too.

          >It seems to me that a definition of culture in the context of the
          >ANE would focus upon language, customs and material culture,
          >and possibly also religion. Differences in these key areas
          >should be considered cross-cultural. Cross-cultural marriage
          >always are wonderfully difficult as well as surprising (I am
          >talking from experience :-))... so let me hear what you think.
          >Can you provide some relevant bibliography? Texts? Ideas?
          >Feedback? The Egyptologists on this list: do you see
          >documentation for this phenomenon in Egyptian texts? How
          >would Egyptians have described a cross-cultural marriage?

          I'm not sure to which degree it would qualify as cross-cultural, but
          I recall there's a case of an Assyrian-Babylonian political marriage.

          But I'm functioning on memory alone, and with my dysnomia the names
          won't surface. If no one else can get more details quickly I'll try
          and look up specific refs Saturday.


          Ariel.

          [100% bona fide dilettante ... delecto ergo sum!]

          ---
          Ariel L. Szczupak
          AMIS-JLM (Ricercar Ltd.)
          POB 4707, Jerusalem, Israel 91401
          Phone: +972-2-5619660 Fax: +972-2-5634203
          ane.als@... http://amis-jlm.co.il






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        • Graham Hagens
          ... this firstly ... all know ... Hugely in Egypt during the late 21st/early 22n dynasties as the Libyans in Bubastis moved to take over power from the
          Message 4 of 18 , Feb 16 4:16 PM
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            Gerald A. Klingbeil wrote Thursday, February 16:

            >Where in the ANR can you see traces of cross-cultural marriages? Obviously,
            this firstly
            >requires a definition of what would one consider a cultural boundary. We
            all know
            >of politically motivated marriages in the ANE in order to
            >cement the relationship between two reigning families from

            Hugely in Egypt during the late 21st/early 22n dynasties as the Libyans in
            Bubastis moved to take over power from the Ramesside successors in Tanis.
            See Kitchen TIP for details.
            I don't recall much information about when the Libyans (who began their
            invasion at the end of the 19th dyn) absorbed Egyptian language & culture.

            Graham Hagens
          • Judith Lerner
            Evidence of a cross-cultural marriage of a somewhat later date in Egypt is the funerary stele from Saqqara dating to the Persian occupation (the excavators
            Message 5 of 18 , Feb 16 5:40 PM
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              Evidence of a cross-cultural marriage of a somewhat later date in Egypt is
              the funerary stele from Saqqara dating to the Persian occupation (the
              excavators assign it to the first period, 524-404 BCE). It belonged to
              Djedherbes, a good Egyptian name, whose father, Artam, was Persian-named and
              mother, Tanofrether, Egyptian-named. The iconography is Egyptian, although
              the figure of the deceased (dress, hair and beard) and the chair on which he
              sits are Achaemenid in style. See I. J. Mathieson et al, Journal of Egyptian
              Archaeology 81 (1995) 23-41.

              Judith Lerner
              New York, NY


              -----Original Message-----
              From: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com [mailto:ANE-2@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
              Graham Hagens
              Sent: Thursday, February 16, 2006 7:17 PM
              To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com
              Subject: RE: [ANE-2] Cross-cultural marriages in the ANE



              Gerald A. Klingbeil wrote Thursday, February 16:

              >Where in the ANR can you see traces of cross-cultural marriages? Obviously,
              this firstly
              >requires a definition of what would one consider a cultural boundary. We
              all know
              >of politically motivated marriages in the ANE in order to
              >cement the relationship between two reigning families from

              Hugely in Egypt during the late 21st/early 22n dynasties as the Libyans in
              Bubastis moved to take over power from the Ramesside successors in Tanis.
              See Kitchen TIP for details.
              I don't recall much information about when the Libyans (who began their
              invasion at the end of the 19th dyn) absorbed Egyptian language & culture.

              Graham Hagens






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            • Ford Mommaerts-Browne
              There was also a great-grandson of Judah, who married a daughter of Pharaoh. Supposedly the daughter who found Moshe. ... From: Stern, Richard H. To:
              Message 6 of 18 , Feb 16 5:41 PM
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                There was also a great-grandson of Judah, who married a daughter of
                Pharaoh. Supposedly the daughter who found Moshe.
                ----- Original Message -----
                From: Stern, Richard H.
                To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com
                Sent: Thursday, February 16, 2006 5:40 PM
                Subject: RE: [ANE-2] Cross-cultural marriages in the ANE


                How come none of you mention Ruth and Boaz, Tamar and Judah and sons?
                =====================================
                Best regards.

                Richard H. Stern
                rstern@... rstern@...
                Washington, DC
                http://docs.law.gwu.edu/facweb/claw/rhs1.htm
                =====================================


                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              • Ford Mommaerts-Browne
                What about the marriages of Kassite princesses to Elamite princes? Or the marriage of a couple of Jewish princesses to Assyrian emperors? Ford Mommaerts-Browne
                Message 7 of 18 , Feb 16 5:47 PM
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                  What about the marriages of Kassite princesses to Elamite princes?
                  Or the marriage of a couple of Jewish princesses to Assyrian emperors?
                  Ford Mommaerts-Browne
                  ----- Original Message -----
                  From: Cooper, Marc
                  To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com
                  Sent: Thursday, February 16, 2006 1:49 PM
                  Subject: RE: [ANE-2] Cross-cultural marriages in the ANE


                  There's a Sumerian composition called the "Bride of Martu." Also, Ur III
                  kings made it policy to send some of their daughters off to marry
                  foreigners. I have the impression that the Ur III folks believed that a
                  princess could civilize even the Marhashi people.

                  Marc Cooper
                  Missouri State - History

                  -----Original Message-----
                  From: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com [mailto:ANE-2@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
                  Gerald A. Klingbeil
                  Sent: Thursday, February 16, 2006 3:36 AM
                  To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com
                  Subject: [ANE-2] Cross-cultural marriages in the ANE

                  Well, seeing that Victor challenged us to stay a bit away from
                  the Bible, or the historicity of the Bible, let me throw in
                  something that I have been thinking about recently. Where in
                  the ANE (texts, images, etc.) can you see traces of cross-
                  cultural marriages? Obviously, this firstly requires a definition
                  of what would one consider a cultural boundary. We all know
                  of politically motivated marriages in the ANE in order to
                  cement the relationship between two reigning families from
                  different city states/tribes, etc. I remember a reference about
                  Shamshi-Adad I, king of Ekallatum and contemporary of
                  Hammurabi who mentions a strategic marriage of his family
                  with the kings of Qatna. I think there is also evidence that
                  Beltum, the daughter of Ishi-Adad of Qatna was married to
                  Yasmah-Adad, king of Mari.

                  It seems to me that a definition of culture in the context of the
                  ANE would focus upon language, customs and material culture,
                  and possibly also religion. Differences in these key areas
                  should be considered cross-cultural. Cross-cultural marriage
                  always are wonderfully difficult as well as surprising (I am
                  talking from experience :-))... so let me hear what you think.
                  Can you provide some relevant bibliography? Texts? Ideas?
                  Feedback? The Egyptologists on this list: do you see
                  documentation for this phenomenon in Egyptian texts? How
                  would Egyptians have described a cross-cultural marriage?

                  I am looking forward to hear from feedback.

                  Gerald

                  Gerald A. Klingbeil, D.Litt.
                  Adventist International Institute of Advanced Studies,
                  P.O. Box 038, Silang, Cavite 4118
                  PHILIPPINES

                  Professor of Hebrew Bible and Ancient Near Eastern Studies
                  Editor Asia Adventist Seminary Studies
                  e-mail: gklingbeil@...
                  Phone: +63-46-414-4348 (office) 63-46-414-4409 (home)

                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                • Rudolf H. Mayr
                  At the end of the Third Millennium, B. C., Southern Mesopotamia had a fairly homogeneous culture comprised of people descended from both Sumerian-speaking and
                  Message 8 of 18 , Feb 16 7:26 PM
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                    At the end of the Third Millennium, B. C., Southern Mesopotamia had a
                    fairly homogeneous culture comprised of people descended from both
                    Sumerian-speaking and Semitic-speaking ancestors. At this time it was
                    common for some neighbors, or even members of the same family, to have
                    Semitic names while others had Sumerian names. At earlier times,
                    however, the languages, and other aspects of culture as well, had been
                    more clearly separated. It seems the Sumerians and their Semitic-
                    speaking neighbors had once been distinct peoples with their own
                    respective cultures, occupying adjacent geographical areas (the Semitic-
                    speaking people were generally in the north, the Sumerians in the
                    south).

                    So I wonder: is the simple fact, that these cultures blended over time,
                    evidence of cross-cultural marriages?

                    Rudi Mayr
                    Lawrenceville, NJ
                  • Gerald A. Klingbeil
                    Thanks for everybody s ideas. Rudi, I get the feeling that the blending of cultures, particularly in the ANE, also involved cross-cultural marriages. Lacking
                    Message 9 of 18 , Feb 16 11:21 PM
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                      Thanks for everybody's ideas. Rudi, I get the feeling that the
                      blending of cultures, particularly in the ANE, also involved
                      cross-cultural marriages. Lacking the modern concept of a
                      "nation", the father's house (to use the biblical term), clan,
                      family or tribe changed by intermarriage. I would guess that
                      most of these changes were subtle and slow.

                      Judith, thanks for the reference to Mathieson's work. I will
                      have to look at it (hopefully will find the article here). Would
                      the Libyans' taking over Egypt be considered cross-cultural
                      interaction or just plain "conquest" (even though it took them
                      quite a while to do it?)? Obviously, there are quite a number of
                      biblical examples... some have already been mentioned. Uriah
                      and Bethsheba, Judah (and his sons) and Tamar, Rut and
                      Boaz, or the mixed marriages of the time of Ezra/Nehemiah,
                      etc. come to mind.

                      Were these marriages "successful", i.e. did the transform the
                      host culture or the party that joined the host culture?

                      Well, any more thoughts on this would be interesting. There
                      are obvious modern ramifications.

                      By the way N.P.: it seems as if Caesar and Cleopatra did not
                      work out too well :-)

                      Gerald

                      Gerald A. Klingbeil, D.Litt.
                      Adventist International Institute of Advanced Studies,
                      P.O. Box 038, Silang, Cavite 4118
                      PHILIPPINES

                      Professor of Hebrew Bible and Ancient Near Eastern Studies
                      Editor Asia Adventist Seminary Studies
                      e-mail: gklingbeil@...
                      Phone: +63-46-414-4348 (office) 63-46-414-4409 (home)
                    • Ariel L. Szczupak
                      At 23:27 16/02/2006, Ariel L. Szczupak wrote: [...] ... During the night I had the brilliant idea to check in CANE. Assur-uballit I and Shalmaneser III married
                      Message 10 of 18 , Feb 16 11:58 PM
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                        At 23:27 16/02/2006, Ariel L. Szczupak wrote:
                        [...]

                        >I'm not sure to which degree it would qualify as cross-cultural, but
                        >I recall there's a case of an Assyrian-Babylonian political marriage.

                        During the night I had the brilliant idea to check in CANE.
                        Assur-uballit I and Shalmaneser III married their daughters to native
                        Babylonian rulers [p.965]. A good source to search for other cases, a
                        cane to lean on when memory fails ....


                        Ariel.

                        [100% bona fide dilettante ... delecto ergo sum!]

                        ---
                        Ariel L. Szczupak
                        AMIS-JLM (Ricercar Ltd.)
                        POB 4707, Jerusalem, Israel 91401
                        Phone: +972-2-5619660 Fax: +972-2-5634203
                        ane.als@... http://amis-jlm.co.il
                      • Gary Greenberg
                        ... One of the more interesting examples, whether historical or mythical, would seem to be the marriage of Jacob s daughter Dinah to Hamor the prince of
                        Message 11 of 18 , Feb 17 12:33 PM
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                          > quite a while to do it?)? Obviously, there are quite a number of
                          > biblical examples... some have already been mentioned. Uriah
                          > and Bethsheba, Judah (and his sons) and Tamar, Rut and
                          > Boaz, or the mixed marriages of the time of Ezra/Nehemiah,
                          > etc. come to mind.
                          >
                          > Were these marriages "successful", i.e. did the transform the
                          > host culture or the party that joined the host culture?

                          One of the more interesting examples, whether historical or mythical, would
                          seem to be the marriage of Jacob's daughter Dinah to Hamor the prince of
                          Shechem and the subsequent conflict that arose.

                          Gary Greenberg
                        • Richard S. Ellis
                          ... Shulgi of the Ur III dynasty married some of his daughters to rulers in Iran. Dick Ellis
                          Message 12 of 18 , Feb 23 5:26 PM
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                            Ariel L. Szczupak wrote:
                            > At 23:27 16/02/2006, Ariel L. Szczupak wrote:
                            > [...]
                            >
                            >
                            >>I'm not sure to which degree it would qualify as cross-cultural, but
                            >>I recall there's a case of an Assyrian-Babylonian political marriage.
                            >
                            >
                            > During the night I had the brilliant idea to check in CANE.
                            > Assur-uballit I and Shalmaneser III married their daughters to native
                            > Babylonian rulers [p.965]. A good source to search for other cases, a
                            > cane to lean on when memory fails ....


                            Shulgi of the Ur III dynasty married some of his daughters to rulers in
                            Iran.

                            Dick Ellis
                          • Lisbeth S. Fried
                            The first Cleopatra was the daughter of the Seleucid king Antiochus II, I believe, and there was also another marriage between the Seleucids and the Ptolemies
                            Message 13 of 18 , Feb 23 8:27 PM
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                              The first Cleopatra was the daughter of the Seleucid king Antiochus II, I
                              believe, and there was also another marriage between the Seleucids and the
                              Ptolemies (which I forget right now, too much wine at dinner). Also there
                              were a lot of intermarriages between the Jews of the garrison at Elephantine
                              and the Egyptians, and if you believe Ezra-Nehemiah, between the Jews and
                              the neighboring peoples.

                              Best,

                              Liz Fried



                              _____

                              From: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com [mailto:ANE-2@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
                              Richard S. Ellis
                              Sent: Thursday, February 23, 2006 8:26 PM
                              To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com
                              Subject: Re: [ANE-2] Cross-cultural marriages in the ANE





                              Ariel L. Szczupak wrote:
                              > At 23:27 16/02/2006, Ariel L. Szczupak wrote:
                              > [...]
                              >
                              >
                              >>I'm not sure to which degree it would qualify as cross-cultural, but
                              >>I recall there's a case of an Assyrian-Babylonian political marriage.
                              >
                              >
                              > During the night I had the brilliant idea to check in CANE.
                              > Assur-uballit I and Shalmaneser III married their daughters to native
                              > Babylonian rulers [p.965]. A good source to search for other cases, a
                              > cane to lean on when memory fails ....


                              Shulgi of the Ur III dynasty married some of his daughters to rulers in
                              Iran.

                              Dick Ellis






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                              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                            • Ford Mommaerts-Browne
                              ... From: Lisbeth S. Fried To: Sent: Friday, February 24, 2006 12:27 AM Subject: RE: [ANE-2] Cross-cultural
                              Message 14 of 18 , Feb 23 9:42 PM
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                                ----- Original Message -----
                                From: "Lisbeth S. Fried" <lizfried@...>
                                To: <ANE-2@yahoogroups.com>
                                Sent: Friday, February 24, 2006 12:27 AM
                                Subject: RE: [ANE-2] Cross-cultural marriages in the ANE


                                <snip> [T]here
                                | were a lot of intermarriages between the Jews of the garrison at Elephantine
                                | and the Egyptians, and if you believe Ezra-Nehemiah, between the Jews and
                                | the neighboring peoples.
                                | Best,
                                | Liz Fried

                                Believe it! But could you tell more about the Elephantine intermarriages? Is there any record there of the Oniads?
                                Ford
                              • christopherjbennett
                                ... Antiochus II, I ... and the ... Actually it was Antiochus III. There were quite a few intermarriages between the Seleucids and the Ptolemies, you can see
                                Message 15 of 18 , Feb 24 3:45 PM
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                                  --- In ANE-2@yahoogroups.com, "Lisbeth S. Fried" <lizfried@...>
                                  wrote:
                                  >
                                  > The first Cleopatra was the daughter of the Seleucid king
                                  Antiochus II, I
                                  > believe, and there was also another marriage between the Seleucids
                                  and the
                                  > Ptolemies (which I forget right now, too much wine at dinner).

                                  Actually it was Antiochus III. There were quite a few
                                  intermarriages between the Seleucids and the Ptolemies, you can see
                                  the details at my website at
                                  http://www.tyndale.cam.ac.uk/Egypt/ptolemies/affilates/aff_seleucids.
                                  htm

                                  But do these really count as cross-cultural? Ptolemaic and Seleucid
                                  marriages that would include:

                                  -- Ptolemy I and Seleucus to the Persians Artakama and Apama
                                  -- Berenice, (most probably) daughter of Ptolemy VIII, to
                                  Psherenptah, high Priest of Memphis
                                  -- a daughter of Seleucus I supposedly to Chandragupta Maurya
                                  -- Demetrius II to a daughter of Mithridates II of Parthia

                                  Cleopatra's liaisons with Caesar and Antony might also be thought of
                                  as cross-cultural. Its an interesting question as to how much
                                  exposure it takes to erode the definition.

                                  Chris Bennett
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