I was granted U.S. patent 3,890,161, DIODE ARRAY in 1975 on a chip
which absorbs uniform ambient surrounding heat as it transforms
thermal energy into a matching yield of electrical power. The chip,
in mature form, will consist of billions of nanometer scale diodes in
consistent alignment that rectify and aggregate radio frequency
thermal noise into D.C. electricity. The diodes are in parallel first
so the diode currents bypass each other. The froward current that
half of the diodes release half the time at random times will
overwhelm the low reverse current released by the other half of the
diodes. The net forward current of the diodes is aggregated into
useful power at low voltage. Groups of diodes in parallel are then
connected in series to build higher voltage.
The power needed to alter the width of the depletion region at the
junction, which determines the conductivity of a diode, is deducted
from the thermal noise leaving net rectified power meaning that less
power is needed to sort the random power than is supplied by the
random thermal power. This means that a varient of Maxwell's demon,
Smoluchowski's trapdoor, applied to electrons will work.
The device does not have to completely convert heat at one reservoir
into another form; even partial conversion will get somewhere. A
successful PPM2 mchine reguires only that there be some refrigeration
and an equal amount of another form of energy released.
The concept was tested in 1993 where more power than ~2 nanowatts,
the power a single diode can yield, 1 /2 kTB where 1 / 2 accounts for
rectification, k=Boltzmann's constant, T=temperature in Kelvins and
B= 1 THz, the upper frequency limit of thermal noise, was measured
from a chip consisting of ~5,600 Au dot anodes surrounded by SiO2 on
a n GaAs substrate. The chip produced ~50 nanowatts as ~50 millivolts
across 50 K ohms under professional test conditions, showing
This experiment should be corroborated. I would be pleased to advise.
I can be uninvolved in the financing of these experiments.
Practical diode arrays require nanofabrication of arrays containing a
great number of nanometer scale diodes.
Future appliances would get all the energy they were designed for
from ordinary air or water. This energy would be clean, cheap, widely
available, safe, quiet, reliable, and not emit greenhouse gas.
Furthermore, air conditioning would release electricity instead of
consuming it, which is more sensible. Small appliances would work
cordlessly anywhere in the world out of the box. Diode arrays in
computers with minor inputs and outputs would recycle the heat from
the operating chips so the system would not release heat or need
external power while using lots of high power high speed logic.
I want this to be commercialized without licensing restrictions on
the diode array or its applications involving all humanity in
Charles M. Brown
Kilauea, Kauai, HI