Dane Research on Cosmic RaysA Review
This is an attempt to review the Danish cosmic ray research which
correlates glacial periods with changes in the cosmic ray flux. I
intend, however, to add to the coherence to the discussion of cosmic
rays and give this discussion context, because as this discussion has
been stated, it is incomplete. My views are more contained in a
theory that climate is fundamentally electrical and biological in its
The water molecule is polar. What that means is from an electrical
standpoint, it tends to have positive and negative sides. This
then results in chemical AND electrical properties. Water has what
are called van der Waals forces between themselves. This becomes
important for energy exchanges between the different phases of
water. This phase change energy is sometimes called a delta energy.
For instance, if you were to take a pan of water, and bring it to a
boil, you could put a thermometer in the water and it would read 212
degrees F. and stay there at that temperature despite the water
continually being heated. That is because the water as it boils
gives the phase change energy to the water.
The water is composed of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms in
the shape of a `v'. The hydrogen atoms tend to lose their electrons
to the oxygen molecule, and hence the combined molecule tends to be
more positive to the top of the `v' and negative to the bottom. As
opposite electrical forces attract, this provides a framework for an
attractive forcing, or van der Waals forces.
Heat energy is the movement of the molecule itself. Water can
vibrate, translate, and rotate. These motions against the bonds of
the water molecule itself is heat energy. If two water molecules are
attracted to one another by their van der Waals forces, the heat
energy required to move them apart is the phase change energy from
liquid water to water gas. Likewise, water in solid form has a phase
change energy to become liquid.
Dust in the air important from an electrical standpoint. That is
because since water is polar, that charge will attract the water to
it, and there combine with other water molecules. If several water
molecules combine with the dust, phase change energies are given to
the surrounding air, and the warmed air causes uplifting. To what
degree water is attracted to particle with a given charge will depend
on humidity, and relative humidity will depend on the temperature of
the air and the pressure of the air. If the air is relatively dry,
there will be a larger tendency for the water to escape the particle
and give lose phase change energy for the remaining water droplet.
This is what drives fog. It is also why fog burns off as the day
comes. The electrical input to this dynamic is limited because air
is electrically insulating.
Dust in a humid place is another thing. There the water that
evaporates off the dust particle is quickly replaced by another water
molecule that is nearby. Further, the electrical aspect is amplified
by the fields and conductivity associated with higher humidity. The
attraction of van der Waals to a dust particle with a charge is less
limited by the insulating properties of dry air and larger charges
can accumulate on the particles, causing a greater attractive force
than the loss of water vapor from the droplet from heating. The
formation of water droplets heats the cloud and causes it to give
phase change energy to the surrounding air. This causes the cloud
to rise and drives convection processes. The greater the charge on a
particle, the greater degree it will warm the air, the more it will
attract water vapor to droplet form.
The humid warmer air has a tendency to rise. As the water in a
forming cloud rises, it enters air that is thinner, and therefore
which has a different relative humidity. Clouds will move to their
electrical and thermal equilibrium. But then as forming clouds reach
a thin air that causes a specific rate of evaporation, they also
reach another temperature where yet another phase change can occurto
ice, and cirrus form.
Cirrus have an additional electrical characteristic in that they are
moved by large scale low frequency EMFs. This movement will aid in
infra red trapping of heat underneath them, and alters the relative
humidity and cloud formation dynamic. These electrical
characteristics are then modulated by the biosphere toward a living
earth. The Danish research as it has been interpreted is problematic
in that associating the changes in climate simply to the cosmic ray
flux without looking the modulating aspect of the microbrial
biosphere completely misses the point. It would be like talking
about the thermostat in your house when you have a 106 degree F.
fever. The incoming chaotic signal is far less important than the
ability of the biosphere to modulate against extremes.
The Danish research does not distinguish between cosmic particles and
solar in terms of their impact on cloud electrodynamics. The sun's
input of electrical pulses corresponds to a radiated increase,
because solar winds vary with coronal mass ejections or CMEs.
Because ions whose source is from the sun are directed to the closed
isobars of the earth's EMF, and because at the closed isobars
conditions are cold enough to lack convection and charge separations
that over come the small currents created by the sun in the solar
winds, those ions act as a signal that radiative increases act to
amplify. OTOH, cosmic rays are not associated with a radiation
increase. Indeed, cosmic rays may have speeds that decrease the
ability of the earth's EMF to redirect any of this energy and cause
impacts on particles that change the whole dynamic of cloud formation
and heat retention.
The Harris et al paper on the 1970 La Nina and the 1998 El Nino and
GHG and cirrus cloud behaviors followed by the Lindzen `iris' paper
fail to consider the EMF character of what is occurring. Namely,
that the inverse relationship of cirrus to cloud weighted SSTs that
Lindzen finds is associated with large scale low frequency EMF facing
induction changes by the ocean trade currents of the North and South
Equatorials compared to the Equatorialthat even though the
Equatorial is warmer, and a warmer conductor is less resistive, the
direction of current is reversed, and following the polarity of the
earth's EMF and Fleming's right hand rule, the Equatorial inducts
electrically AGAINST cirrus formation. And, respecting the Harris
paper, in the tropics during La Nina, the West Pacific is
biologically depleted. This gets to the modulation of EMFs by the
This EMF modulation by the biosphere occurs because if the ocean
surface is warm, there is no upwelling of nutrient rich colder
waters. These waters, while cold and therefore less conductive,
overcome that lack of conductivity related to temperature by the
conductivity from the biological activity increase. Hence, ENSO is a
cycle prompted by global biological feedbacks. These feedbacks are
in particularly strong form near shorelines, where the microbial
concentrations that increase conductivities is matched with methane
hydrate fields of biogenic origin that act with electrical insulative
properties, all in an effort to modulate both temperature and ocean
chemistry toward living earth conditions.
Cosmic ray flux occurs on timescales and such a manner that the
feedbacks are too much. The electrical storms during glacier laying
events have been known to split house sized bolders with strikes. As
the whole the EMF dynamic changes, the oceans drop and depressurize
hydrates. Ice laid on the land prevents sedimentation from washing
down rivers, and that prevents hydrate field nutrients and bouncy.
Hydrates are only found along the shores because only there is the
sedimentation there to keep them, lighter than the oceans, at the
depths where they form. As the degree of places where hydrology is
fed back, electrically, via hydrate fields, decreases, so does the
global biosphere. The erosion of carbon and the cycling of it by the
biosphere impacts conductivities as well. CO2 stirred in the oceans
causes free electrons, which in turn increases conductivties with
wind shifts. The SOI index is a good example of that. While wind
driven inductions may be considered, the counter example of a
tropical storm provides an answer why the stirring is more important
over short periods of time. Tropical storms have winds of all
directions, and hence should have, if induction were the only EMF
conductivity issue, asymmetry. However, they are with winds in a
circular pattern and have point EMFs that have been observed. The
CO2 partial pressure changes have been observed as well, and during
the time when the winds move, the relatively quiet eye will have a
conductivity meaning! Again, it has to do with stirring of ocean
surfaces and conductivities.
There have been likewise observations of ocean tidal or gravitational
waves and weather and climate observations brought on by changes in
conductivities brought on by the stirring of the oceans that results.
These direct observations have been confirmed by Keeling and Whorf
and matched to the Little Ice Age cycle. The fact that the Danish
research cannot explain the Little Ice Age cycle says volumes about
its limitations but also what it means in the whole of things.
Placing the Danish research in the context of CO2 from fossil fuels
has led to another false indication by the false skeptics. That is,
false skeptics will argue chaos then, chaos now, burn fossil fuels.
Yet, CO2 is modulated but he biosphere in the context of each age.
Even now, during an interglacial in terms of cosmic ray flux, CO2 is
modulated toward a living earth, and CO2 has direct and important
ELECTRICAL meaning. Indeed, it should be thought of as global FEVER,
not global warming. The truth is the problem is modulation then,
modulation now, don't create defects in biological feedback loops by
taking that which is not in the biosphere and placing it there.