Re: Qumran ink, dam...
- It would really help if people would read the basic literature before pontificating. Read my articles, read David Amit on the aqudeucts of Qumran, read Netzer on those of Jericho. Oh and please, do me a favour, and don't correct me about the dating of the aqueducts of Jericho which I just happen to have excavated.
--- In ANEfirstname.lastname@example.org, David Hall <dqhall59@...> wrote:
> In the Bible Encyclopedia I picked another article about parchment and found other sources insisting dog dung was used.ï¿½ Difficult to prove it though:
> I recall some people had learned to use a solution of woodash and water to soak an animalï¿½skin to remove the hair from it.ï¿½ The kiln dried lime might have produced a similar result as it is also alkali containing calcium instead of potassium from wood ash (potash).ï¿½
> As oneï¿½would want to locate a pottery kiln downwind of houses as the smoke got in one's eyes, one might have done the same with a tannery/parchment prep business.ï¿½ The parchment may also have been purchased in Jericho or Jerusalemï¿½if the men of Qumran would rather have not made it themselves.ï¿½ There was an article in BAR about pottery kilns years agoï¿½by one describing the traditional location ofï¿½Haceldama, the potters field, to the south of Jerusalem as the winds were usually from another direction and a potter would have set up shop so as not to offend people with the smoke. A rural Palestinian village I visited had a huge primative dome shaped bread oven placed on vacant land in the village, not to bother locating it far from town.ï¿½ A tannery might have been located outside the thickly settled residential compound, but probably not far out of town.
> The livestock pen at Qumran is another matter.ï¿½ It was known that some owned flocks, but hired people to take the animals toï¿½green pasture and return certain times of the year for an accounting and to be paid.ï¿½ï¿½In the late winter/spring there wasï¿½milk, butter, andï¿½cheese to be collected in herding communities.ï¿½ By one report butter was boiled to form ghee and stored in animal skin bottles for lenghts of time without spoiling.ï¿½ Theï¿½ghee made from camel butterï¿½was valuable and traded in markets of Northern Arabia during the 19th century (Charles Doughty).ï¿½ï¿½By theï¿½Dead Sea there was not much grass most of the time.ï¿½ï¿½The way up towards Jerusalem was greener and the bottoms of ravines stayed green longer than hillsides above.ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½
> As for the dam at Qumran.ï¿½ There is preserved a stone lined channel from the rocky slope near theï¿½usually dry waterfallï¿½to the settlement that may have been used to fill the numerous pools and cistern on the property, unless they carried the water by bucket.ï¿½ It is up to the historian to connect the ravine above the usually dry water fall, or the rocky slope runoff to the deep pools of Qumran or assume there was another way to get seasonal rainwater from the ravine to the settlement below.ï¿½ The Herodian aqueduct was from Ain Qelt or Ain Farah,ï¿½have not read myï¿½sources recently,ï¿½down to Jericho kilometers away.ï¿½ It was not deemed impossible for there to be such a long aqueduct in those daysï¿½as remains of it were found in the Wadi Qelt.ï¿½ At Qumran one might have to look at more than one possible way the water collection system was engineered.ï¿½ï¿½Was there an aqueduct up to one of the pools in the ravine?ï¿½ They must have been able to find a way
> in the wilderness complete with waterï¿½supply engineering or carriedï¿½water by camel/donkey from Ain Fashkha by the shore of the Dead Seaï¿½to fill their pools.ï¿½ ï¿½
> David Q. Hallï¿½