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Senegalese ( woodland / savannah ) Chimpanzee:

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  • terry
    Think these are all new to this group. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JsXQ913MOEY Wild chimps cool off in pool. ... Hunting. http://phys.org/news183101385.html
    Message 1 of 4 , Jun 1, 2013
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      Think these are all new to this group.

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JsXQ913MOEY
      Wild chimps cool off in pool.
      >http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7P46vKuO3Hg<
      Hunting.
      http://phys.org/news183101385.html
      React to fire.
      http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/02/070222-chimps-spears.html
      spear use, females not males?
      http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10329-007-0038-1
      Cave use to cool off, not to keep warm?


      Background articles:
      http://www.pnas.org/content/104/9/3043.long
      4000+ year old chimp sites and origins of percussive stone use.
      http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.00865.x/full
      pan/homo ancestor hand reconstruction.

      Terry
    • Marc Verhaegen
      Reaction to fire by savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Fongoli, Senegal: Conceptualization of fire behavior and the case for a chimpanzee model
      Message 2 of 4 , Jun 1, 2013
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        Reaction to fire by savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at
        Fongoli, Senegal:
        Conceptualization of "fire behavior" and the case for a chimpanzee model
        Jill D Pruetz & Thomas C LaDuke 2010 AJPA 141:646-650 doi
        10.1002/ajpa.21245

        The use & control of fire are uniquely human traits, thought to have come
        about fairly late in the evolution of our lineage,
        they are hypothesized to correlate with an increase in intellectual
        complexity.
        Given the relatively sophisticated cognitive abilities yet small brain
        size of living apes compared to humans & even early hominins, observations
        of wild chimpanzees' reactions to naturally occurring fire can help inform
        hypotheses about the likely responses of early hominins to fire.

        We use data on the behavior of savanna chimpanzees Pan troglodytes verus
        during 2 encounters with wildfires, to illuminate the similarities between
        great apes & humans regarding their reaction to fire.
        Chimps' close relatedness to our lineage makes them phylogenetically
        relevant to the study of hominid evolution, and the open hot and dry
        environment at Fongoli, similar to the savanna mosaic thought to
        characterize much of hominid evolution, makes these apes ecologically
        important as a living primate model as well.

        Chimpanzees at Fongoli calmly monitor wildfires, and change their behavior
        in anticipation of the fire's movement.
        The ability to conceptualize the "behavior" of fire may be a synapomorphic
        trait, characterizing the human-chimpanzee clade.
        If the cognitive underpinnings of fire conceptualization are a primitive
        hominid trait, hypotheses concerning the origins of the control & use of
        fire may need revision.
        We argue that our findings exemplify the importance of using living
        chimpanzees as models for better understanding human evolution despite
        recently published suggestions to the contrary.

        http://phys.org/news183101385.html
        React to fire
      • Marc Verhaegen
        Thanks a lot, Terry! --marc Van: terry Beantwoorden - Aan: AAT@yahoogroups.com Datum: Sat, 01 Jun
        Message 3 of 4 , Jun 1, 2013
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          Thanks a lot, Terry! --marc

          Van: terry <terry.turner1602@...>
          Beantwoorden - Aan: "AAT@yahoogroups.com" <AAT@yahoogroups.com>
          Datum: Sat, 01 Jun 2013 08:04:52 -0000
          Aan: "AAT@yahoogroups.com" <AAT@yahoogroups.com>
          Onderwerp: [AAT] Senegalese ( woodland / savannah ) Chimpanzee:






          Think these are all new to this group.

          http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JsXQ913MOEY
          Wild chimps cool off in pool.
          >http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7P46vKuO3Hg<
          Hunting.
          http://phys.org/news183101385.html
          React to fire.
          http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/02/070222-chimps-spears.html
          spear use, females not males?
          http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10329-007-0038-1
          Cave use to cool off, not to keep warm?

          Background articles:
          http://www.pnas.org/content/104/9/3043.long
          4000+ year old chimp sites and origins of percussive stone use.
          http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.00865.x/full
          pan/homo ancestor hand reconstruction.

          Terry









          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • Marc Verhaegen
          http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.00865.x/full The evolutionary history of the hominin hand since the last common ancestor of Pan and
          Message 4 of 4 , Jun 1, 2013
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            http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.00865.x/full
            The evolutionary history of the hominin hand since the last common
            ancestor of Pan and Homo
            Matthew W Tocheri, Caley M Orr, Marc C Jacofsky & Mary W. Marzke 2008
            J.Anat.212:544­562 doi 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.00865.x

            Molecular evidence indicates that the LCA of Pan & the hominin clade
            existed between 8 & 4 Ma.
            The current fossil record indicates the Pan-Homo LCA existed at least 5
            Ma, most likely between 6 & 7 Ma.
            Together, the molecular & fossil evidence has important consequences for
            interpreting the evolutionary history of the hand within the tribe
            Hominini (hominins).
            1) Parsimony supports the hypothesis that the hand of the LCA most likely
            resembled that of an extant great ape overall (Pan, Gorilla & Pongo), and
            that of an African ape in particular.
            2) It provides a context for interpreting the derived changes to the hand
            that have evolved in various hominins, eg, the Au.afarensis hand is likely
            derived in comparison with that of the Pan­Homo LCA in having shorter
            fingers rel.to thumb length, and more proximo-distally oriented joints
            between its capitate, 2d metacarpal & trapezium.
            This evidence suggests that these derived features evolved prior to the
            intensification of stone tool-related hominin behaviors beginning c 2.5 Ma.
            However, a majority of primitive features most likely present in the
            Pan-Homo LCA are retained in the hands of Australopithecus,
            Paranthropus/early Homo & H.floresiensis.
            This evidence suggests that further derived changes to the hands of other
            hominins such as Hs & Hn did not evolve until after 2.5 Ma, possibly even
            later than 1.5 Ma (currently the earliest evidence of Acheulian
            technology).
            The derived hands of Hs & Hn may indicate a morphological commitment to
            tool-related manipulative behaviors beyond that observed in other
            hominins, including those (eg, H.floresiensis) which may be descended from
            earlier tool-making spp.

            _____

            A beautiful example of frequent current PA "thinking"(??):
            - The first sentence is not incorrect (I prefer a split not very long
            before the "baboon marker" infection c 4 Ma), although the use of the word
            "hominin" here presupposes that australopiths ITO were closer relatives of
            H than of P, which is at best unproven (& IMO wrong, google "verhaegen
            evolution" or so).
            - The fossil evidence doesn't say much here (paralellisms!), but the
            difficulties of placing "habilis" fossils (< c 2 Ma) into apiths or Homo
            might suggests IMO that the H/P split happened not earlier than 3 or 4 Ma.
            Tocheri cs mean that Sahelanthr ITO belongs to what they call the
            "hominin" clade, but there's no evidence Sahalanthr was a closer relative
            of H than of P (IMO Sahelanthr was one of the many early relatives of the
            hominids, ie, fossil relatives of P-H-G).
            - The 3d sentence is empty.
            - 1) Parsimony suggests that the H/P LCA had rel.finger lengths between
            monkeys, apiths & humans, IOW, that the apes (esp.Po & Hy) are derived in
            this respect: rel.finger lengths Hs & G & apiths & monkeys < P << Po & Hy.
            - 2) Parsimony suggests that Au.afar had rel.shorter fingers (= primitive
            situation) than P & certainly Po & Hy.
            - The last sentences are wrong conclusions from wrong statements IMO, and
            presuppose than hand changes are mostly caused by tool use.
            Hand evolution probably has not much to do with tool use. All simians are
            very dextrous. All great apes use tools, and enamel thickening began c 20
            or 18 Ma in the fossil record, which suggests that durophagy began
            mid-Miocene, ie, possibly 6 or 8 times earlier than Tocheri cs think.

            The most obvious differences between Homo & monkey (=primitive?) hands are
            IMO:
            - our hand palms are rel.very broad (medio-laterally wide), I guess for
            swimming,
            - we can use thumb, index & other fingers +-independently: Hardy thought
            this was for seafood collection.

            --marc
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