Re: Persia, Egypt, Babylon
- --- In ANEfirstname.lastname@example.org, "Clark Whelton" <cwhelton@...> wrote:
> I don't claim to know the answers. This is a complex puzzle andPreviously, Liz Fried wrote:
> I've changed my views on the subject several times. If I had to
> bet, I'd say the problem stems from an inflated chronology that
> gave rise to dark ages, intermediate periods and ad hoc explanations
> for missing evidence. Whatever the cause, the Medes and Chaldeans
> cling to a fragile existence as literary creations. If not for
> Greek and Biblical texts, big chunks of the 1st millennium --
> including much of the Achaemenid Empire -- would have been engulfed
> by dark ages.
> Clark Whelton
> New York
<< Let's be clear on what a stratum is, first of all, and how they
are detected in the archaeological record.
A stratum is first of all a DESTRUCTION LAYER. Archaeologists dig
through debris until they get to a floor. The debris between one
floor and the next is a stratum. When a town is destroyed, and people
go back and rebuild it on top of the previous city, they level the
debris, and build a new city on top of the old. That accounts for the
I believe that Liz Fried's description of what a stratum is and how
they are detected in the archaeological record is an important part
of the "complex puzzle".
The Neo-Assyrian empire also left very few if any 'destruction
layers' inside the Assyrian heartland until the last years of
invasion and destruction. In their book 'The Bible Unearthed',
Finkelstein and Silberman devote a whole chapter (Appendix) to
explain why the long reign of Manasse is very poorly attested in
the archaeological record of Palestine: it was a time of peace with
Assyria, and there were no 'smoking ruins' producing destruction
layers to help future archaeologists.
The problem with solutions by removing alleged 'Dark Ages' in certain
cultures is that those time periods are almost always attested in
other parts of the world, so these reduced chronologies will destroy
established synchronisms. Attempts to shorten the 'Dark Ages' of
Greece and Anatolia disregard the fact that life went on with
'business as usual' in the Hallstatt culture of central Europe, with
continued trade with Iron Age Italy. You can't just remove those
years that appear (almost) empty for the moment, because even those
blank pages are likely to be written on, sooner or later. E.g., there
was a Congress in Lisbon in 2006, "A New Dawn for the Dark Age?",
devoted to a detailed study of the Iron Age chronology of
Mediterranean 'Dark Age' cultures (BAR International Series 1871,
- At 08:26 AM 8/5/2009, Clark Whelton wrote:
>[...] If I had to bet, I'd say the problem stems from an inflatedSounds familiar. Let's see ... here:
>chronology that gave rise to dark ages, intermediate periods and ad
>hoc explanations for missing evidence. [...]
>At 09:30 AM 2/27/2006, Ariel L. Szczupak wrote::(
>At 19:25 26/02/2006, Clark Whelton wrote:
>Please not Heinsohn again :(
[100% bona fide dilettante ... delecto ergo sum!]
Ariel L. Szczupak
AMIS-JLM (Ricercar Ltd.)
POB 4707, Jerusalem, Israel 91406
Phone: +972-2-5619660 Fax: +972-2-5634203
- I have not accomplished much in Persian period research, thus I incorrectly described this cylinder after I read a few web pages about it this morning. Thanks for correcting me. I have read Layard's writtings and one rare book published by Rassam. Layard was a self-educated archaeologist and author who later won a seat in the British parliament.
David Q. Hall
From: Peter T. Daniels <grammatim@...>
Sent: Wednesday, August 5, 2009 11:19:10 AM
Subject: Re: [ANE-2] Persia, Egypt, Babylon
The Cyrus Cylinder is not in Old Persian. Old Persian was never written on clay.
(One exception has turned up among the tens of thousands of Persepolis Fortification Tablets.)
The first treatment of the (Babylonian) text of the Cyrus Cylinder was published by H. C. Rawlinson in JRAS n.s. 12 (1880): 70-97.
Peter T. Daniels grammatim@verizon. net
>[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
>From: David Hall <dqhall59@yahoo. com>
>To: ANE-2@yahoogroups. com
>Sent: Wednesday, August 5, 2009 8:41:06 AM
>Subject: Re: [ANE-2] Persia, Egypt, Babylon
><while in Babylon -- a city where Darius held court and which served as a de
><facto capital of the Persian Empire -- there is a "painful" (Briant) absence
><of such evidence. Apparently no one on ANE sees anything wrong with the
><picture of Darius the lawgiver reforming legal codes in Egypt, but not in
><Babylon. No one sees a problem with Darius leaving inscriptions in
><Babylonian at Behistun, but not in Babylonia.
>The Cyrus II cylinder was found in Babylon. It is in the collection of the British Museum. This clay cylinder was written in Old Persian.
>The cylinder is a record of the conquest of Babylon in 539 and the Persian king's policy of sending people who were taken captive from their homelands by the Babylonians back to their homelands.
>The cylinder was found in 1879 in the ruins of the city of Babylon by Hormuzd Rassam, a Mesopotamian Christian, who had been trained by Henry Austen Layard while working for the British Museum during the excavation of Nineveh.
>The evidence for the Persian occupation of Babylon was found in an obscure place by doing a two minute google search. One should remember not to overlook the obvious.
>David Q. Hall
- And, if I may be allowed to add: Please not Velikovsky again!
>From: "Ariel L. Szczupak" <ane.als@...>
>Sent: Aug 5, 2009 2:34 PM
>Subject: Re: [ANE-2] Persia, Egypt, Babylon
>At 08:26 AM 8/5/2009, Clark Whelton wrote:
>>[...] If I had to bet, I'd say the problem stems from an inflated
>>chronology that gave rise to dark ages, intermediate periods and ad
>>hoc explanations for missing evidence. [...]
>Sounds familiar. Let's see ... here:
>>At 09:30 AM 2/27/2006, Ariel L. Szczupak wrote:
>>At 19:25 26/02/2006, Clark Whelton wrote:
>>Please not Heinsohn again :(
>[100% bona fide dilettante ... delecto ergo sum!]
>Ariel L. Szczupak
>AMIS-JLM (Ricercar Ltd.)
>POB 4707, Jerusalem, Israel 91406
>Phone: +972-2-5619660 Fax: +972-2-5634203
>Yahoo! Groups Links