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Re: [ANE-2] Question about sacrifice

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  • George F Somsel
    There seems to be a clear distinction made in 1 Sam regarding the treatment of sacrifice.  On the one hand it would appear that (much, most, all) of the
    Message 1 of 9 , Feb 6, 2011
      There seems to be a clear distinction made in 1 Sam regarding the treatment of
      sacrifice.  On the one hand it would appear that (much, most, all) of the
      sacrifices were boiled, but Eli's son's desired roast meat rather than boiled. 


       
       
      1 Samuel 2:11–17
      11 וַיֵּלֶךְ אֶלְקָנָה הָרָמָתָה עַל־בֵּיתוֹ וְהַנַּעַר הָיָה מְשָׁרֵת אֶת־יהוה
      אֶת־פְּנֵי עֵלִי הַכֹּהֵן׃

      12 וּבְנֵי עֵלִי בְּנֵי בְלִיָּעַל לֹא יָדְעוּ אֶת־יהוה׃
      13 וּמִשְׁפַּט הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶת־הָעָם כָּל־אִישׁ זֹבֵחַ זֶבַח וּבָא נַעַר
      הַכֹּהֵן כְּבַשֵּׁל הַבָּשָׂר וְהַמַּזְלֵג שְׁלֹשׁ־הַשִּׁנַּיִם בְּיָדוֹ׃

      14 וְהִכָּה בַכִּיּוֹר אוֹ בַדּוּד אוֹ בַקַּלַּחַת אוֹ בַפָּרוּר כֹּל אֲשֶׁר
      יַעֲלֶה הַמַּזְלֵג יִקַּח הַכֹּהֵן בּוֹ כָּכָה יַעֲשׂוּ לְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל
      הַבָּאִים שָׁם בְּשִׁלֹה׃

      15 גַּם בְּטֶרֶם יַקְטִרוּן אֶת־הַחֵלֶב וּבָא נַעַר הַכֹּהֵן וְאָמַר לָאִישׁ
      הַזֹּבֵחַ תְּנָה בָשָׂר לִצְלוֹת לַכֹּהֵן וְלֹא־יִקַּח מִמְּךָ בָּשָׂר מְבֻשָּׁל
      כִּי אִם־חָי׃

      16 וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו הָאִישׁ קַטֵּר יַקְטִירוּן כַּיּוֹם הַחֵלֶב וְקַח־לְךָ
      כַּאֲשֶׁר תְּאַוֶּה נַפְשֶׁךָ וְאָמַר לוֹ כִּי עַתָּה תִתֵּן וְאִם־לֹא
      לָקַחְתִּי בְחָזְקָה׃

      17 וַתְּהִי חַטַּאת הַנְּעָרִים גְּדוֹלָה מְאֹד אֶת־פְּנֵי יהוה כִּי נִאֲצוּ
      הָאֲנָשִׁים אֵת מִנְחַת יהוה׃


      The question is whether at the time it was considered impious to roast the
      offering without it's having been boiled or whether the impiety lay in their
      excessive haste to obtain a portion of the offering.  It is almost certain that
      at other times the offering was roasted since it is referred to as a עֹלַה or a
      burnt offering just as Eli's sons demanded that they be given their portion
      first before the meat was boiled so that they could roast it (גַּם בְּטֶרֶם
      יַקְטִרוּן אֶת־הַחֵלֶב וּבָא נַעַר הַכֹּהֵן וְאָמַר לָאִישׁ הַזֹּבֵחַ תְּנָה
      בָשָׂר לִצְלוֹת לַכֹּהֵן).
      george
      gfsomsel


      … search for truth, hear truth,
      learn truth, love truth, speak the truth, hold the truth,
      defend the truth till death.


      - Jan Hus
      _________




      ________________________________
      From: David Hall <dqhall59@...>
      To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com
      Sent: Sat, February 5, 2011 6:41:19 PM
      Subject: Re: [ANE-2] Question about sacrifice

       
      Hello Liz,

      The horned altar was in use since Minoan times on Santorini destroyed by
      volcanic eruption as early as the MBA.  I have read reports of altars on Crete
      with burnt bones in use as early as Minoan times.  I googled (google.com not
      google.co.uk) search words to see if someone could pick up any information about

      "Minoan altars burnt bones" and found there are scattered references
      online.  Altars and burnt bones on Greek islands north of Crete were reported in

      various archaeological publications.   

      Those who have worked translating the tablets of Ugarit insisted the people at
      Ras Shamra used "burnt offerings."  This may imply roasting rather than boiling
      meat in a cooking pot.  I am not an expert on the translation of Ugarit tablets,

      but some claimed phrases at Ugarit were parallel to Bible phrases.  Ugarit was
      destroyed in the first quarter of the 12th century BC before the Bible was
      written.

      Leonard Woolley mentioned a kitchen in the ziggurat at Ur where the food of the
      gods was cooked. 

      An altar with an ash pile next to it was reported by Haines at Nippur, but the
      dating of the altar is not certain.   This reference was from the unpublished
      Nippur field reports at the U. of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology
      and Anthropology Archives in Philadelphia.

      The Egyptians offered all sorts of food offerings.  As far as I know they have
      not been found to have made burnt offerings on altars, but did use incense in
      their temples.  Hatshetsup sent a naval expedition to acquire incense near the
      Horn of Africa. 

      David Q. Hall
      Falls Church, Virginia

        

      ________________________________
      From: Lisbeth S. Fried <lizfried@...>
      To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com
      Sent: Fri, February 4, 2011 10:26:37 AM
      Subject: RE: [ANE-2] Question about sacrifice

       
      Hi Graham,

      That's a really good question, the author (maddingly) doesn't address the
      issue. I know that they also used animal sacrifice, but I'd have to assume
      that the animal was cooked on a stove or something so the carcass didn't
      come in contact with the fire. I mean the people weren't/aren't vegetarians,
      they ate/eat meat.

      I learned from a friend of mine that according to Homer the Greeks roasted
      their sacrifices on spits in a fire. My friend, Eric Orlin, says that they
      were influenced by Canaanite practice, not vice versa, but I don't know how
      he knows that.

      In any case, if the Egyptians cooked their sacrifices on a stove and then
      presented it to the gods, then that would explain why meat sacrifice was
      halted only at the Judean temple at Elephantine and not at the temple of
      Khnum, etc.

      Liz

      Lisbeth S. Fried, Ph.D.
      Visitng Scholar
      Department of Near Eastern Studies
      and the Frankel Center for Judaic Studies
      University of Michigan
      202 S. Thayer -- Room 4111
      Ann Arbor, MI 48104
      www.lizfried.com <http://www.lizfried.com/>

      _____

      From: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com [mailto:ANE-2@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
      Graham Hagens
      Sent: Thursday, February 03, 2011 7:46 PM
      To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com
      Subject: Re: [ANE-2] Question about sacrifice

      Liz: what does the author say about the sacrificial animal immolation
      carried out by Zoroastrians themselves? From what I have read there seems
      to be some uncertainty about those practices.

      Graham Hagens
      Hamilton, ON

      --- On Thu, 2/3/11, Lisbeth S. Fried <lizfried@...
      <mailto:lizfried%40umich.edu> > wrote:

      From: Lisbeth S. Fried <lizfried@... <mailto:lizfried%40umich.edu> >
      Subject: [ANE-2] Question about sacrifice
      To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com <mailto:ANE-2%40yahoogroups.com>
      Date: Thursday, February 3, 2011, 12:28 PM

      Dear All,

      I'm reading an article now which suggests that the whole burnt offering in
      the temple of YHW at Elephantine was disallowed not because of any problem
      with it by the priests of YHWH in Jerusalem who only wanted worship there,
      but because of the Zoroastrian problem of contaminating fire with a dead
      animal.

      My question is, how was meat presented to the gods of Egypt, Babylon, Asia
      Minor etc? Were these meats cooked on top of a stove, so to speak, and not
      put directly in contact with the fire? Was Judah unique in this regard?

      Thanks for your help,

      Liz

      Lisbeth S. Fried, Ph.D.
      Department of Near Eastern Studies
      and the Frankel Center for Judaic Studies
      University of Michigan
      202 S. Thayer -- Room 4111
      Ann Arbor, MI 48104
      www.lizfried.com <http://www.lizfried.com/>

      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]







      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • Graham Hagens
      An interesting article by A. Panaino  rituals by Panaino in Zoroastrian Rituals in Context   (2003, ed. M.Stausberg), explores some of the complexties
      Message 2 of 9 , Feb 7, 2011
        An interesting article by A. Panaino  rituals by Panaino in 'Zoroastrian Rituals in Context'  (2003, ed. M.Stausberg), explores some of the complexties of Zoroastrian sacrificial practices (also available on line). 
        While it is most likely that Zoroastrian rituals did include immolation, the precise details seem to be obscure. They may also have evolved over time.
        It is also not clear at which stage fire itself came to be thought of as sacred as opposed to merely a symbol of divinity.
         
        Graham Hagens
        Hamilton, ON 

        --- On Fri, 2/4/11, Lisbeth S. Fried <lizfried@...> wrote:


        From: Lisbeth S. Fried <lizfried@...>
        Subject: RE: [ANE-2] Question about sacrifice
        To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com
        Date: Friday, February 4, 2011, 10:26 AM


         



        Hi Graham,

        That's a really good question, the author (maddingly) doesn't address the
        issue. I know that they also used animal sacrifice, but I'd have to assume
        that the animal was cooked on a stove or something so the carcass didn't
        come in contact with the fire. I mean the people weren't/aren't vegetarians,
        they ate/eat meat.

        I learned from a friend of mine that according to Homer the Greeks roasted
        their sacrifices on spits in a fire. My friend, Eric Orlin, says that they
        were influenced by Canaanite practice, not vice versa, but I don't know how
        he knows that.

        In any case, if the Egyptians cooked their sacrifices on a stove and then
        presented it to the gods, then that would explain why meat sacrifice was
        halted only at the Judean temple at Elephantine and not at the temple of
        Khnum, etc.

        Liz

        Lisbeth S. Fried, Ph.D.
        Visitng Scholar
        Department of Near Eastern Studies
        and the Frankel Center for Judaic Studies
        University of Michigan
        202 S. Thayer -- Room 4111
        Ann Arbor, MI 48104
        www.lizfried.com <http://www.lizfried.com/>

        _____

        From: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com [mailto:ANE-2@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
        Graham Hagens
        Sent: Thursday, February 03, 2011 7:46 PM
        To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com
        Subject: Re: [ANE-2] Question about sacrifice

        Liz: what does the author say about the sacrificial animal immolation
        carried out by Zoroastrians themselves? From what I have read there seems
        to be some uncertainty about those practices.

        Graham Hagens
        Hamilton, ON

        --- On Thu, 2/3/11, Lisbeth S. Fried <lizfried@...
        <mailto:lizfried%40umich.edu> > wrote:

        From: Lisbeth S. Fried <lizfried@... <mailto:lizfried%40umich.edu> >
        Subject: [ANE-2] Question about sacrifice
        To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com <mailto:ANE-2%40yahoogroups.com>
        Date: Thursday, February 3, 2011, 12:28 PM

        Dear All,

        I'm reading an article now which suggests that the whole burnt offering in
        the temple of YHW at Elephantine was disallowed not because of any problem
        with it by the priests of YHWH in Jerusalem who only wanted worship there,
        but because of the Zoroastrian problem of contaminating fire with a dead
        animal.

        My question is, how was meat presented to the gods of Egypt, Babylon, Asia
        Minor etc? Were these meats cooked on top of a stove, so to speak, and not
        put directly in contact with the fire? Was Judah unique in this regard?

        Thanks for your help,

        Liz

        Lisbeth S. Fried, Ph.D.
        Department of Near Eastern Studies
        and the Frankel Center for Judaic Studies
        University of Michigan
        202 S. Thayer -- Room 4111
        Ann Arbor, MI 48104
        www.lizfried.com <http://www.lizfried.com/>

        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]











        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • Lampros F. Kallenos
        Is the Mycenean case relevant to the question? Yannis HAMILAKIS, Eleni KONSOLAKI Pigs for the Gods. Burnt Animal Sacrifices As Embodied Rituals At A Mycenaean
        Message 3 of 9 , Feb 7, 2011
          Is the Mycenean case relevant to the question?


          Yannis HAMILAKIS, Eleni KONSOLAKI
          Pigs for the Gods. Burnt Animal Sacrifices As Embodied
          Rituals At A Mycenaean Sanctuary.
          Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 23(2) 2004 135–151
          http://corinth.sas.upenn.edu/dgr/sanctuaries/methana_aykon_animals.pdf


          Classics Doctoral Student Finds Bones that Prove Homer was
          Right About Sacrifices
          Date: Jan. 20, 2001
          http://www.uc.edu/news/burnt.htm


          Classics Doctoral Student Finds Bones That Prove Homer Was
          Right About Sacrifices
          Source: University Of Cincinnati
          Date: 2001-01-23
          http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/01/010123074805.htm



          _____________________________
          Λάμπρος Φ. Καλλένος
          Ιδάλιον, Λευκωσία
          Κύπρος
          --
        • Lisbeth S. Fried
          Dear David, Thank you very much for this interesting report. Regarding the references in the Ugaritic material, I think the references are from the Aqht myth.
          Message 4 of 9 , Feb 8, 2011
            Dear David,

            Thank you very much for this interesting report.

            Regarding the references in the Ugaritic material, I think the references are from the Aqht myth.

            I. 185 dbḥ ilm yšʿly , the sacrifice to the gods he offered up, which doesn’t say anything about how it was done, unfortunately.

            I think it’s right tho that in Egypt and Babylon the food was cooked in kitchens on stoves or in ovens, and then presented.

            Liz



            Lisbeth S. Fried, Ph.D.
            Ann Arbor, MI 48104
            www.lizfried.com <http://www.lizfried.com/>





            _____

            From: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com [mailto:ANE-2@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of David Hall
            Sent: Saturday, February 05, 2011 8:41 PM
            To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com
            Subject: Re: [ANE-2] Question about sacrifice





            Hello Liz,

            The horned altar was in use since Minoan times on Santorini destroyed by
            volcanic eruption as early as the MBA. I have read reports of altars on Crete
            with burnt bones in use as early as Minoan times. I googled (google.com not
            google.co.uk) search words to see if someone could pick up any information about
            "Minoan altars burnt bones" and found there are scattered references
            online. Altars and burnt bones on Greek islands north of Crete were reported in
            various archaeological publications.

            Those who have worked translating the tablets of Ugarit insisted the people at
            Ras Shamra used "burnt offerings." This may imply roasting rather than boiling
            meat in a cooking pot. I am not an expert on the translation of Ugarit tablets,
            but some claimed phrases at Ugarit were parallel to Bible phrases. Ugarit was
            destroyed in the first quarter of the 12th century BC before the Bible was
            written.

            Leonard Woolley mentioned a kitchen in the ziggurat at Ur where the food of the
            gods was cooked.

            An altar with an ash pile next to it was reported by Haines at Nippur, but the
            dating of the altar is not certain. This reference was from the unpublished
            Nippur field reports at the U. of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology
            and Anthropology Archives in Philadelphia.

            The Egyptians offered all sorts of food offerings. As far as I know they have
            not been found to have made burnt offerings on altars, but did use incense in
            their temples. Hatshetsup sent a naval expedition to acquire incense near the
            Horn of Africa.

            David Q. Hall
            Falls Church, Virginia



            ________________________________
            From: Lisbeth S. Fried <lizfried@... <mailto:lizfried%40umich.edu> >
            To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com <mailto:ANE-2%40yahoogroups.com>
            Sent: Fri, February 4, 2011 10:26:37 AM
            Subject: RE: [ANE-2] Question about sacrifice


            Hi Graham,

            That's a really good question, the author (maddingly) doesn't address the
            issue. I know that they also used animal sacrifice, but I'd have to assume
            that the animal was cooked on a stove or something so the carcass didn't
            come in contact with the fire. I mean the people weren't/aren't vegetarians,
            they ate/eat meat.

            I learned from a friend of mine that according to Homer the Greeks roasted
            their sacrifices on spits in a fire. My friend, Eric Orlin, says that they
            were influenced by Canaanite practice, not vice versa, but I don't know how
            he knows that.

            In any case, if the Egyptians cooked their sacrifices on a stove and then
            presented it to the gods, then that would explain why meat sacrifice was
            halted only at the Judean temple at Elephantine and not at the temple of
            Khnum, etc.

            Liz

            Lisbeth S. Fried, Ph.D.
            Visitng Scholar
            Department of Near Eastern Studies
            and the Frankel Center for Judaic Studies
            University of Michigan
            202 S. Thayer -- Room 4111
            Ann Arbor, MI 48104
            www.lizfried.com <http://www.lizfried.com/>

            _____

            From: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com <mailto:ANE-2%40yahoogroups.com> [mailto:ANE-2@yahoogroups.com <mailto:ANE-2%40yahoogroups.com> ] On Behalf Of
            Graham Hagens
            Sent: Thursday, February 03, 2011 7:46 PM
            To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com <mailto:ANE-2%40yahoogroups.com>
            Subject: Re: [ANE-2] Question about sacrifice

            Liz: what does the author say about the sacrificial animal immolation
            carried out by Zoroastrians themselves? From what I have read there seems
            to be some uncertainty about those practices.

            Graham Hagens
            Hamilton, ON

            --- On Thu, 2/3/11, Lisbeth S. Fried <lizfried@... <mailto:lizfried%40umich.edu>
            <mailto:lizfried%40umich.edu> > wrote:

            From: Lisbeth S. Fried <lizfried@... <mailto:lizfried%40umich.edu> <mailto:lizfried%40umich.edu> >
            Subject: [ANE-2] Question about sacrifice
            To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com <mailto:ANE-2%40yahoogroups.com> <mailto:ANE-2%40yahoogroups.com>
            Date: Thursday, February 3, 2011, 12:28 PM

            Dear All,

            I'm reading an article now which suggests that the whole burnt offering in
            the temple of YHW at Elephantine was disallowed not because of any problem
            with it by the priests of YHWH in Jerusalem who only wanted worship there,
            but because of the Zoroastrian problem of contaminating fire with a dead
            animal.

            My question is, how was meat presented to the gods of Egypt, Babylon, Asia
            Minor etc? Were these meats cooked on top of a stove, so to speak, and not
            put directly in contact with the fire? Was Judah unique in this regard?

            Thanks for your help,

            Liz

            Lisbeth S. Fried, Ph.D.
            Department of Near Eastern Studies
            and the Frankel Center for Judaic Studies
            University of Michigan
            202 S. Thayer -- Room 4111
            Ann Arbor, MI 48104
            www.lizfried.com <http://www.lizfried.com/>

            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]





            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • David Hall
            Liz, See:  Religious Texts from Ugarit, by N. Wyatt, 2nd edition, 2002, Sheffield Press. From tablet KTU 1.119 regarding religious duties during certain
            Message 5 of 9 , Feb 8, 2011
              Liz,

              See:  Religious Texts from Ugarit, by N. Wyatt, 2nd edition, 2002, Sheffield
              Press.

              From tablet KTU 1.119 regarding religious duties during certain months:

              pg. 418   "...in the house of sacrifice he will slaughter; and there shall be
              burnt in the altar room of Baal of Ugarit a lamb and a feral pigeon..."

              There are other recent sources available as well.  These sources are not easy to
              locate and few scholars are competent to comment in depth about the Ugaritic
              religious rituals.  Multiple scholars insisted there were "burnt offerings."

              David Q. Hall 
              Falls Church, Virginia

               



              ________________________________
              From: Lisbeth S. Fried <lizfried@...>
              To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com
              Sent: Tue, February 8, 2011 12:59:13 PM
              Subject: RE: [ANE-2] Question about sacrifice

               
              Dear David,

              Thank you very much for this interesting report.

              Regarding the references in the Ugaritic material, I think the references are
              from the Aqht myth.

              I. 185 dbḥ ilm yšʿly , the sacrifice to the gods he offered up, which doesn’t
              say anything about how it was done, unfortunately.

              I think it’s right tho that in Egypt and Babylon the food was cooked in kitchens
              on stoves or in ovens, and then presented.

              Liz

              Lisbeth S. Fried, Ph.D.
              Ann Arbor, MI 48104
              www.lizfried.com <http://www.lizfried.com/>

              _____

              From: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com [mailto:ANE-2@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of David
              Hall
              Sent: Saturday, February 05, 2011 8:41 PM
              To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com
              Subject: Re: [ANE-2] Question about sacrifice

              Hello Liz,

              The horned altar was in use since Minoan times on Santorini destroyed by
              volcanic eruption as early as the MBA. I have read reports of altars on Crete
              with burnt bones in use as early as Minoan times. I googled (google.com not
              google.co.uk) search words to see if someone could pick up any information about

              "Minoan altars burnt bones" and found there are scattered references
              online. Altars and burnt bones on Greek islands north of Crete were reported in
              various archaeological publications.

              Those who have worked translating the tablets of Ugarit insisted the people at
              Ras Shamra used "burnt offerings." This may imply roasting rather than boiling
              meat in a cooking pot. I am not an expert on the translation of Ugarit tablets,
              but some claimed phrases at Ugarit were parallel to Bible phrases. Ugarit was
              destroyed in the first quarter of the 12th century BC before the Bible was
              written.

              Leonard Woolley mentioned a kitchen in the ziggurat at Ur where the food of the
              gods was cooked.

              An altar with an ash pile next to it was reported by Haines at Nippur, but the
              dating of the altar is not certain. This reference was from the unpublished
              Nippur field reports at the U. of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology
              and Anthropology Archives in Philadelphia.

              The Egyptians offered all sorts of food offerings. As far as I know they have
              not been found to have made burnt offerings on altars, but did use incense in
              their temples. Hatshetsup sent a naval expedition to acquire incense near the
              Horn of Africa.

              David Q. Hall
              Falls Church, Virginia

              ________________________________
              From: Lisbeth S. Fried <lizfried@... <mailto:lizfried%40umich.edu> >
              To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com <mailto:ANE-2%40yahoogroups.com>
              Sent: Fri, February 4, 2011 10:26:37 AM
              Subject: RE: [ANE-2] Question about sacrifice

              Hi Graham,

              That's a really good question, the author (maddingly) doesn't address the
              issue. I know that they also used animal sacrifice, but I'd have to assume
              that the animal was cooked on a stove or something so the carcass didn't
              come in contact with the fire. I mean the people weren't/aren't vegetarians,
              they ate/eat meat.

              I learned from a friend of mine that according to Homer the Greeks roasted
              their sacrifices on spits in a fire. My friend, Eric Orlin, says that they
              were influenced by Canaanite practice, not vice versa, but I don't know how
              he knows that.

              In any case, if the Egyptians cooked their sacrifices on a stove and then
              presented it to the gods, then that would explain why meat sacrifice was
              halted only at the Judean temple at Elephantine and not at the temple of
              Khnum, etc.

              Liz

              Lisbeth S. Fried, Ph.D.
              Visitng Scholar
              Department of Near Eastern Studies
              and the Frankel Center for Judaic Studies
              University of Michigan
              202 S. Thayer -- Room 4111
              Ann Arbor, MI 48104
              www.lizfried.com <http://www.lizfried.com/>

              _____

              From: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com <mailto:ANE-2%40yahoogroups.com>
              [mailto:ANE-2@yahoogroups.com <mailto:ANE-2%40yahoogroups.com> ] On Behalf Of
              Graham Hagens
              Sent: Thursday, February 03, 2011 7:46 PM
              To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com <mailto:ANE-2%40yahoogroups.com>
              Subject: Re: [ANE-2] Question about sacrifice

              Liz: what does the author say about the sacrificial animal immolation
              carried out by Zoroastrians themselves? From what I have read there seems
              to be some uncertainty about those practices.

              Graham Hagens
              Hamilton, ON

              --- On Thu, 2/3/11, Lisbeth S. Fried <lizfried@...
              <mailto:lizfried%40umich.edu>

              <mailto:lizfried%40umich.edu> > wrote:

              From: Lisbeth S. Fried <lizfried@... <mailto:lizfried%40umich.edu>
              <mailto:lizfried%40umich.edu> >
              Subject: [ANE-2] Question about sacrifice
              To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com <mailto:ANE-2%40yahoogroups.com>
              <mailto:ANE-2%40yahoogroups.com>

              Date: Thursday, February 3, 2011, 12:28 PM

              Dear All,

              I'm reading an article now which suggests that the whole burnt offering in
              the temple of YHW at Elephantine was disallowed not because of any problem
              with it by the priests of YHWH in Jerusalem who only wanted worship there,
              but because of the Zoroastrian problem of contaminating fire with a dead
              animal.

              My question is, how was meat presented to the gods of Egypt, Babylon, Asia
              Minor etc? Were these meats cooked on top of a stove, so to speak, and not
              put directly in contact with the fire? Was Judah unique in this regard?

              Thanks for your help,

              Liz

              Lisbeth S. Fried, Ph.D.
              Department of Near Eastern Studies
              and the Frankel Center for Judaic Studies
              University of Michigan
              202 S. Thayer -- Room 4111
              Ann Arbor, MI 48104
              www.lizfried.com <http://www.lizfried.com/>

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