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Re: Solving the riddle of Canaanite general...

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  • Francesco Brighenti
    ... It seems that a large number of scholars now accept the possibility that Sisera (Heb. Sîs[e]rā ) is a name belonging to the sphere of the Sea Peoples ,
    Message 1 of 7 , Jul 4, 2010
      --- In ANE-2@yahoogroups.com, Antonio Lombatti <antonio.lombatti@...> wrote:

      > Solving the riddle of Canaanite general Sisera. He came from
      > Sardinia:
      >
      > http://tinyurl.com/2eucstp


      Quote:

      > Zertal identified Sisera with the town of Sassari, arguing that he
      > came from the people of Shardana –- or Sardinia. "Sisera's name did
      > not appear on any archeological findings in the Middle East. But we
      > did research and found that in Sardinia, there is a city called
      > Sassari. About a third of people's names in the world are based on
      > the place their family come from. We believe that Sisera or his
      > family came from Sassari. Sea peoples came to the Land of Israel
      > from the sea. The Philistines were the most famous, but the
      > Shardana people also arrived," Zertal said.

      It seems that a large number of scholars now accept the possibility that Sisera (Heb. Sîs[e]rā') is a name belonging to the sphere of the 'Sea Peoples', yet the above Sardinian etymology for this name looks suspect to me.

      J.A. Soggin (_Judges_, Eng. tr., OTL, 1981, p. 63, with bibliography) states that the name Sisera "is not Semitic, but it does not seem to be Indo-European, Illyrian, or Hurrian either. It is increasingly accepted, rather, that this is a Luvian name; in any case, it could be connected with the 'sea peoples' [...]." The Luvian etymology rests on the single occurrence of a syllabic personal name from Ugarit, <zi-za-ru-wa> (a prince of northern Syria during the fourteenth century BCE), described by some as a Luvian name.

      According to linguist Massimo Pittau (himself a Sardinian), the toponym Sassar(i)/Thathar(i), first attested in 1131 CE (!), was inherited from the language(s) spoken by the Nuragic people of Sardinia, in which it may originally have meant 'stones, pebbles' (in the plural) -- cp. Lat. saxum 'stone, pebble', dubiously derived by some as if from the Indo-European base *sek- 'to cut', but possibly a substratum word. See Pittau's etymological note (in Italian) at

      http://www.pittau.it/Sardo/sassari.html

      Prof. Adam Zertal has long been holding that the personal name Sisera attested in _Judges_ is linguistically related to the Nuragic Sardinian (i.e. "Shardana"!) toponym Sassari. In an article of his entitled "Sardinians in Israel?", available online at

      http://luna.cas.usf.edu/~rtykot/NPR9%20-%20Arch%20Odyssey.pdf ,

      he even writes (on pp. 52-53 in the pdf) that a Linear A tablet found at the Minoan site of Kommos, which he labels as "a Nuragic settlement on Crete", was inscribed with the name "Seisara [sic; read: Saisara], which is almost identical to Sisera." As a matter of fact, even if it is true that pottery that appears to be Nuragic/Sardinian has been found at Kommos in Crete, it was almost certainly fom containers used for transporting other products (i.e., not indication of a "settlement" of Nuragic/Sardinian people at that site). The majority of these grey impasto sherds, which at best confirm the existence of a trade route from Crete to the west (Sicily, and perhaps even Sardinia itself?), can be dated to about the 13th century BCE, but there are also traces of presence attributable to an earlier date, which would match the Late Minoan era. Yet, even though there may have been some trade contacts through the port of Kommos between the Late Minoans and Nuragic Sardinians at, say, 1500 BCE, this does not imply that a Linear A tablet bearing an inscription read as "Saisara" found at that port must be interpreted as a ring in the chain linking the toponym Sassari to the personal name Sisera! Actually, the name "Saisara" -- probably a feminine theonym, and thus read on the basis of its equivalent on Linear B (Mycenaean) votive tablets, which carry the legend <(y)a-sa-sa-ra>, is found on several other Linear A inscriptions from Crete, not only on one tablet found at Kommos as Prof. Zertal seems to suggest. Therefore, his attempted connection with the "Shardanas of Kommos" evaporates in the air, and we are left with his imaginative lexical comparison between 'Sisera' and 'Sassari' (see above).

      Kindest regards,
      Francesco Brighenti
      Venezia
    • driver40386
      Perhaps Prof. Zertal forgot that we have one example from Ugarit tablets of Shardana names, a father & son. Amar-Addu, son of Mutba al . ref: Internal
      Message 2 of 7 , Jul 4, 2010
        Perhaps Prof. Zertal forgot that we have one example from Ugarit tablets of Shardana names, a father & son.
        "Amar-Addu, son of Mutba'al".
        ref: Internal Organization, Heltzer, p.127.
        Distinctly Semitic, wouldn't you say?

        According to Vagnetti (2000), the name of the island of Sardinia in the Sea Peoples period was Ichnussa.

        Regards, Jon Smyth
        Kitchener, CAN

        --- In ANE-2@yahoogroups.com, "Francesco Brighenti" <frabrig@...>
        >wrote:
        >Therefore, his attempted connection with the "Shardanas of Kommos"
        >evaporates in the air, and we are left with his imaginative lexical
        >comparison between 'Sisera' and 'Sassari' (see above).
      • Antonio Lombatti
        Unique discoveries revealed as a result of excavations at Shengavit (4000-3000 B.C.) confirm that Armenia is the motherland of metallurgy, jeweler’s art,
        Message 3 of 7 , Jul 5, 2010
          Unique discoveries revealed as a result of excavations at Shengavit
          (4000-3000 B.C.) confirm that Armenia is the motherland of metallurgy,
          jeweler�s art, wine-making and horse breeding...


          Professor Rothman added:


          For his part, Mitchell S. Rothman, a Professor of Anthropology and
          Archaeology and founder of the Anthropology Department at Widener
          University in Chester, Pennsylvania, said that all the discoveries
          prove that around 6,000 years ago the culture of Shengavit has spread
          over the ancient world. �All that was known in Mesopotamia came from
          Armenia. Armenia is the absent fragment in the entire mosaics of the
          ancient world�s civilizations construction. Shengavit has supplemented
          the lacking chains, that we had been facing while studying the ancient
          culture of Mesopotamia,� concluded Rothman.

          The full article can be found here:

          http://www.panarmenian.net/eng/society/news/50844/


          Antonio Lombatti

          --------------------------------------
          http://www.antoniolombatti.it





          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • Yitzhak Sapir
          ... Aren Maeir pointed out in a blog comment that Dothan and Stager already published chariot linchpins.  Stager s article ( Chariot Fittings from Philistine
          Message 4 of 7 , Jul 5, 2010
            On Fri, Jul 2, 2010 at 2:20 PM, Antonio Lombatti wrote:
            > ...Sisera. He came from Sardinia:
            >
            > http://www.jpost.com/ChristianInIsrael/Features/Article.aspx?id=180213
            >
            > Antonio Lombatti

            Aren Maeir pointed out in a blog comment that Dothan and Stager already
            published chariot linchpins.  Stager's article ("Chariot Fittings from
            Philistine
            Ashkelon" in Dever, et al., Confronting the Past) can be read at -
            http://www.google.com/books?id=oYearm8YobQC&pg=PA169

            Also, Amihai Mazar comments on the architectural comparisons here
            (in "From 1200 to 850 CE", in L. Grabbe's Israel in Transition, p. 98 n 11) -
            http://www.google.com/books?id=tR0Qpz2zRogC&pg=PA98&dq=shrdn

            Yitzhak Sapir
            Israel
          • Trudy Kawami
            It has been long known that metallurgy s roots are in the mountains that actually held the ores. Ur is not exactly in mining territory & Pu-abi s gold had to
            Message 5 of 7 , Jul 6, 2010
              It has been long known that metallurgy's roots are in the mountains that
              actually held the ores. Ur is not exactly in mining territory & Pu-abi's
              gold had to come from somewhere else. The Caucasus region has
              long-documented trade ties with the Land Between the Rivers, but to
              attribute all Mesopotamian culture to a modern language/ethnic group
              and/or modern nation-state is just what you do to secure funding.
              Unfortunately it also warps the general understanding of archaeology as
              a whole.

              It is notable that the context of the equid bones was not noted, nor was
              the species. (That they were domesticated horse is an assumption.) The
              presence of a notable amount of bones suggests that the
              equids/horses/tarpan were eaten, not ridden. In most of Mesopotamia
              horses were an elite, high-status animal, so there are not a lot of
              horse bones laying around most sites.
              Trudy Kawami

              -----Original Message-----
              From: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com [mailto:ANE-2@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
              Antonio Lombatti
              Sent: Monday, July 05, 2010 4:41 PM
              To: ANE-2@yahoogroups.com
              Subject: [ANE-2] Mesopotamia's civilization came from Armenia

              Unique discoveries revealed as a result of excavations at Shengavit
              (4000-3000 B.C.) confirm that Armenia is the motherland of metallurgy,
              jeweler's art, wine-making and horse breeding...


              Professor Rothman added:


              For his part, Mitchell S. Rothman, a Professor of Anthropology and
              Archaeology and founder of the Anthropology Department at Widener
              University in Chester, Pennsylvania, said that all the discoveries
              prove that around 6,000 years ago the culture of Shengavit has spread
              over the ancient world. "All that was known in Mesopotamia came from
              Armenia. Armenia is the absent fragment in the entire mosaics of the
              ancient world's civilizations construction. Shengavit has supplemented
              the lacking chains, that we had been facing while studying the ancient
              culture of Mesopotamia," concluded Rothman.

              The full article can be found here:

              http://www.panarmenian.net/eng/society/news/50844/


              Antonio Lombatti

              --------------------------------------
              http://www.antoniolombatti.it





              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]



              ------------------------------------

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