CONTINUATION OF historical essay researched and written by Ann B.
Chambless in October 2009:
Joseph Reed has permission to go to Nickajack to make an essay of
extracting Salt _Petre _provided there shall be no objections made by
the Indians & he is permitted to take Thomas _Cummins_ with him to
assist him in the essay for thirty days. . . November 3, 1801"
"The within mentioned John Wood, Blacksmith, is hereby permitted to go
into the Cherokee Nation & pursue the business of his occupation there
for the term of three months from the date hereof . . . 22 June 1801"
"Samuel Norwood has permission to live in the Cherokee Nation at the
place of John Rogers for the term of six months from the present dates &
may pass & repass occasionally to visit his friends during the term
above mentioned . . 27 June 1803"
Copies of all passports and/or permits were retained by Agent R. J.
Meigs and remain on file today. These documents can be read via a
series of Bureau of Indian Affairs microfilm found in most major
libraries throughout the United States.
A list of white settlers below the line in Sequchee (Sequatchie) Valley
on Indian Land
22 April 1809 [* indicates permit]
MAN HOLDING PASSPORT PERMIT CHEROKEE
* Reuben Rogers Cropper for Settler Terrapin
* Harris K. Wylly Cropper for Jno Rogers Senr
* James Haney hired by Jno Rogers
* Jeremiah Rogers Senr Hirelings for Tarrepin
* Jno Hamilton Cropper for 8 Killer
* Jacob Hamelton Hireling for ditto
* Jeremiah Alexander Cropper for Salaisger(?) Junr
* Wm. Burke Do for Jno Watts (Do means ditto)
* John Carrson Do for Jno Jolley
* John Livingston Do for Charles Rogers
* Wm. Farmer Do for Richard Benge
* Andrew Farmer hireling for Do
* Adam Stinson Cropper for James Rogers
* Wm. Steward Do for Ezekiel Harlan
* Thomas Johnson Do. Tolantuskee
* Robert O Niel hierling for Do Tolantuskee
_No Permits_: Andrew McWilliams, Joel Wheeler, Robert Walker, Hercules
Jones, Davis Griffith, Hines Griffith, Thomas Woodcock, Robert McGrew,
James Hogan, Mr. Bassam, Mr. Bell, Thurmon Shelton, James Robbinson, Mr.
Ellis, Randal McDaniel _who must be removed_.
There were other intruders who attempted to settle illegally and had to
be removed by the Indian Agent.
The following are examples of how Cherokee Indian Agent R. J. Meigs
dealt with intruders who moved into Cherokee territory without passports:
To Secretary of War
Highwassee Garrison ,
9 March 1810
Several families have intruded again on Indian lands. Some have been
said to be determined to hold their ground. . . . _A small detachment
will march on Monday next to remove them_. I shall go with them and I do
not expect much difficulty. . . . Return J. Meigs.
Feb 10, 1813 Names of intruders on Cherokee lands in Sequichee
(Sequatchie) Valley and in the vicinity. David McGee, Mr. Hogan, Wm.
Farmer, Mr. Farmer, Mr. Penn, James Haney, Andrew McWilliams, Lewis
Allen, Solomon Knight. Mr. Hall, Richard Hudson, Joel Wheeler, Mr.
Allison, John Haney, Anthony Sheets.
The Bureau of Indian Affairs records contain many more examples of how
intruders in the Cherokee Nation were dealt with before the Cherokees
signed the Treaty of 1819. _ Since Agent Meigs used military force when
necessary to remove those without passports, there were very few whites
who actually lived in the area that became Jackson County until the
Spring of 1819._
The Cherokee Convention, concluded in Washington, D. C., February 27,
1819, ceded to the United States lands lying within the Territory of
Alabama and the States of Tennessee, Georgia, and North Carolina. This
treaty was ratified by the U.S. Senate on March 3, 1819, and proclaimed
by the President on March 10, 1819. Almost immediately a stream of
white settlers who lived in Middle Tennessee (especially Franklin and
Warren Counties) poured into what would be become Jackson County.
(Jackson County was created on December 13, 1819, one day before Alabama
was admitted to the Union.)
The TERRITORIAL PAPERS OF THE United. States, VOLUME XVIII, The
Territory of Alabama, pages 613-616, (compiled and edited by Clarence
Edwin Carter) contains a Memorial of the inhabitants residing in the
Cherokee Country relative to the late order for their removal" ... and
... "2nd Petition To the Honorable the Secretary at War. The following
Memorial was signed between late May and July 1819 and is a direct
quote from page 613:
"To the Honorable the Secretary at War, Your petitioners viewing the
calamitous situation in which many of our citizens are placed, owing to
an order recently described by the agent for Indian affairs of the
Cherokee Nation ordering all intruders on
their lands to remove by the first day of July 1819.
Researched and written by Ann B. Chambless in October 2009
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