17 21.30 -76.90 08/28/21Z 35 1007 TROPICAL STORM
17A 21.40 -77.40 08/29/00Z 35 1007 TROPICAL STORM
18 21.70 -77.80 08/29/03Z 35 1007 TROPICAL STORM
18A 22.20 -78.30 08/29/06Z 35 1007 TROPICAL STORM
19 22.60 -78.90 08/29/09Z 40 1005 TROPICAL STORM
19A 22.80 -79.30 08/29/12Z 40 1007 TROPICAL STORM
20 23.30 -79.50 08/29/15Z 40 1005 TROPICAL STORM
20A 23.90 -79.70 08/29/18Z 55 1008 TROPICAL STORM
21 24.30 -80.20 08/29/21Z 40 1005 TROPICAL STORM
21A 24.80 -80.40 08/30/00Z 40 1004 TROPICAL STORM
22 24.90 -80.50 08/30/03Z 40 1004 TROPICAL STORM
22A 25.20 -80.70 08/30/06Z 40 1003 TROPICAL STORM
23 25.60 -80.90 08/30/09Z 40 1001 TROPICAL STORM
23A 26.00 -81.00 08/30/12Z 35 1001 TROPICAL STORM
24 26.40 -80.90 08/30/15Z 30 1003 TROPICAL DEPRESSION
24A 26.90 -80.90 08/30/18Z 30 1003 TROPICAL DEPRESSION
25 27.60 -80.80 08/30/21Z 30 1001 TROPICAL DEPRESSION
25A 28.20 -80.70 08/31/00Z 30 1000 TROPICAL DEPRESSION
26 28.70 -80.60 08/31/03Z 30 1000 TROPICAL DEPRESSION
26A 29.40 -80.40 08/31/06Z 35 1000 TROPICAL STORM
27 30.00 -80.20 08/31/09Z 45 998 TROPICAL STORM
27A 30.40 -79.90 08/31/12Z 45 996 TROPICAL STORM
28 31.30 -79.60 08/31/15Z 50 994 TROPICAL STORM
28A 31.90 -79.10 08/31/18Z 60 - TROPICAL STORM
29 32.60 -78.70 08/31/21Z 60 991 TROPICAL STORM
Okay so I may be one sick individual if on a Saturday morning all I
can think about is why a storm like Ernesto did not weaken over the
swamps of Florida, and if anything strengthened a little. So I was
thinking about how salt water is conductive of course and then you
all know I talk about decarbonation and how when a surface low runs
over any kind of carbonated water the bubbles rise to the surface and
the carbonation runs back to ion form and in fact with a fresh water
swamp you may even have MORE of an ion count impact on conductivity
relative to what happens when a surface low passes over the ocean.
Anyway, that started me on another tangant (ain't the 'net fun to
look useless information up?). It reminded me of another set of
storms over fresh water--the Great Lake storms. The first one that
comes to mind is the one with hurricane force winds:
This storm occurred in 1913. So what I began to wonder is if I could
associated what happened to those Great Lakes just prior to the storm
with activity that would lead to unusual carbonation levels. This is
what I found:
Stocked smelt first in 1912.
Now stocking smelt in lakes doesn't sound like much, but it could be
huge in terms of changing the bio load of the Great Lakes. But there
is much more.
The United States and Great Britain, on behalf of Canada, sign the
Boundary Waters Treaty a historic agreement on the sharing of common
waters, aimed at eliminating disputes. The agreement contains a
prescient clause: "Boundary waters and waters flowing across the
boundary shall not be polluted on either side to the injury of health
or property on the other.
The agreement creates a six-member International Joint Commission,
with three members each appointed by the US president and Canada's
prime minister. The first commission is named in 1911, and starts
meetings early in 1912. It is asked by the two countries to identify
the extent and sources of pollution of the Detroit and Niagara Rivers.
The first report on Great Lakes water quality is issued by the
International Joint Commission on the Pollution of Boundary Waters
Reference. The report states that the ". . .situation along the
frontier is generally chaotic, everywhere perilous and in some cases,
So obviously pollution was starting to be a big concern.
1912 Monona and Mendota eutrophied; to kill algae added CuSO4
Since the late 1800s, chlorination is proposed then tested as a way
of disinfecting drinking water. By now it is being used in a number
of drinking water treatment plants in the United States. By 1910,
Toronto starts to chlorinate its drinking water. This period marks
the widespread use of drinking water chlorination, a process that is
to save untold numbers from disease and death.
This one is a more interesting one indirectly. As the hydrology
policies start to deal with chlorination and other forms of algae
control, as that control chemically weakens, it leaves more nutrients
for another time or another place. Things are not always what they
seem in bio chem.
The Great Lakes population reaches 11.5 million.
The Chicago Diversion is enlarged and renamed the Chicago Sanitary
and Ship Canal. The canal is deepened to the point that it reverses
flow of the Chicago River from Lake Michigan and water pours out of
the lake to reach the Des Plaines, Illinois and Mississippi rivers
and eventually the Gulf of Mexico. It allows more ship traffic, and
it flushes Chicago's sewage down the river and away from Lake
Michigan, its source of drinking water. This leads to a long-running
dispute over how much water should flow through the canal.
The pollution of our waterways became a national issue in June of
1969, the day that the Cuyahoga River, flowing through Cleveland,
Ohio, on its way to Lake Erie, caught on fire because it was so
polluted. Although this was not the first time that the Cuyahoga
River had been in flames, the 1969 fire caught the attention of the
nation and the fight began for increased water pollution controls,
which eventually led to the Great Lakes Water Quality Act and Clean
Water Act in the 1970s.
Massive populations polluting and water diversions. The same old
story we are seeing in many rivers around the world. Clearly these
changes have impacted tropical storm, so it is no small step to
consider the impact on November gales in the Great Lakes regions.
More recently, the Carl D. Bradley, a steel freighter, sank in Lake
Michigan during a deadly storm on November 18, 1958. The Bradley ran
into 60 mph winds barely giving the crew enough time to radio for
help. In Charlevoix, Michigan, a radio operator on duty that day
remembered their call: "Mayday! Mayday! Mayday!
We are in serious
The ship is breaking up!"
The Edmund Fitzgerald was the largest freighter ever lost on the
Great Lakes. She went down on November 10, 1975, seventeen miles
northwest of Whitefish Point, taking all twenty-nine men with her.
Bound for Detroit, The Fitzgerald left Superior, Wisconsin on the
afternoon of November 9th, carrying 26,000 tons of iron ore.
Following about fifteen miles behind the Fitzgerald was the Arthur M.
Anderson. At 7:00 p.m., a gale warning was issued for the lake and as
the hours passed, the weather worsened dramatically. The Soo Locks
shut down reporting winds of almost 100 mph. In radio contact, the
Fitzgerald and the Anderson decided to head for the safety of
Whitefish Point. At 3:10 p.m. on the afternoon of November 10th,
Captain McSorley of the Fitz radioed Captain Cooper. "Anderson, this
is the Fitzgerald. I have a fence rail down, two vents lost or
damaged, and a list
Will you stay by me 'til I get to Whitefish
Storms of 1958 and then 1975 follow a period of industrial pollution
which included conditions so bad that inlet rivers started on fire.
There is no way to now measure what the carbonation levels of these
lakes were following such "Silent Springs", but we do have indirect