Parsley (Petroselinum crispum [Mill.] Nyman ex A. W. Hill) Synonyms botanical Petroselinum hortense, Apium petroselinum pharmaceutical Radix PetroseliniMessage 1 of 2 , Jul 21, 2010View Source
botanical Petroselinum hortense, Apium petroselinum pharmaceutical Radix Petroselini (root), Fructus Petroselini (fruits) Albanian Majdanoz, Majdanozi, Mardanca, Merudhi Amharic ፔትርዚሊ Peterzili Arabic بقدونس, مقدونس بَقْدُونِس, مَقْدُونِس Baqdounis, Baqdunis; Maqdounis, Maqdunis (North Africa) Armenian Ազատքեղ, Մաղադանոս Azadkegh, Maghatanos, Azatkegh, Maghadanos Azeri Cəfəri, Cəfəri göyərti Ҹәфәри, Ҹәфәри ҝөјәрти Basque Perrexil Belarusian Патраўка, Пятрушка Patraŭka, Piatrushka Bulgarian Магданоз, Мерудия Magdanoz, Merudiya, Merudia Catalan Julivert Chinese
香菜 [hēung choi], 芫茜 [yùhn sāi] Heong choi, Yuhn sai Chinese
香菜 [xiāng cài], 洋芫荽 [yáng yuán suī], 巴西利 [bā xī lì], 荷蘭芹 [hé lán qín], 欧芹 [ōu qín] Xiang cai, Yang yuan sui, Ba xi li, He lan qin, Ou qin Croatian Peršin, Peršun Czech Petržel, Petrželka, Petržel zahradní, Petržel kadeřavá Danish Persille Dutch Peterselie; Krulpeterselie (crispate-leaved variety) Esperanto Petroselo Estonian Aedpetersell, Petersell Farsi جعفری Jaafari Finnish Persilja French Persil Gaelic Fionnas-gàrraidh, Muinean-Muire, Pairseil, Pearsal Galician Perexil, Pirixel Georgian ოხრახუში, მაკიდონელი, პეტრუშკა, მწვანილი Okhrakhushi, Oxraxushi, Mak’idoneli, Makidoneli, P’et’rushk’a, Mts’vanili, Mtsvanili German Petersilie, Petersil; Peterwurz (root) Greek Μαϊντανό, Μαϊντανός, Μακεδονίσι, Περσέμολο Maïntano, Maïntanos, Makedonisi, Persemolo Greek (Old) Πετροσέλινον Petroselinon Hebrew פטרוסיליה, פטרוזיליה פֵּטרוֹסִילִיָה, פֶּטְרוֹזִילְיָה Petrosilia, Petrozilia Hindi अजमोद, अजमूद, कुरासानी Ajmod, Ajmud, Khurasani Hungarian Petrezselyem Icelandic Pétursselja, Steinselja Indonesian Seledri, Peterseli Irish Peirsil Italian Prezzemolo Japanese パセリ Paseri Kazakh Ақжелек, Ақжелкек, Ақжелкен, Зәжаба Aqjelek, Aqjelkek, Aqjelken, Zäjaba Khmer Vanns baraing Korean 미나리, 파슬리, 양쑥갓 Minari, Pasulli, Yangssukkas Latin Petroselinum, Petrosilenum Latvian Dārza pētersīļi Lithuanian Petražolė, Sėjamoji petražolė Macedonian Магдонос, Мајдонос Magdanos, Majdonos Maltese Tursin Norwegian Persille Polish Pietruszka zwyczajna Portuguese Salsa, Salsinha Provençal Jouver, Juvert, Peiresilh Romanian Pătrunjel Russian Петрушка Petrushka Serbian Першун, Першин Peršun, Peršin Sinhala රට අසමෝදගම් Rata asamodagam Slovak Petržlen záhradný, Petržlen Slovenian Peteršilj Spanish Perejil Sranan Metiwiwiri Swedish Persilja Tagalog Kintsay Tajik Чаъфари, Ҷаъфари Chafari, Jafari Thai พาร์สลีย์, ผักชีฝรั่ง, เทียนเยาวพาณี Partasliyat, Phakchi farang, Thian yeowpani Tigrinya ፐርሰሜሎ Persamelo Turkish Maydanoz, Bal maydanozu Turkmen Petruşka Петрушка Ukrainian Петрушка городня Petrushka horodnya Urdu پتر سیلی Peter sili Uzbek Petrushka Петрушка Vietnamese Rau mùi tây Rau mui tay Yiddish פּעטרעשקע, פּעטרישקע Petreshke, Petrishke Parsley leaves. Above ordinary flat parsley, below the crispate cultivar.
- Used plant part
Leaves, root and (rarely) fruits. Dried leaves have little or no fragrance.
- Plant family
Apiaceae (parsley family).
- Sensory quality
All parts of the plant exhibit the same characteristic aroma; it is strongest in the root.
- Main constituents
There are three cultivated varieties, which in part differ by their chemism. Var. latifolium (broad-leaved) and var. crispum (curly-leaved) are grown for their leaves, and var. tuberosum is grown for its root.
The essential oils of leaves and root show approximately the same composition. The main components (10–30%) are myristicin, limonene and 1,3,8-p-menthatriene; minor components are mono- and sesquiterpenes. The curly varieties (var. crispum) tend to be richer in myristicin, but contain much less essential oil than var. latifolium (0.01 and 0.04%, respectively).
In contrast, the essential oil from the fruits (3–6%) is either dominated by myristicin (60 to 80%; mostly var. tuberosum and var. crispum) or by apiole (70%; mostly var. latifolium). A third chemical race shows allyl tetramethoxy benzene (55 to 75%), which can also appear in apiol-dominated oils (up to 20%).
Toxic poly-ynes have been found in parsley, though in very low concentrations. Another matter of concern is that the photosensitizing furano-coumarins bergaptene and isoimperatorin have been found in the root.
The plant is of South European (probably East Mediterranean) origin and became popular in more Northern latitudes in the Middle Ages, when it was commonly grown in monasteries and Imperial gardens according to the Capitulare de villis (see lovage).
In our days, two different varieties are grown: Root parsley (var. tuberosum) has a tender, edible root (used as aromatic vegetable), whereas leaf parsley is solely cultivated for its leafs, which are chopped and used as a garnish in many European countries; its root is small and tough with a woody texture.
The botanical genus name, Petroselinum, equals the classical Latin name for parsley; it was derived from Greek petroselinon [πετροσέλινον]
parsley, which in turn is composed from petros [πέτρος]
rock, stoneand selinon [σέλινον]
rock celery. Why it was called so is not known to me.
Note that the second part of the name, selinon [σέλινον], is not only translated
wild parsley; it appears that little distinction was made between those two in Greece. The word appears already on Linear-B tablets as selinon [𐀮𐀪𐀜] and has a prominent appearance in the Odysseia, where the herb decorates the shore of the island Ogygia [Ὠγυγία], home of the beautiful nymph Kalypso [Καλυψώ]: leimones iou ede selinou theleon [λειμῶνες ἴου ἠδὲ σελίνου θήλεον]
the meadows were full of violet and wild parsley— a strange combination of flowers! See also poppy on the Homeric epics.
The species name crispus
crispateevidently was given because of the crispate leave shape. Some cultivars have this tendency much increased (
Greek petroselinon [πετροσέλινον] and its Latin adaptation petroselinum are the source of most names of that herb in modern European tongues, e.g., English parsley, Swedish persilja, Irish Gaelic pearsal, Spanish perejil, Romanian pătrunjel, Latvian pētersīļi, Yiddish petrishke [פּעטרישקע], Estonian petersell, Basque perrexil Serbo-Croatian peršun [першун], and Russian petrushka [петрушка]. Note that Icelandic has the partial translation steinselja
stone celery. The name was also transferred to some more distant languages, e.g. Hebrew petrosilia [פטרוזיליה], Tigrinya persemelo [ፐርሰሜሎ], Urdu peter sili [پتر سیلی] and Turkmen petruşka. The most Eastern representatives of that kin are Indonesian peterseli, Japanese paseri [パセリ] and Korean pasulli [파슬리].
Quite surprisingly, Modern Greek has an unrelated name for parsley which shows no relation to the Old Greek name: The herb is known by a number of similar regional names including maidanos [μαϊντανός] and maidano [μαϊντανό]. This name is actually a loan from Turkish, where the parsley is known as maydanoz. The Turks came to know parsley only via the Greeks, and their name is allegedly derived from an area in Northern Greece known as Macedonia; so the Turkish name originally meant
Macedonian herb. Due to the large extension of the Ottoman Empire, the Turkish name spread to several languages of South Eastern Europe and the Orient: Macedonian majdonos [мајдонос], Bulgarian magdanoz [магданоз], Georgian mak’idoneli [მაკიდონელი], Armenian maghatanos [մաղադանոս], Albanian majdanoz and Arabic al-baqdunis [البقدونس] (Maghrebi Arabic: al-maqdunis [المقدونس]).
Some Central Asian languages have names for parsley which are unrelated to both Greek petroselinon and Turkish maydanoz, but rather form a third group: Azerbaijani cəfəri, Kurdish ja'fari [جةعفةری], Farsi jaafari [جعفری] and possibly also Kazakh zäjaba [зәжаба]. I do not know anything about this group of names.
In countries which have no traditional use for parsley, the herb is often named as a variant of coriander which has similar-shaped leaves that can be used similarly to parsley leaves, e.g. Khmer vanns baraig
Frankish coriander) or Vietnamese rau mui tay [rau mùi tây]
Western coriander; a similar idea is expressed by Chinese ou qin [欧芹]
European celery. Two other names, Thai phakchi farang [ผักชีฝรั่ง], and Chinese yang yuan sui [洋芫荽] both mean
Western coriander, but may denote both parsley and another
foreign coriander, the long coriander of Mesoamerican origin.
- Selected Links
Indian Spices: Parsley (indianetzone.com) Ilkas und Ullis Kochecke: Petersilie (rezkonv.de via archive.org) A Pinch of Parsley (www.apinchof.com) Nature One Health: Parsley Maria Fremlin’s extraordinary Parsley Page Pflanzen des Capitulare de Villis: Petersilie (biozac.de) chemikalienlexikon.de: Apiol chemikalienlexikon.de: Myristicin Floridata.com: Parsley Herbs by Linda Gilbert: Parsley Desirable Herb and Spice Varieties: Parsley Recipe: Tabouli, Tabbouleh [تبولة] (www.e-rcps.com) Recipe: Tabbouleh [تبولة] (www.deliaonline.com) Recipe: Kısır (Kisir) (recipecottage.com) Recipe: Kısır (Kisir) (masterstech-home.com) Recipe: Baba ganoush [بابا غنوج] (www.cooks.com) Recipe: Baba ganoush [بابا غنوج] (recipesource.com)
Parsley plant, flowering
Parsley is often used for sauces; the famous German Green Sauce is an example (see borage). Chopped parsley and garlic in olive oil make for a wonderful Mediterranean sauce, to be served to broiled fish.
As an alternative, especially in France, chervil leaves may serve the same purpose. French cooks frequently combine parsley with other fresh herbs (e.g., chervil or balm) or use a classical composition, the renowned fines herbes (see chives); this mixture may substitute pure parsley leaves for any application, thus giving the dishes a richer aroma and somewhat
Mediterraneancharacter. The famous French recipe sauce béarnaise also makes use of fresh parsley leaves (see tarragon).
As parsley aroma suffers from any prolonged heat treatment, parsley leaves should not be cooked if distinct parley fragrance is desired; quick frying in olive oil, though, is acceptable. There is, however, one important exception: bouquet garni.
Bouquet garni typically consists of a selection of fresh herbs which are tied to a bundle and cooked in soups, sauces or stews; due to the long cooking time, the herbs’ aroma merges with the flavour of the other ingredients, thereby enriching the food without being recognizable in the finished dish. There are many different kinds of bouquet garni, but most of them contain parsley; furthermore, fresh sprigs of thyme are very often used. Other components depend both on the type of food and on the region.
In France, bouquet garni often contains fresh bay leaves, chervil and a clove of garlic; in the South (Provence), cooks would add a piece of fresh orange peel. Some recipes suggest rosemary and tarragon (you could also use Mexican tarragon instead). German bouquet garni, on the other side, often employs celery, savory and, for fish soup or stew, dill besides parsley. A variety of bouquet garni called Suppengrün (
soups’ green) is common for stock prepared from beef meat or bones; it contains parsley and celery roots together with carrots, leek, lovage and onion.
Herb bundles are also used in Italian cookery; the herbs most popular are marjoram, lovage, basil and oregano. The fruity tone of tomato sauces goes best with lemon thyme or rue (remove after a few minutes!). Obviously, personal preference plays a major part when it comes to bouquet garni; many herbs less frequently used in the kitchen can be tried (e.g., hyssop, sage, southernwood and many more).
Parsley is a common and popular herb in Western Asia and often appears in Turkish, Lebanese, Syrian or Jordan foods, particularly as a decoration for cold appetizers like hummus [حمص] (flavoured chick pea puree, see sesame) or baba ganoush [بابا غنوج] (aubergine puree). Another famous example is tabbouleh [تبولة], often regarded as the national dish of Lebanon: It is a salad made from burghul [برغل] (also bulghur; Turkish bulgur, parboiled cracked wheat), onion, lemon juice and a selection of vegetables, often cucumber or tomatoes; it owes its fresh flavour to large amounts of chopped fresh parsley and also some mint leaves. In Turkey, a similar salad is prepared (kısır), whose flavour and colour are, however, much altered by use of tomato paste; instead of lemon juice, cooks will often employ pomegranate concentrate. Another Turkish food of that type is çiğ köfte, which, however, contains raw beef and is rather spicy due to a special type of paprika employed.
In the Caucasian region, parsley is also known and popular; dried parsley appears in the famous spice mixture from Georgia, khmeli-suneli (see blue fenugreek). It is also found, dried of fresh, in the Irani herb blend ghorme (see fenugreek).
The root of parsley is eaten as a vegetable or cooked in soup to improve the soup’s taste, as it does not diminish in flavour after a long time of cooking; cf. above for German Suppengrün. The fruits, though aromatic, have found little application; their use in vegetable stews or lentil dishes may, however, have surprising effects. Since they are an efficient diuretic drug, large amounts of them may be hazardous, especially for people with kidney weakness; the same holds true, but to a lesser extent, for the root, but not for the leaves.
Chief Marck B. de Castro
Civil Infrastructure Engineer
PowerLine Engineering Qatar
Pearl Qatar Project
Doha, State of Qatar
e-mail : chiefmarck@...
From: Romeo Dionaldo <romy_dionaldo@...>
Sent: Wed, July 21, 2010 8:45:39 PM
Subject: Re: [phaseqatar] Clean your kidney
Ang parseley ay hindi kintsay. Kamukha pero kung aamuyin mo halos wala ang amoy. Ang kintsay ay may amoy. Alam naman natin ang amoy ng kintsay. Pumunta sa super market sa Carrefour o Lulu o ibang supedrmarket na may leafy vegetables. Dalawang klase ang parseley pero mas gusto ko iyong mukhang kintsay. Hindi kasi ako nawawalan nito sa aking green salad sa aking almusal, tanghalian o hapunan. kahit sa aking sandwich. Kung pupunta ka naman sa mga Turkish restaurant ay itanong mo ang tabula na salad .Ito ay parseley din.Subukan ninyo ang parseley. Pati ang problema ng gall bladder ay ito rin ang gamit ko plus water theraphy. Drink water more than 8-glasses a day to help you cure your kidney problems or gall bladder problems.Regards to all!
ROMEO O. DIONALDO
HSE MANAGER, GTI International
(email address: r.dionaldo@...)
Tel # (974)5894548, # |(974)4374884
--- On Wed, 7/21/10, Chief Marck De Castro <chiefmarck@...> wrote:
From: Chief Marck De Castro <chiefmarck@...>
Subject: Re: [phaseqatar] Clean your kidney
Date: Wednesday, July 21, 2010, 5:12 PM
Charl,Marami din niyan sa Pinas. Kahit d2 sa Qatar e marami kang mabibili niyan sa tindahan ng mga gulay. KINTSAY yata ang tawag natin dyan sa tagalog. Please correct me if I'm mistaken.CHEERS!Chief Marck B. de CastroCivil Infrastructure EngineerPowerLine Engineering QatarPearl Qatar ProjectDoha, State of Qatare-mail : chiefmarck@...mobile: +9747138462
From: Charl Patrick Embodo <echarlpatrick@...>
Sent: Wed, July 21, 2010 7:04:51 PM
Subject: Re: [phaseqatar] Clean your kidney
SALAMAT PO SA INFO.. MERUN PO BA SA PINAS NYAN?? ANO PO BNG TAWAG SA TAGALOG??
From: francis tan <francis_e_tan@...>
To: PHASE Qatar <email@example.com>
Cc: FILCOA <firstname.lastname@example.org>; PINOC <email@example.com>
Sent: Monday, July 19, 2010 1:10:10 AM
Subject: [phaseqatar] Clean your kidney
CLEAN YOUR KIDNEYS WITH LESS THAN $1.00
Years pass by and our kidneys are filtering the blood by removing salt, poison and any unwanted entering our body. With time, the salt accumulates and this needs to undergo cleaning treatments.
How are we going to do this?
It is very easy, first take a bunch of parsley and wash it clean
Then cut it in small pieces and put it in a pot and pour clean water and boil it for ten minutes and let it cool down and then filter it and pour in a clean bottle and keep it inside refrigerator to cool.
Drink one glass daily and you will notice all salt and other accumulated poison coming out of your kidney by urination. Also you will be able to notice the difference which you never felt before.
Parsley is known as best cleaning treatment for kidneys and it is natural!
Please forward to all your friendsFrancis E. Tan
IMCO Engineering & Construction Company W. L. L.
P. O. Box 22803, 1st Flr., Al Darwish Building, D-Ring Road
Doha, State of Qatar
Head Office Phone - (+974) 466-79-03 / 10 / 24,Site Office Phone - (+974) 471-12-10 ext. 102
Mobile - (+974) 588-92-54
Fax - (+974) 466-79-05
Email - f.tan@... / francis_e_tan@...
Web. - www.imcokw.com"Safety is something you learn from the start - Being accident free is doing your part"