The Hydrogen News #26
- The Hydrogen News # 26
In this issue:
(1) Read story #35. If you read nothing else read that story.
(2) How to build water based electronics (my story).
(3) Making H2 from booze (story #1).
(4) Who owns the world's oil? (story #40).
Solid State, Liquid State
By Mike Johnston
The Hydrogen News is a free publication but if anyone would like to slip
a couple of bucks my way to help with buying equipment to
further my research I would appreciate it. I now have a Pay-Pal
"Donate" button on my blog and my website for this purpose.
In this edition I want to introduce a concept that might be new to a
lot of people and at the same time describe one of my own experiments with
a particular effect. Most people today are at least somewhat
familiar with the basic electronic components that we all depend on to
sustain our society. Items such as capacitors, rectifiers, choke
coils, transistors and the like. But most people don't know that you can
use water as one of the basic components for building all of them. Yep,
you could build a water based computer. That might be a really interesting
project for some enterprising student somewhere to build. Or you could
build more basic electronic devices such as voltage
multipliers (require rectifiers and capacitors) or something like
that. I have personally built water based capacitors and rectifiers and
want to tackle a transistor next.
Capacitors are the easiest electronic component to build with water.
All you need is some water, two (ideally inert) metal plates and a
container. In that situation water is the dielectric. So that is simple
enough and after all electrolytic capacitors are fairly common and are
similar. So then we could say that any electrolysis cell that we build to
produce hydrogen from water is actually a capacitor. This is true and is
an important factor to take into consideration when designing and building
electrolysis cells in order to achieve the best possible efficiency. Once
we add an electrolyte to the water in our capacitor the capacitor begins
to "leak" current between it's plates and becomes a less efficient
capacitor and a more efficient conductor. The more electrolyte that is
added the lass capacitance that there is and the more it becomes just a
conductor. But there are limits to how much electrolyte can be added and
so the cell will always retain some of it's capacitor characteristics.
What about semiconductors though like transistors? Can water be used as
a semiconductor too? I think so. If you look at how semiconductors work
and compare that to what effects can be achieved with water I think you
will agree. Semiconductors depend on a two way conduction effect.
"Holes" move in one direction and electrons in the other. "Holes" are
simply atoms which have lost one or more electrons on their outer
shells and electrons of course are negatively charged particles. So one
could make a comparison between positively charged "holes" and the
positive ions in an electrolytic solution and between electrons and the
negatively charged ions in such a solution. In water the OH- ions would be
the "electrons" as they carry an extra electron and the H+ ions the
"holes" as they are lacking an electron. Pure Silicon is not a very good
semiconductor just like pure water is not a very good conductor. Silicon
must be "doped" with substances such as Boron or Phosphorous. Water must
also have other compounds added to it (electrolytes) to make it a
conductor. Will water ever replace Silicon as the
semiconductor of choice? Probably not but it is interesting to think about.
Rectifiers are easy to build too and will be the main focus of this
story. I am going to rely on an outside page to describe and illustrate
such a water based rectifier and also for the analysis of the
electrical performance of such a rectifier. The Author of that page:
http://home.earthlink.net/~lenyr/borax.htm seems pretty competent in those
areas. I will handle the description of the reactions involved and
describe my own experiences while replicating the system he
describes and the modifications that I made to it and the results that I
observed because of those modifications. So before reading the rest of
this story I would encourage you to go ahead and click on the above link
and read the story there. If anyone has trouble accessing that page I do
have the page saved on my computer.
Now that you have read about the rectifier cells with the glowing
electrodes I am sure you will find the rest of this story quite
interesting. When I first encountered that concept I was immediately
fascinated with it. I set out to duplicate the experiment described. In my
rectifier cell I used aluminum strips about 1 1/2" wide and 5" long. I cut
these strips from a new pie tin. I used distilled water and borax in the
cell. I connected the cell to my 120 volt household mains as described
using a light bulb to provide resistance and thereby prevent the
possibility of too much current flowing through the circuit. I wired the
light bulb in series with the cell, on the hot side between the cell and
the outlet. I also included a 10 amp circuit breaker in the circuit as
added insurance against a runaway current.
I turned on the cell and watched for a while as the oxide coat formed
on the aluminum strips. I first ran the setup during the day and so could
detect no glow on the electrodes. Later that night though, when I turned
the power on again, I did notice the described glow and was captivated by
the effect. It seems like such a cool and attention
getting demonstration that I am surprised that it is not more commonly known.
After observing the cell for a while and determining that, once the
oxide coat formed on the aluminum electrodes, the electrodes were not
experiencing any deterioration I began to measure it's performance and to
think about additional possibilities that might be interesting to try with
it in terms of potential uses and modifications that might be made to the
basic setup. The measurements I took on the cell were
themselves interesting. I took my multimeter and measured the potential
difference between the water in the cell and the grounded outlet box on
the wall. The observed potential difference was 168 volts. That was
interesting because that value was essentially the peak value of the AC
line current (170 volts) and not the usually measured 120 volt RMS (Root
Mean Square) value for AC. This even though a part of the voltage was
being dropped across the light bulb which was before the cell in series.
At this point I wondered if I could transfer this electrical charge
(voltage) from the water in the rectifier cell to another container of
water without increasing the nearly nonexistent current through the
rectifier cell. To test this I inserted an electrode made of 316
stainless between the other two (Al) electrodes in the rectifier cell.
Then I set up a "normal" electrolysis cell using NaOH electrolyte with two
316 stainless electrodes in it. I wired these two electrodes to each other
to form a circuit between them. I then placed a third
electrode of 316 stainless between these two in the electrolysis cell. I
then connected the third electrode in the rectifier cell to the third
electrode in the electrolysis cell. For an illustration of this setup
please right click on the following link and open it in a new browser
I then measured the potential difference between the water in this
satellite cell and the grounded outlet box and found it to be 168
volts. So, using a single wire connected to a neutral electrode in each
cell all of the electric charge in the rectifier cell was being
transferred to the satellite cell. The next question was how to make use
of the charge in the satellite cell and whether or not utilizing the
charge in the satellite cell would affect the level of charge in the
rectifier cell. I measured the potential difference between the two other
electrodes in the satellite cell (without them being connected to each
other) and found it to be 1.68 volts. I thought it was curious that these
two electrodes should have any potential difference at all between them
since they were both of equal size and shape and were both in the same
container of water which should have an equal charge
I began to move the electrodes into different positions in relation to
each other and to the single "charged" electrode between them. I found
that I could change the measured potential difference between these two
electrodes through a range of 1.68 volts to 3 volts. The farther away from
each other that the electrodes were the greater the potential difference
between them. Also I found that by placing one of these electrodes close
to the charged electrode and the other one farther away I could increase
the potential difference between them.
Next I connected these two electrodes to each other with a piece of
wire. The pd ( potential difference) between them immediately dropped to
zero. No electrolysis was observed in the cell however. Then I
installed a 6 amp rectifier in the wire between the two electrodes in the
satellite cell to see if I could get a DC current to flow between the two
electrodes. Again, no electrolysis was observed. Finally I tried usingonly
the two main electrodes in the rectifier cell and
connecting each of them directly to the two electrodes in the satellite
cell (eliminating the neutral electrode in the satellite cell). I put a
rectifier on each wire, facing in opposite directions, so a DC current
might possibly be able to flow through this setup. Again, no
electrolysis was observed, although in this case the pd was maintained
between the electrodes in the satellite cell.
I believe that there are many avenues to explore within the above
mentioned setup which could yield scientifically useful information but I
have not pursued them at this point. Instead I turned my thoughts to other
ways that I might capitalize on the rectifier cell. I set up two more
rectifier cells, identical to the first, in series with the first. I then
measured the pd between the first and last electrodes in the series and
found it to be 113 volts (see figure 2 here:
these illustrations the rectifier symbols are meant to represent the
rectifier aspects of the oxide coated aluminum electrodes in the
rectifier cells. The exception to this is the rectifier shown in the wire
between the electrodes of the satellite cell. In that case the symbol is
meant to depict the previously mentioned 6a rectifier I
Next I measured the pd between the water in the first and last cells
and found it to be 168 volts, the same as between the water in the single
rectifier cell and the grounded wall plate in my previous
example. This intrigued me because when I had measured the pd of the
probes of my micrometer in the water within a single rectifier cell, by
placing my probes in the water but a space apart, I could only ever
measure a pd of around 3 volts. Three volts didn't seem like much to work
with but 168 volts did.
I then installed an electrode made of 316 stainless between the
aluminum electrodes on both the first and last rectifier cell in the
series. I should mention that, in all cases in this paper where
neutral, stainless electrodes are mentioned, said electrodes are just
hanging down into the solution. They are not connected to the other two
electrodes in the cell in any way and are not large enough to divide the
cells into two separate halves. I then measured the pd between these
stainless electrodes in the first and last cells and found it to be 98
volts. The pd between the first and last aluminum rectifier cell
electrodes remained at 113 volts. I then decided to try to use this setup
as a power source for an induction coil/transformer. The
transformer that I had available to work with was a common 120 volt to 12
volt automotive battery charger.
My transformer stepped 120 volt AC current down to 12 volt DC. (see
figure 3: LINK) I ran a wire from each of the neutral electrodes in the
rectifier cells to one of the prongs on the AC plug of the charger. I then
turned on the power. The pd between the first and last aluminum electrodes
in the rectifier cell series remained at 113 volts.The pd between the two
neutral electrodes now measured at 48 volts, a 100 volt drop after the
transformer was connected. Obviously SOMETHING was
happening inside the transformer to cause the voltage drop between the
electrodes that is was connected to. I really didn't think that any usable
energy would be transferred to the transformer secondary though as that
seemed too easy.Just for giggles though I picked up the battery clamps on
the 12 volt side of the transformer and tapped them together to see if
they would throw a spark like they would if they were plugged into the
wall socket directly. Much to my surprise a nice yellow spark was
generated by tapping the electrodes together!
Then I took the electrolysis cell that I had already put together to
use in the previously described phase of this research and hooked it up to
the 12 volt side of the charger. Vigorous electrolysis commenced
immediately in the electrolysis cell. The measured pd between the
electrodes in the electrolysis cell (under load) fluctuated between 3 and
4 volts with 3.6 volts being the average. The current flowing through the
electrolysis cell was about 1.8 amps. Remember that a lower resistance
cell would have allowed more current to flow and
consequently produced more hydrogen and that 3.6 volts is enough pd to
power at least 2 and possibly 3 electrolysis cells depending on the
On the primary side of the transformer the only voltage drop noticed
when the transformer was powering the electrolysis cell on it's
secondary was the one previously mentioned between the two neutral,
stainless electrodes in the rectifier cells. The pd between the
aluminum electrodes in the rectifier cells did not drop. Instead it
actually increased. This seemed curious to me as the current flowing
through the secondary should cause more current to flow on the primary
side but the rectifier cells were still blocking all or nearly all current
flow in the primary. With that in mind I settled in to watch the system
perform for a while. I noticed a few strange effects on the primary side
of the transformer and I will spend the remainder of this paper describing
them and giving my thoughts on their causes. I want to do that because I
think they are significant in their own right.
Image link for figure 3:
Let me list my measurements of the pd between the water of the individual
cells and the grounded wall plate both without the transformer and with
Cell#1 no transformer: 120 volts, with transformer: 120volts
Cell #2 no transformer: 78 volts, with transformer: 98 volts
Cell #3 no transformer: 28 volts, with transformer: 92 volts
See what I mean about the presence of the transformer increasing the
voltage of the cells?
I also noticed that when the rectifier cells are wired in series the
electrodes no longer glow in the same way as they did with only one cell.
With three cells in series only two of the electrodes glow. The first
electrode (cathode) of the first cell in the series and the last electrode
(anode) of the last cell in the series. The cathode of the first cell
glows brightly but the anode of the last cell glows only dimly. None of
the electrodes between these two glows at all neither do they dissolve
even after prolonged operation.
The next thing that I noticed was that the amount of bubbles being
produced at the aluminum rectifier cell electrodes (of which there were
only tiny amounts) in cell #1 was greater than the amount being
produced in cells numbers 2 & 3. In 2 & 3 the the amount of gasses being
produced was so small as to be very nearly nonexistent. In cell # 1
however there were tiny but steady streams of bubbles being produced at
the edges of the electrodes. When the transformer is hooked up the amount
of bubbles being produced in the # 1 rectifier cell increases noticeably.
Here is another puzzle. The gas being produced in the # 1 cell with the
transformer hooked up is formed on the cathode of that cell and on the
neutral stainless electrode, NOT on the anode of the cell! No increase of
bubble formation is observed in either of the other two cells in this
I believe that the transformer coil is acting to boost the voltage in
the rectifier cells by first storing and releasing the energy of the AC
radio signal that is passing through the cells. And I think that more
current is flowing between the neutral electrodes than is flowing in the
primary circuit itself and the current is moving from one neutral
electrode to the other and then reversing polarity and going back to the
other electrode as the polarity of the cells changes. So the
neutral cells are in essence antennas which are inserted into the radio
signal in the water and are receiving the signal like a radio antenna.
This might be possible because water is much better at transferring waves
than is air.
If you look again at the voltages listed above for the water in each of
the cells in series you will notice that the voltage ("charge") in each
cell is different. This means that the neutral electrodes, inserted into
the first and last cells, are actually taking advantage of this potential
difference between the water of the cells in the series. This brings up a
rather unique possibility. Imagine if you will a hot wire leading into the
series of cells as pictured. But then imagine the ground wire being
removed (I don't recommend you do this). That would be more or less like
an incomplete circuit in the primary. It is true that the hot wire is
still electrically energized and does put out a small but detectable emf
around it. But no current can flow because no complete circuit exists for
current to flow through and so no current can flow.
Imagine now, as I said, that we hook this lone hot wire to our series
of electrolysis cells but no ground wire is connected. Would the
electrodes in the cells act like tiny radio antennas and transmit the
electric charge from the hot wire through all of the cells? I did test
this setup and the answer is yes. Without a ground wire connected a pd can
still be measured between the water of the first and last cell in the
series and also between the battery clamps on the 12 volt side of the
transformer. No electrolysis occurred without the ground wire
hooked up but the electric charge was there and was being transferred to
the secondary of the transformer coil. Perhaps with more
sophisticated electronic components being added into the system by a
qualified electrical engineer there could be a system developed which
would allow current to flow in the secondary of the transformer in this
situation. If that is possible then, since no current flows in the
primary, it should be obvious that a single, small AC generator could
power an almost unlimited number of electrolysis cells via such a
system. Even the grounded system should have some definite potential for
further research and development in the search for better, more efficient
ways to produce hydrogen from water. Hopefully this paper will stimulate
some people who have the resources to further these concepts to do so.
I deal in finding possibilities. I form an idea and then try to
determine if it is possible. I don't worry about the practicality of the
possibilities that I develop because that is the job of Engineers and I am
not one. In the next issue of the Hydrogen News I want to describe to you
a rather interesting possibility, a way to produce hydrogen fuel from
water absolutely free. Yes I know I am standing on a rather short plank
with that statement. I have been working on this for a while however and
so far it hangs together. No moving parts, no using fossil fuels to
produce it, no engine or generator needed, no dissolving
metals. And no, it isn't wind or solar either. I am talking about using
the energy of the Earth itself... Stay tuned.
E! Magazine is your source for cutting edge environmental news.
Hydrogen News Links:
(1) Engineers Invent Ethanol Reactor Capable of Producing Hydrogen
Through funding from the Minnesota Cornn Growers Association, the
Minnesota Corn Research and...
(Corn alcohol? Damn, it's Hillbilly heaven! ED.)
(2) Fuel Cell Driven Yacht
The fuel-cell powered drive system for boats, which has been named
"CoolCell" by MTU, is used to...
(Let's see, I need an H2 yacht, and an H2 limo, an H2 Harley, and an
H2 Mansion, research can be such fun, can't it? ED.)
(3) Hydrogen Technologies: Are Advancements Robust Enough to Deliver on
Hydrogen's Immense Potential?
Hydrogen is being regarded as a promising candidate to replace
conventional hydrocarbon fuels in...
(4) Japan's Nippon Shokubai to mass-produce fuel cell ceramic sheets
Nippon Shokubai Co Ltd will build a pilot plant to manufacture
ceramic sheets for solid oxide fuel.
(5) Road to hydrogen cars may not be so clean
"I'm supportive of research and development, but we are at least two
decades away from (deploying)... San Francisco Chronicle
(6) U of Tasmania Hydrogen powered postie bike set for Tassie trial
The world's first hydrogen powered postie bike has been unveiled in
(7) Fuel-cell vehicles obscure--but popular
Only 24 percent of consumers know what fuel-cell vehicles are....but
they like them...
(8) Fuel cell cars on road to the future
General Motors sees the hydrogen-powered fuel cell car as the car of
(Remember, the future starts...NOW! ED.)
(9) Hybrid Cars are The Future
WHY has the Toyota Prius become the car industry's most talked about
(Seems as though Toyota and GM are not on quite the same page,
doesn't it? ED.)
(10) H2U Student Design Competition Goes International
This year, the National Hydrogen Association (NHA), ChevronTexaco
and the U.S. Department of Energy...
(if any of this year's teams want some design help/ideas just email
me at enki@... ED.)
----------------------------- Water Science
Water is one of the most fascinating substances in existence. Maybe I am a
bit prejudiced in saying that but I think
that anyone who has spent any time learning even a little bit about it's
structure, behavior and it's interactions with
other elements will agree. For much more detailed information about water
I suggest visiting Martin Chaplin's excellent
site here: http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/water/index.html
(11) Hydrogen Fuel Cell-Rocket power heats house
A fuel technology last used in a rocket mission to the moon has
been harnessed in a world first to...
(12) 2004 in Review
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2005/01/2004_in_review.html In a
year that may end up remembered more for the natural
catastrophe that closed it out, the transition to sustainable
transportation lurched into a higher gear and
began jerkily picking up a little bit of speed.
(13) Title: A proposed science initiative for Bush
Orson Scott Card has some observations about science.
(Ok, I don't agree with a lot of what this guy says but he makes
some interesting points and I liked the title of his blog: "Right
Wing Neo-Pagan" ED.)
(14) Hydrogen's not so Hot
Reason did a policy study last month exploring the impact of
switching cars over to hydrogen on greenhouse gas emissions.
(Here we see the latest "half accurate" anti-hydrogen spin story. It
is true in one scenario for H2 production but that isn' the only way to do
(15) Transition to hydrogen: road to China's energy sustainable
Based on the analysis of the status quo and the outlook for China's
energy, challenges facing China in energy sector are presented.
(So? Wal-Mart owns China now. If you can run a communist sweat shop
making capitalist goods cheaper on H2 then I'm all for it. ED.)
(16) Iceland to Spread Green Energy Mantra in Europe
(17) Pipe dream
What would happen when oil runs out?
( An interesting commentary but it concludes that we are doomed to
use petroleum pretty much forever.(sigh) ED.)
(18) H 2 --No
"Popular Science"[T]he truth is that we arent much closer to a
commercially viable hydrogen-powered car than we are to cold fusion or a
cure for cancer."The article
says that hydrogen is not and can never be an energy source on
Earth, that a hydrogen economy will not run on renewable energy any time
in the near future... and
several other sobering things."
(And;"If god intended man to fly he would have given him wings,
(19) "Shell Helping Lead the Way to The Hydrogen Economy"
Featuring an exclusive interview with Shell Hydrogen?s CEO Jeremy
Bentham, and outlining the forces driving us towards a future
fuelled at least partly by hydrogen.
( Of course this is just a waste of money according to the previous
(20) China's Large Oil Reserves in Bohai Bay Get Media Attention
Exploration teams have found the Bohai Bay Basin of North China may
contain 20.5 billion tons of offshore oil reserves, with 9 billion tons
already proven, experts said.
(Imagine an energy independent China which also has the world's
cheapest and most productive manufacturing workforce...uh-oh...
(21) Mining the Moon: Helium 3 to solve Earth's Energy Problems?
A potential gas source found on the moon's surface could hold the
key to meeting future energy demands as the earth's fossil fuels
dry up in the coming decades,
( hehehehe, oh, that's good. And people believe this crap? But we
can't produce H2 on Earth? hehehehe Fused H2 (or D2) can produce
He3 as a by-product. ED.)
(22) Out of the Energy Box?
http://e-energy.blogspot.com/2004/12/out-of-energy-box.html Out of
the Energy Box By S. JULIO FRIEDMANN AND THOMAS HOMER-DIXON
From the November/December 2004 issue of Foreign Affairs.
( Interesting to see world level players wring their hands and run
around crying "who will save us?" hehehe ED.)
(23) All About Fuel Cells And Alternative Fuel Vehicles
( A bunch of facts for whoever is interested. Might be a nice
resource for a school report. ED.)
(24) Texas Energy Center still hasn't created jobs
Energy Center leaders say the problem is a lack of federal funds
and a need to change their business plan to fit the objectives of
the jobs-focused Texas Enterprise
( Awww, poor Texas. I say we give George W. back to them. Maybe he
can solve their problems by bombing Louisiana back to the stone
age? Course if I get another
invite from the Carlyle Group my opinion might change...ED.)
(25) Dioxin - Closer than you think!
The deadly chemical dioxin has hit the headlines with the poisoning
of Ukrainian opposition leader Viktor Yuschenko. What doesn't often make
the news is the fact
that dioxin pollution is far more widespread than political
(26) Uncharted waters for the Climate?
Politicians from around the world are gathering in Argentina to
discuss climate change. We have unveiled our own 'Climate Ark' in
the centre of Buenos Aires to
illustrate the urgent need for action.
(27) IEA sees potential in hydrogen and fuel cells (Oil & Gas Journal)
Although commercial maturity and significant market penetration
remain decades away, hydrogen and fuel-cell technologies represent
high-potential options for a
secure energy future with diminished emissions of carbon dioxide.
(28) Golf Car utilizes 1.8 kW alkaline fuel cell generator
Freedom II, powered by Model E7 AFC Generator, runs smoothly and
silently and can be refueled in minutes. Generator is fueled by 33 L
carbon fiber cylinder of
compressed hydrogen and can operate for over 3 days between
refills. Emission-free generator contains two 900 W POWERSTACK
MC250 alkaline fuel cell stacks
and can deliver 20% overload factor for acceleration and hill
( But to go from golf cart to car is decades away? Sorta funny,
isn't it? ED.)
(29) Green Power
Thanks to soaring fuel prices, lots of creative energy is being
applied to alternative energy. The time may finally have come for
these three champions of on-the-verge
(30) New source of power at landfill
A WASTE landfill is not only to dispose of our daily discards. It
can also provide a valuable commodity – energy. Gas emanating from
dumps can be collected and
combusted to produce electricity, as is happening at the Ayer Hitam
Landfill in Puchong, Selangor.
(31 Engineers Invent Ethanol Reactor Capable of Producing Hydrogen
Through funding from the Minnesota Corn Growers Association, the
Minnesota Corn Research and Promotion Council and the University of
Minnesota's Initiative for
Renewable Energy and the Environment, engineers at the university
have invented the first reactor capable of efficiently producing
hydrogen from ethanol.
( Certain American's have been producing their own Ethanol for many
years from corn. Now they can make H2 from it to fuel their Still. I love
(32) Fuel Free-for-all
Forget the so-called 'philosopher's stone' which alchemists believe
could turn base metal into gold. Forget the perpetual motion
machine. The greatest dream of
science is cold fusion.
( Yeah, as if. Most people don't have a clue. Low energy fusion
reactions are really easy to do, but no one mentions that. They
focus on the cold fusion thing instead.
Or on the Tokamak hot fusion money pit. Let's not look at what IS
possible though...no,no..then we might accidentally build something that
actually works. ED.)
(33) Additional Detail on the Michelin/PSI HY-LIGHT Prototype
Michelin is providing a bit more information on the HY-LIGHT
hydrogen fuel cell concept car, including a simplified schematic (at
right). Developed in partnership with the
Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), the HY-LIGHT made its debut at the
Challenge Bibendum in Shanghai this year. (Earlier post.)The
lightweight car (850 kg) uses Michelin’s
Active Wheel units—electric traction motors combined with an
active electric suspension—mounted in the front wheels.
Supercapacitors store the electricity generated
by braking. Michelin designed the HY-LIGHT with the expectation of
using H2 and O2 generated via electrolysis and stored in separate
on-board tanks at up to 350 bar
(5,000 psi).With pressurized oxygen stored on-board, the HY-LIGHT
fuel cell does not require an on-board compressor to pump air
through it to provide the source of
oxygen through the fuel cell. Compressors add weight and power
consumption, and ambient air contains components the fuel cell
doesn’t require, such as nitrogen and
(34) British Steam Car Challenge
BBC profiles Glynne Bowsher, chief designer, and the British
Steam Car Challenge team in their quest to break the steam-car
speed record with their vehicle,
Inspiration. The extant record was set in 1906 by a Stanley Steamer
that reached 127.659 mph.
( This sounds like a lot of fun. Kind of like Soap Box Derby for
big boys. ED.)
(35) Grass Growing...in Antarctica
Grass has become established in Antarctica, showing the continent
is warming to temperatures unseen for 10,000 years.Scientists have
reported that broad areas of
grass are now forming turf where there were once ice-sheets and
glaciers.Tufts have previously grown on patches of Antarctica in
summer, but the scientists have now
observed larger areas surviving winter and spreading in the summer
months.“Grass has taken a grip. There are very rapid changes going
on in the Antarctic’s climate,
allowing grass to colonise areas that would once have been far too
cold,” said Pete Convey, an ecologist conducting research
with the British Antarctic Survey.
( But the Bush Administration still doesn't believe in Global
Warming? Oh well, look at the bright side, now Mickey D's has some new
grazing land for cattle. ED. )
(36) First H2ICE Hybrid Transit Bus in Service
SunLine Transit Agency in Palm Springs, CA, has put the first
H2ICE (Internal Combustion Engine) series hybrid transit bus into
(37) Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed
(38) Permafrost Not So Permanent
In parts of Fairbanks, Alaska, houses and buildings lean at odd
angles. Some slump as if sliding downhill. Windows and doors inch
closer and closer to the ground. It
is an architectural landscape that is becoming more familiar as the
world's ice-rich permafrost gives way to thaw.
(39) Designing the World's Future
Today, the future of most of the people, and indeed the future of
the whole world, is decided by only a few, who, in most cases, do
not even represent anybody else,
but themselves and their groups.
( Seems to me it has been this way for a very, very long time. ED.)
(40) Who Owns the World's Oil?
The struggles over the ownership of the two most important
political liquids of this era, petroleum and water, have had
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