Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

The Hydrogen News #26

Expand Messages
  • enki@chilitech.net
    The Hydrogen News # 26 In this issue: (1) Read story #35. If you read nothing else read that story. (2) How to build water based electronics (my story). (3)
    Message 1 of 1 , Jan 21, 2005
      The Hydrogen News # 26

      In this issue:

      (1) Read story #35. If you read nothing else read that story.

      (2) How to build water based electronics (my story).

      (3) Making H2 from booze (story #1).

      (4) Who owns the world's oil? (story #40).

      Solid State, Liquid State
      By Mike Johnston
      Copyright 2005

      The Hydrogen News is a free publication but if anyone would like to slip
      a couple of bucks my way to help with buying equipment to
      further my research I would appreciate it. I now have a Pay-Pal
      "Donate" button on my blog and my website for this purpose.
      Blog: http//:enki.tblog.com
      Website: http://www.geocities.com/mj_17870/index.html

      In this edition I want to introduce a concept that might be new to a
      lot of people and at the same time describe one of my own experiments with
      a particular effect. Most people today are at least somewhat
      familiar with the basic electronic components that we all depend on to
      sustain our society. Items such as capacitors, rectifiers, choke
      coils, transistors and the like. But most people don't know that you can
      use water as one of the basic components for building all of them. Yep,
      you could build a water based computer. That might be a really interesting
      project for some enterprising student somewhere to build. Or you could
      build more basic electronic devices such as voltage
      multipliers (require rectifiers and capacitors) or something like
      that. I have personally built water based capacitors and rectifiers and
      want to tackle a transistor next.

      Capacitors are the easiest electronic component to build with water.
      All you need is some water, two (ideally inert) metal plates and a
      container. In that situation water is the dielectric. So that is simple
      enough and after all electrolytic capacitors are fairly common and are
      similar. So then we could say that any electrolysis cell that we build to
      produce hydrogen from water is actually a capacitor. This is true and is
      an important factor to take into consideration when designing and building
      electrolysis cells in order to achieve the best possible efficiency. Once
      we add an electrolyte to the water in our capacitor the capacitor begins
      to "leak" current between it's plates and becomes a less efficient
      capacitor and a more efficient conductor. The more electrolyte that is
      added the lass capacitance that there is and the more it becomes just a
      conductor. But there are limits to how much electrolyte can be added and
      so the cell will always retain some of it's capacitor characteristics.

      What about semiconductors though like transistors? Can water be used as
      a semiconductor too? I think so. If you look at how semiconductors work
      and compare that to what effects can be achieved with water I think you
      will agree. Semiconductors depend on a two way conduction effect.
      "Holes" move in one direction and electrons in the other. "Holes" are
      simply atoms which have lost one or more electrons on their outer
      shells and electrons of course are negatively charged particles. So one
      could make a comparison between positively charged "holes" and the
      positive ions in an electrolytic solution and between electrons and the
      negatively charged ions in such a solution. In water the OH- ions would be
      the "electrons" as they carry an extra electron and the H+ ions the
      "holes" as they are lacking an electron. Pure Silicon is not a very good
      semiconductor just like pure water is not a very good conductor. Silicon
      must be "doped" with substances such as Boron or Phosphorous. Water must
      also have other compounds added to it (electrolytes) to make it a
      conductor. Will water ever replace Silicon as the
      semiconductor of choice? Probably not but it is interesting to think about.

      Rectifiers are easy to build too and will be the main focus of this
      story. I am going to rely on an outside page to describe and illustrate
      such a water based rectifier and also for the analysis of the
      electrical performance of such a rectifier. The Author of that page:
      http://home.earthlink.net/~lenyr/borax.htm seems pretty competent in those
      areas. I will handle the description of the reactions involved and
      describe my own experiences while replicating the system he
      describes and the modifications that I made to it and the results that I
      observed because of those modifications. So before reading the rest of
      this story I would encourage you to go ahead and click on the above link
      and read the story there. If anyone has trouble accessing that page I do
      have the page saved on my computer.

      Now that you have read about the rectifier cells with the glowing
      electrodes I am sure you will find the rest of this story quite
      interesting. When I first encountered that concept I was immediately
      fascinated with it. I set out to duplicate the experiment described. In my
      rectifier cell I used aluminum strips about 1 1/2" wide and 5" long. I cut
      these strips from a new pie tin. I used distilled water and borax in the
      cell. I connected the cell to my 120 volt household mains as described
      using a light bulb to provide resistance and thereby prevent the
      possibility of too much current flowing through the circuit. I wired the
      light bulb in series with the cell, on the hot side between the cell and
      the outlet. I also included a 10 amp circuit breaker in the circuit as
      added insurance against a runaway current.

      I turned on the cell and watched for a while as the oxide coat formed
      on the aluminum strips. I first ran the setup during the day and so could
      detect no glow on the electrodes. Later that night though, when I turned
      the power on again, I did notice the described glow and was captivated by
      the effect. It seems like such a cool and attention
      getting demonstration that I am surprised that it is not more commonly known.

      After observing the cell for a while and determining that, once the
      oxide coat formed on the aluminum electrodes, the electrodes were not
      experiencing any deterioration I began to measure it's performance and to
      think about additional possibilities that might be interesting to try with
      it in terms of potential uses and modifications that might be made to the
      basic setup. The measurements I took on the cell were
      themselves interesting. I took my multimeter and measured the potential
      difference between the water in the cell and the grounded outlet box on
      the wall. The observed potential difference was 168 volts. That was
      interesting because that value was essentially the peak value of the AC
      line current (170 volts) and not the usually measured 120 volt RMS (Root
      Mean Square) value for AC. This even though a part of the voltage was
      being dropped across the light bulb which was before the cell in series.

      At this point I wondered if I could transfer this electrical charge
      (voltage) from the water in the rectifier cell to another container of
      water without increasing the nearly nonexistent current through the
      rectifier cell. To test this I inserted an electrode made of 316
      stainless between the other two (Al) electrodes in the rectifier cell.
      Then I set up a "normal" electrolysis cell using NaOH electrolyte with two
      316 stainless electrodes in it. I wired these two electrodes to each other
      to form a circuit between them. I then placed a third
      electrode of 316 stainless between these two in the electrolysis cell. I
      then connected the third electrode in the rectifier cell to the third
      electrode in the electrolysis cell. For an illustration of this setup
      please right click on the following link and open it in a new browser
      window, link:

      I then measured the potential difference between the water in this
      satellite cell and the grounded outlet box and found it to be 168
      volts. So, using a single wire connected to a neutral electrode in each
      cell all of the electric charge in the rectifier cell was being
      transferred to the satellite cell. The next question was how to make use
      of the charge in the satellite cell and whether or not utilizing the
      charge in the satellite cell would affect the level of charge in the
      rectifier cell. I measured the potential difference between the two other
      electrodes in the satellite cell (without them being connected to each
      other) and found it to be 1.68 volts. I thought it was curious that these
      two electrodes should have any potential difference at all between them
      since they were both of equal size and shape and were both in the same
      container of water which should have an equal charge
      throughout it.

      I began to move the electrodes into different positions in relation to
      each other and to the single "charged" electrode between them. I found
      that I could change the measured potential difference between these two
      electrodes through a range of 1.68 volts to 3 volts. The farther away from
      each other that the electrodes were the greater the potential difference
      between them. Also I found that by placing one of these electrodes close
      to the charged electrode and the other one farther away I could increase
      the potential difference between them.

      Next I connected these two electrodes to each other with a piece of
      wire. The pd ( potential difference) between them immediately dropped to
      zero. No electrolysis was observed in the cell however. Then I
      installed a 6 amp rectifier in the wire between the two electrodes in the
      satellite cell to see if I could get a DC current to flow between the two
      electrodes. Again, no electrolysis was observed. Finally I tried usingonly
      the two main electrodes in the rectifier cell and
      connecting each of them directly to the two electrodes in the satellite
      cell (eliminating the neutral electrode in the satellite cell). I put a
      rectifier on each wire, facing in opposite directions, so a DC current
      might possibly be able to flow through this setup. Again, no
      electrolysis was observed, although in this case the pd was maintained
      between the electrodes in the satellite cell.

      I believe that there are many avenues to explore within the above
      mentioned setup which could yield scientifically useful information but I
      have not pursued them at this point. Instead I turned my thoughts to other
      ways that I might capitalize on the rectifier cell. I set up two more
      rectifier cells, identical to the first, in series with the first. I then
      measured the pd between the first and last electrodes in the series and
      found it to be 113 volts (see figure 2 here:
      (http://www.geocities.com/mj_17870/liquidsolid4_html_4a9ae925.jpg). In
      these illustrations the rectifier symbols are meant to represent the
      rectifier aspects of the oxide coated aluminum electrodes in the
      rectifier cells. The exception to this is the rectifier shown in the wire
      between the electrodes of the satellite cell. In that case the symbol is
      meant to depict the previously mentioned 6a rectifier I
      inserted there.

      Next I measured the pd between the water in the first and last cells
      and found it to be 168 volts, the same as between the water in the single
      rectifier cell and the grounded wall plate in my previous
      example. This intrigued me because when I had measured the pd of the
      probes of my micrometer in the water within a single rectifier cell, by
      placing my probes in the water but a space apart, I could only ever
      measure a pd of around 3 volts. Three volts didn't seem like much to work
      with but 168 volts did.

      I then installed an electrode made of 316 stainless between the
      aluminum electrodes on both the first and last rectifier cell in the
      series. I should mention that, in all cases in this paper where
      neutral, stainless electrodes are mentioned, said electrodes are just
      hanging down into the solution. They are not connected to the other two
      electrodes in the cell in any way and are not large enough to divide the
      cells into two separate halves. I then measured the pd between these
      stainless electrodes in the first and last cells and found it to be 98
      volts. The pd between the first and last aluminum rectifier cell
      electrodes remained at 113 volts. I then decided to try to use this setup
      as a power source for an induction coil/transformer. The
      transformer that I had available to work with was a common 120 volt to 12
      volt automotive battery charger.

      My transformer stepped 120 volt AC current down to 12 volt DC. (see
      figure 3: LINK) I ran a wire from each of the neutral electrodes in the
      rectifier cells to one of the prongs on the AC plug of the charger. I then
      turned on the power. The pd between the first and last aluminum electrodes
      in the rectifier cell series remained at 113 volts.The pd between the two
      neutral electrodes now measured at 48 volts, a 100 volt drop after the
      transformer was connected. Obviously SOMETHING was
      happening inside the transformer to cause the voltage drop between the
      electrodes that is was connected to. I really didn't think that any usable
      energy would be transferred to the transformer secondary though as that
      seemed too easy.Just for giggles though I picked up the battery clamps on
      the 12 volt side of the transformer and tapped them together to see if
      they would throw a spark like they would if they were plugged into the
      wall socket directly. Much to my surprise a nice yellow spark was
      generated by tapping the electrodes together!

      Then I took the electrolysis cell that I had already put together to
      use in the previously described phase of this research and hooked it up to
      the 12 volt side of the charger. Vigorous electrolysis commenced
      immediately in the electrolysis cell. The measured pd between the
      electrodes in the electrolysis cell (under load) fluctuated between 3 and
      4 volts with 3.6 volts being the average. The current flowing through the
      electrolysis cell was about 1.8 amps. Remember that a lower resistance
      cell would have allowed more current to flow and
      consequently produced more hydrogen and that 3.6 volts is enough pd to
      power at least 2 and possibly 3 electrolysis cells depending on the
      electrolyte used.

      On the primary side of the transformer the only voltage drop noticed
      when the transformer was powering the electrolysis cell on it's
      secondary was the one previously mentioned between the two neutral,
      stainless electrodes in the rectifier cells. The pd between the
      aluminum electrodes in the rectifier cells did not drop. Instead it
      actually increased. This seemed curious to me as the current flowing
      through the secondary should cause more current to flow on the primary
      side but the rectifier cells were still blocking all or nearly all current
      flow in the primary. With that in mind I settled in to watch the system
      perform for a while. I noticed a few strange effects on the primary side
      of the transformer and I will spend the remainder of this paper describing
      them and giving my thoughts on their causes. I want to do that because I
      think they are significant in their own right.

      Image link for figure 3:

      Let me list my measurements of the pd between the water of the individual
      cells and the grounded wall plate both without the transformer and with

      Cell#1 no transformer: 120 volts, with transformer: 120volts
      Cell #2 no transformer: 78 volts, with transformer: 98 volts
      Cell #3 no transformer: 28 volts, with transformer: 92 volts

      See what I mean about the presence of the transformer increasing the
      voltage of the cells?

      I also noticed that when the rectifier cells are wired in series the
      electrodes no longer glow in the same way as they did with only one cell.
      With three cells in series only two of the electrodes glow. The first
      electrode (cathode) of the first cell in the series and the last electrode
      (anode) of the last cell in the series. The cathode of the first cell
      glows brightly but the anode of the last cell glows only dimly. None of
      the electrodes between these two glows at all neither do they dissolve
      even after prolonged operation.

      The next thing that I noticed was that the amount of bubbles being
      produced at the aluminum rectifier cell electrodes (of which there were
      only tiny amounts) in cell #1 was greater than the amount being
      produced in cells numbers 2 & 3. In 2 & 3 the the amount of gasses being
      produced was so small as to be very nearly nonexistent. In cell # 1
      however there were tiny but steady streams of bubbles being produced at
      the edges of the electrodes. When the transformer is hooked up the amount
      of bubbles being produced in the # 1 rectifier cell increases noticeably.
      Here is another puzzle. The gas being produced in the # 1 cell with the
      transformer hooked up is formed on the cathode of that cell and on the
      neutral stainless electrode, NOT on the anode of the cell! No increase of
      bubble formation is observed in either of the other two cells in this

      I believe that the transformer coil is acting to boost the voltage in
      the rectifier cells by first storing and releasing the energy of the AC
      radio signal that is passing through the cells. And I think that more
      current is flowing between the neutral electrodes than is flowing in the
      primary circuit itself and the current is moving from one neutral
      electrode to the other and then reversing polarity and going back to the
      other electrode as the polarity of the cells changes. So the
      neutral cells are in essence antennas which are inserted into the radio
      signal in the water and are receiving the signal like a radio antenna.
      This might be possible because water is much better at transferring waves
      than is air.

      If you look again at the voltages listed above for the water in each of
      the cells in series you will notice that the voltage ("charge") in each
      cell is different. This means that the neutral electrodes, inserted into
      the first and last cells, are actually taking advantage of this potential
      difference between the water of the cells in the series. This brings up a
      rather unique possibility. Imagine if you will a hot wire leading into the
      series of cells as pictured. But then imagine the ground wire being
      removed (I don't recommend you do this). That would be more or less like
      an incomplete circuit in the primary. It is true that the hot wire is
      still electrically energized and does put out a small but detectable emf
      around it. But no current can flow because no complete circuit exists for
      current to flow through and so no current can flow.

      Imagine now, as I said, that we hook this lone hot wire to our series
      of electrolysis cells but no ground wire is connected. Would the
      electrodes in the cells act like tiny radio antennas and transmit the
      electric charge from the hot wire through all of the cells? I did test
      this setup and the answer is yes. Without a ground wire connected a pd can
      still be measured between the water of the first and last cell in the
      series and also between the battery clamps on the 12 volt side of the
      transformer. No electrolysis occurred without the ground wire
      hooked up but the electric charge was there and was being transferred to
      the secondary of the transformer coil. Perhaps with more
      sophisticated electronic components being added into the system by a
      qualified electrical engineer there could be a system developed which
      would allow current to flow in the secondary of the transformer in this
      situation. If that is possible then, since no current flows in the
      primary, it should be obvious that a single, small AC generator could
      power an almost unlimited number of electrolysis cells via such a
      system. Even the grounded system should have some definite potential for
      further research and development in the search for better, more efficient
      ways to produce hydrogen from water. Hopefully this paper will stimulate
      some people who have the resources to further these concepts to do so.

      I deal in finding possibilities. I form an idea and then try to
      determine if it is possible. I don't worry about the practicality of the
      possibilities that I develop because that is the job of Engineers and I am
      not one. In the next issue of the Hydrogen News I want to describe to you
      a rather interesting possibility, a way to produce hydrogen fuel from
      water absolutely free. Yes I know I am standing on a rather short plank
      with that statement. I have been working on this for a while however and
      so far it hangs together. No moving parts, no using fossil fuels to
      produce it, no engine or generator needed, no dissolving
      metals. And no, it isn't wind or solar either. I am talking about using
      the energy of the Earth itself... Stay tuned.


      E! Magazine is your source for cutting edge environmental news.

      Hydrogen News Links:

      (1) Engineers Invent Ethanol Reactor Capable of Producing Hydrogen
      Through funding from the Minnesota Cornn Growers Association, the
      Minnesota Corn Research and...
      (Corn alcohol? Damn, it's Hillbilly heaven! ED.)

      (2) Fuel Cell Driven Yacht
      The fuel-cell powered drive system for boats, which has been named
      "CoolCell" by MTU, is used to...
      (Let's see, I need an H2 yacht, and an H2 limo, an H2 Harley, and an
      H2 Mansion, research can be such fun, can't it? ED.)

      (3) Hydrogen Technologies: Are Advancements Robust Enough to Deliver on
      Hydrogen's Immense Potential?
      Hydrogen is being regarded as a promising candidate to replace
      conventional hydrocarbon fuels in...

      (4) Japan's Nippon Shokubai to mass-produce fuel cell ceramic sheets
      Nippon Shokubai Co Ltd will build a pilot plant to manufacture
      ceramic sheets for solid oxide fuel.

      (5) Road to hydrogen cars may not be so clean
      "I'm supportive of research and development, but we are at least two
      decades away from (deploying)... San Francisco Chronicle

      (6) U of Tasmania Hydrogen powered postie bike set for Tassie trial
      The world's first hydrogen powered postie bike has been unveiled in

      (7) Fuel-cell vehicles obscure--but popular
      Only 24 percent of consumers know what fuel-cell vehicles are....but
      they like them...

      (8) Fuel cell cars on road to the future
      General Motors sees the hydrogen-powered fuel cell car as the car of
      the future.
      (Remember, the future starts...NOW! ED.)

      (9) Hybrid Cars are The Future
      WHY has the Toyota Prius become the car industry's most talked about
      (Seems as though Toyota and GM are not on quite the same page,
      doesn't it? ED.)

      (10) H2U Student Design Competition Goes International
      This year, the National Hydrogen Association (NHA), ChevronTexaco
      and the U.S. Department of Energy...
      (if any of this year's teams want some design help/ideas just email
      me at enki@... ED.)

      ----------------------------- Water Science
      Water is one of the most fascinating substances in existence. Maybe I am a
      bit prejudiced in saying that but I think
      that anyone who has spent any time learning even a little bit about it's
      structure, behavior and it's interactions with
      other elements will agree. For much more detailed information about water
      I suggest visiting Martin Chaplin's excellent
      site here: http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/water/index.html

      (11) Hydrogen Fuel Cell-Rocket power heats house
      A fuel technology last used in a rocket mission to the moon has
      been harnessed in a world first to...

      (12) 2004 in Review
      http://www.greencarcongress.com/2005/01/2004_in_review.html In a
      year that may end up remembered more for the natural
      catastrophe that closed it out, the transition to sustainable
      transportation lurched into a higher gear and
      began jerkily picking up a little bit of speed.

      (13) Title: A proposed science initiative for Bush
      Orson Scott Card has some observations about science.
      (Ok, I don't agree with a lot of what this guy says but he makes
      some interesting points and I liked the title of his blog: "Right
      Wing Neo-Pagan" ED.)

      (14) Hydrogen's not so Hot
      Reason did a policy study last month exploring the impact of
      switching cars over to hydrogen on greenhouse gas emissions.
      (Here we see the latest "half accurate" anti-hydrogen spin story. It
      is true in one scenario for H2 production but that isn' the only way to do
      it. ED.)

      (15) Transition to hydrogen: road to China's energy sustainable
      Based on the analysis of the status quo and the outlook for China's
      energy, challenges facing China in energy sector are presented.
      (So? Wal-Mart owns China now. If you can run a communist sweat shop
      making capitalist goods cheaper on H2 then I'm all for it. ED.)

      (16) Iceland to Spread Green Energy Mantra in Europe

      (17) Pipe dream
      What would happen when oil runs out?
      ( An interesting commentary but it concludes that we are doomed to
      use petroleum pretty much forever.(sigh) ED.)

      (18) H 2 --No
      "Popular Science"[T]he truth is that we arent much closer to a
      commercially viable hydrogen-powered car than we are to cold fusion or a
      cure for cancer."The article
      says that hydrogen is not and can never be an energy source on
      Earth, that a hydrogen economy will not run on renewable energy any time
      in the near future... and
      several other sobering things."
      (And;"If god intended man to fly he would have given him wings,
      etc.." ED.)

      (19) "Shell Helping Lead the Way to The Hydrogen Economy"
      Featuring an exclusive interview with Shell Hydrogen?s CEO Jeremy
      Bentham, and outlining the forces driving us towards a future
      fuelled at least partly by hydrogen.
      ( Of course this is just a waste of money according to the previous
      few storys...ED.)

      (20) China's Large Oil Reserves in Bohai Bay Get Media Attention
      Exploration teams have found the Bohai Bay Basin of North China may
      contain 20.5 billion tons of offshore oil reserves, with 9 billion tons
      already proven, experts said.
      (Imagine an energy independent China which also has the world's
      cheapest and most productive manufacturing workforce...uh-oh...

      (21) Mining the Moon: Helium 3 to solve Earth's Energy Problems?
      A potential gas source found on the moon's surface could hold the
      key to meeting future energy demands as the earth's fossil fuels
      dry up in the coming decades,
      scientists say.
      ( hehehehe, oh, that's good. And people believe this crap? But we
      can't produce H2 on Earth? hehehehe Fused H2 (or D2) can produce
      He3 as a by-product. ED.)

      (22) Out of the Energy Box?
      http://e-energy.blogspot.com/2004/12/out-of-energy-box.html Out of
      From the November/December 2004 issue of Foreign Affairs.
      ( Interesting to see world level players wring their hands and run
      around crying "who will save us?" hehehe ED.)

      (23) All About Fuel Cells And Alternative Fuel Vehicles
      ( A bunch of facts for whoever is interested. Might be a nice
      resource for a school report. ED.)

      (24) Texas Energy Center still hasn't created jobs
      Energy Center leaders say the problem is a lack of federal funds
      and a need to change their business plan to fit the objectives of
      the jobs-focused Texas Enterprise
      ( Awww, poor Texas. I say we give George W. back to them. Maybe he
      can solve their problems by bombing Louisiana back to the stone
      age? Course if I get another
      invite from the Carlyle Group my opinion might change...ED.)

      (25) Dioxin - Closer than you think!
      The deadly chemical dioxin has hit the headlines with the poisoning
      of Ukrainian opposition leader Viktor Yuschenko. What doesn't often make
      the news is the fact
      that dioxin pollution is far more widespread than political

      (26) Uncharted waters for the Climate?
      Politicians from around the world are gathering in Argentina to
      discuss climate change. We have unveiled our own 'Climate Ark' in
      the centre of Buenos Aires to
      illustrate the urgent need for action.

      (27) IEA sees potential in hydrogen and fuel cells (Oil & Gas Journal)
      Although commercial maturity and significant market penetration
      remain decades away, hydrogen and fuel-cell technologies represent
      high-potential options for a
      secure energy future with diminished emissions of carbon dioxide.

      (28) Golf Car utilizes 1.8 kW alkaline fuel cell generator
      Freedom II, powered by Model E7 AFC Generator, runs smoothly and
      silently and can be refueled in minutes. Generator is fueled by 33 L
      carbon fiber cylinder of
      compressed hydrogen and can operate for over 3 days between
      refills. Emission-free generator contains two 900 W POWERSTACK
      MC250 alkaline fuel cell stacks
      and can deliver 20% overload factor for acceleration and hill
      ( But to go from golf cart to car is decades away? Sorta funny,
      isn't it? ED.)

      (29) Green Power
      Thanks to soaring fuel prices, lots of creative energy is being
      applied to alternative energy. The time may finally have come for
      these three champions of on-the-verge

      (30) New source of power at landfill
      A WASTE landfill is not only to dispose of our daily discards. It
      can also provide a valuable commodity – energy. Gas emanating from
      dumps can be collected and
      combusted to produce electricity, as is happening at the Ayer Hitam
      Landfill in Puchong, Selangor.

      (31 Engineers Invent Ethanol Reactor Capable of Producing Hydrogen
      Through funding from the Minnesota Corn Growers Association, the
      Minnesota Corn Research and Promotion Council and the University of
      Minnesota's Initiative for
      Renewable Energy and the Environment, engineers at the university
      have invented the first reactor capable of efficiently producing
      hydrogen from ethanol.
      ( Certain American's have been producing their own Ethanol for many
      years from corn. Now they can make H2 from it to fuel their Still. I love
      progress. ED.)

      (32) Fuel Free-for-all
      Forget the so-called 'philosopher's stone' which alchemists believe
      could turn base metal into gold. Forget the perpetual motion
      machine. The greatest dream of
      science is cold fusion.
      ( Yeah, as if. Most people don't have a clue. Low energy fusion
      reactions are really easy to do, but no one mentions that. They
      focus on the cold fusion thing instead.
      Or on the Tokamak hot fusion money pit. Let's not look at what IS
      possible though...no,no..then we might accidentally build something that
      actually works. ED.)

      (33) Additional Detail on the Michelin/PSI HY-LIGHT Prototype
      Michelin is providing a bit more information on the HY-LIGHT
      hydrogen fuel cell concept car, including a simplified schematic (at
      right). Developed in partnership with the
      Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), the HY-LIGHT made its debut at the
      Challenge Bibendum in Shanghai this year. (Earlier post.)The
      lightweight car (850 kg) uses Michelin’s
      Active Wheel units—electric traction motors combined with an
      active electric suspension—mounted in the front wheels.
      Supercapacitors store the electricity generated
      by braking. Michelin designed the HY-LIGHT with the expectation of
      using H2 and O2 generated via electrolysis and stored in separate
      on-board tanks at up to 350 bar
      (5,000 psi).With pressurized oxygen stored on-board, the HY-LIGHT
      fuel cell does not require an on-board compressor to pump air
      through it to provide the source of
      oxygen through the fuel cell. Compressors add weight and power
      consumption, and ambient air contains components the fuel cell
      doesn’t require, such as nitrogen and

      (34) British Steam Car Challenge
      http://www.greencarcongress.com/2004/12/british_steam_c.html The
      BBC profiles Glynne Bowsher, chief designer, and the British
      Steam Car Challenge team in their quest to break the steam-car
      speed record with their vehicle,
      Inspiration. The extant record was set in 1906 by a Stanley Steamer
      that reached 127.659 mph.
      ( This sounds like a lot of fun. Kind of like Soap Box Derby for
      big boys. ED.)

      (35) Grass Growing...in Antarctica
      Grass has become established in Antarctica, showing the continent
      is warming to temperatures unseen for 10,000 years.Scientists have
      reported that broad areas of
      grass are now forming turf where there were once ice-sheets and
      glaciers.Tufts have previously grown on patches of Antarctica in
      summer, but the scientists have now
      observed larger areas surviving winter and spreading in the summer
      months.“Grass has taken a grip. There are very rapid changes going
      on in the Antarctic’s climate,
      allowing grass to colonise areas that would once have been far too
      cold,” said Pete Convey, an ecologist conducting research
      with the British Antarctic Survey.
      ( But the Bush Administration still doesn't believe in Global
      Warming? Oh well, look at the bright side, now Mickey D's has some new
      grazing land for cattle. ED. )

      (36) First H2ICE Hybrid Transit Bus in Service
      http://www.greencarcongress.com/2004/12/first_hsub2subi.html The
      SunLine Transit Agency in Palm Springs, CA, has put the first
      H2ICE (Internal Combustion Engine) series hybrid transit bus into

      (37) Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed

      (38) Permafrost Not So Permanent
      In parts of Fairbanks, Alaska, houses and buildings lean at odd
      angles. Some slump as if sliding downhill. Windows and doors inch
      closer and closer to the ground. It
      is an architectural landscape that is becoming more familiar as the
      world's ice-rich permafrost gives way to thaw.

      (39) Designing the World's Future
      Today, the future of most of the people, and indeed the future of
      the whole world, is decided by only a few, who, in most cases, do
      not even represent anybody else,
      but themselves and their groups.
      ( Seems to me it has been this way for a very, very long time. ED.)

      (40) Who Owns the World's Oil?
      The struggles over the ownership of the two most important
      political liquids of this era, petroleum and water, have had
      different fates....

      Notice: For information on advertising rates or to make suggestions email
      me at: enki@... All original material in this newsletter is
      assumed to be
      copyrighted by the source from which it originates. My stories
      are also copyrighted from the date they are published.
    Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.