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10th-C prophet in Judah at Sha`arayim?

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  • Brian Colless
    Here is a summary of my attempt to read the Qeiyafa ostracon inscription. Because it is tentative (though I think that this qualification applies to all
    Message 1 of 2 , Jan 3, 2010
      Here is a summary of my attempt to read the Qeiyafa ostracon
      inscription.
      Because it is 'tentative' (though I think that this qualification
      applies to all human knowledge) It cannot be offered as evidence for
      the religious situation in 10th-century Judah or Israel.
      (No mention of pigs, though, and no pig-bones on the site, as Itay
      Zandbank reported recently, quoting Haggai Misgav. )
      What? No YHWH? only El and Ba`al?
      But the writer seems to be claiming to have a relationship with a/the
      god.

      I have had to depose the Melek and the Seren that some have found there.
      No David. No Gath.
      But Goliath could sneak into the gap early in line 3.

      The full account (which is heavy going and crammed with false leads)
      is here:

      http://cryptcracker.blogspot.com/2010/01/qeiyafa-ostracon-inscription-this-large.html

      I would be grateful for any information that would assist me in
      understanding this text.
      Is an interpretation of it offered in the report?
      Khirbet Qeiyafa Vol. 1. Excavation Report 2007–2008
      Yosef Garfinkel and Saar Ganor
      ________________________________

      [-1?] (One or more lines here originally?)

      [1] ' L T ` Sh : Q/W? ` B D ' [L?] : Z? H?

      [2] Sh P Tt . B W? ' L M [ ] ? P Tt

      [3] G? L. [ ] B ` L D/S? . H? [ ] Y?

      [4] ' [ ] M W? N? Q? M Y B? D M L K .

      [5] '/Hh/R/S? Q w/y M ` B D M Sh Y : Ss? D Q T .

      [1] 'L T`ShQ `BD '[L]
      [1] "Do not ('L) oppress (T`ShQ) the servant (`BD) of Go[d] (`[L])."

      [1b - 2] Z H || Sh P Tt . B W ' L M [Sh] P Tt
      "He is the Judge; he has come for judgement."

      [3] G L B ` L D/S H? Y?
      [3] "The Lord (B`L) has revealed (GL) his support (S[mk]H) to me ([L]Y)"
      Another possible way to go is:
      [3] "Exult (GL), with (B) rejoicing (`LS), celebrate (H[ll]) for me
      ([L]Y)"

      [4] ` [Q] M W N Q M Y B D M L K
      [4] "I will [ar]ise ( 'QM), and (W) my vengeance (NQMY) for you (LK)
      will be with (B) blood (DM)"


      [5] ' Q W/Y M ` B D Y M Sh Ss D Q T
      [5] "I will confirm (`QYM) my servant (`BDY) MSh iwith justice (SsDQT)"
      ___________________________________________________________

      The hypothesis I propose is that this is an oracle document, and, as
      with the utterances of the prophets of ancient Israel, the deity is
      quoted amid the declarations of the seer, as a 'servant' of YHWH.

      The first three lines, then, are a statement of the prophet: first
      quoting an injunction from God concerning the 'servant' himself (line
      1); then a warning that God is coming in judgement (line 2); and God
      has expressed his support for his agent (line 3). In the remaining two
      lines, God affirms his vindication of his 'servant', possibly named
      Mosheh. (I might have had scruples about reading the combination MSh
      as Moses in the Wadi el-Hol inscription, but not here.)

      Note that the words being proposed here (roots `ShQ, ShPTt, SsDQ, NQM,
      SMK) occur together in Isaiah 59:11-17 and 63:1-7, where God comes in
      bloody judgement (Gath is also mentioned but only as 'the winepress'
      which he treads in his wrath).

      Brian Colless
      Massey University, NZ

      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • Sam WOLFF
      After having had a quick glance at the newly published report, I can tell you that there is a chapter by H. Misgav on the ostracon, followed by a chapter
      Message 2 of 2 , Jan 4, 2010
        After having had a quick glance at the newly published report, I can tell you that there is a chapter by H. Misgav on the ostracon, followed by a chapter containing further comments by A. Yardeni. I did not check this, nor does it state so, but I would imagine that these chapters are English translations of their Hebrew articles from the recent Jerusalem conference. I didn't see Demsky and Ahituvs' contributions from the same conference, however.

        In addition, there is a bone report which states that no piggies were found at the site.

        Even though the authors argue in favor of the identification of the site as Sha'arayim, I think you should be less certain in your blog when you discuss this; that is, there are opposing viewpoints (Na'aman, etc.).

        Sam Wolff
        Jerusalem


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