I can't answer about Polish customs, but since Russians didn't use last names
in period (as we know them -- i.e. family/hereditary names), the answer is
no. Married women in Russia would be known maybe by their first names, but
more likely by their patronymics and/or their "wife-of" names. The former is
quite widespread (for instance Igor's wife in THE SONG/LAY OF IGOR'S CAMPAIGN
is forever known as Iaroslavna, i.e. Iaroslav's daughter).
The later ("wife-of" form) can be found fairly often in the Birch-Bark
letters, but I don't remember off the top of my head whether it was common in
Russia other than Novgorod.
As an example: take the name IVAN. IVANOVA is the patronymic (to someone
knowing modern Russian it looks like a last (family) name, but it isn't in
period); IVANIAIA is the "wife-of" form.
As far as persona-play, it's a matter of choice. I haven't seen any pattern
to the practice. I suspect whether a woman is known by her patronymic or a
wife-of form depends on who's more famous -- father or husband. OTOH, a woman
could also be famous on her own. Princess Olga is know as Olga, to the point
that her patronymic eludes most Russians. Marfa Posadnitsa (Martha the
Mayoress), in XV-C Novgorod is known by her own name, even though she
"inherited" her husband's post as mayor (posadnik) of Novogorod.
There is more on this in the DICTIONARY OF PERIOD RUSSIAN NAMES, linked from
the SIG pages.
Per fess embattled Azure and Gules, two otters passant Or.
>SLAVIC INTEREST GROUP</A> http://slavic.freeservers.com
[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]