"XII...I mean ancient
Dacia, which the race of the Gepidae now possess. This
country lies across the Danube within sight of Moesia, 74
and is surrounded by a crown of mountains. It has only
two ways of access, one by way of the Boutae and the
other by the Ta(r)bas."Jordanes
The only place in Romania where we have a two way (low altitude) entry is the mountainous hallow Harghita, east Transylvania. This region has no Roman castra.
"Ancient Dacia" is thus the Szeklars country (terra siculorum)-Country of the Scythians - Harghita depression.
Indeed there are only two entrances, at the Toplita (Bouta) and at the Tusnad (Torba/Tarba/Tabas) while Olt/Alutus has its source there.
1. Seckler seat from Covasna is called Orbai>>> Torba>Tarba/Taba/Tabas. The Angustia castrum is documented there. at the ources of Olt, Ptolemeus located on his map "Augusta Praetoria".
2. At Toplita (Slavic toponym for bath, Rom. Baia) there is a thermal lake,while the mountain near, "Tarnita" (engl.saddle) has 2 peaks: Baesul (987m) and Tarnita (1046 m); so, the toponimic Baia exists at Toplita. Therefore Toplita == Baia / diminutive Baita>> Bouta makes sense.
Identification is important because it connects Dacia/Dracia(land of Draco=entrance in the afterworld) with Scythia (perhaps also the land of the dragon/afterworld in Greek or some other ancient language relevant for the greeks). Historical Odin was Scythian high priest. With Romanian ethimologies sec=means dry,desert ; according to the deduction below it could apply to the clima there in older times when the volcano was active.
Near Tusnad (in the South of the depression) there is an extinct volcano (Lake St.Anna) with 13-15 thousand years of age(maybe less) , which volcanic activity may account for its identification with Yggdrasil as follows:
The surrounding mounains around the Harghita depression are high, anyway higher than the volcano itself and the ash cloud may not be dispersed by the wind. asume a long time emission of ash and SO2(Sulphur Dioxide). Pollutants concentration is higher in the South after a r^3(r to cube) rule(deadly in South supportable in North). So, there is a vertical stratification of the gases: gas with ash -hardly breathable below, ash-unbreathable in the middle and pure air above. Of course, bad air induced malformations to the people below the cloud(dwarfs). One cannot descend in the valley through the ash.
The highest peak around is Ceahlau (identified with Kogaionon ~ 2000 m) in the North-East, near the Pietroasa(where the famous hoard was found !). It is higher than the clouds, so it is a good and safe placement for breathing beings. It is also an excellent candidate for the "pillar of the world".
When it rains, the air is cleared of ash and Sulphur Dioxide and the rainbow appears. At that moment the air is breathable and one may safely descend in the valley. The North-South orientation of the rainbow is important in assesment of the ash concentration in air and that the rainbow belongs to the Valley.
So, Orphaeus, king of the Cauconi, climbed Ceahlau (by foot or mounted), waited for the rainbow and descended in the valley and was able to return until the air was not yet contaminated. The legend about Theseus returning from the afterworld (see Plutarch), also may be valid in assesing this kind of trip. However, the heroes returned but without the beloved!
In the of Nueremberg Chronichle, Wallachia, successor of Dacia, is located in the North-East of Transylvania.
In Dudo, De Gesta normanorum, Dacians are also called Volcans.
The depression still has numerous sources of mineral water with currative properties, normal for volcanic surroundings.
The Goldcomb cock is also identical with th Phoenix bird, because smaller periodic eruptions (of 500 years for Phoenix) appear very likely in times closer to our era.
The legend / myth (Martial) of giants struggle with titans which took place in the country of the hiperboreans along with ressurection mith, antlers found in graves and "life water"/"death water" appears to have a sound basis in the volcanic natural element, as described.
Note that the 3 gods appearing on the Pillar of the Sailors in Paris, above these Urd godesses, "Eurises", also appear on the shrines in Cluj Museum and on the Trajan's column (the scene where the Dacians adorate Trajan at the end of the first Dacian war). Interestingly, on one ring in the museum, an armed hand is associated with the "sun+moon+ishtar" as the "palmirian gods" in Louvre. The arms of the Siculi country (terra siculorum) also contain sun, moon, armed hand but without "Ishtar"-the Venus.
With the physical model above, further correlations are possible.
Prof D. Ciurchea
195. COVASNA, jud. Covasna (S. XXIII)
1. În interiorul cetatii dacice se mentioneaza constructii romane din piatra si
material ceramic de aceeasi epoca; caracterul asezarii ramâne incert.
2. În valea pârâului Misca, s-a cercetat, în anul 1942, un mic edificiu (?)
3. Se mentioneaza un mic tezaur roman, format din 6 piese, emise în sec. I î.
Hr., si de catre împaratii Vespasian si Hadrian.
1. TIR, L 35, p. 35,
2. RepCv, p. 79, pct., 209;
3. B. Mitrea, SCIV, 21, 1970, 2, p. 338; RepCv, p. 79, pct., 218.
"The monastery of Dionysius, Christ’s champion, has been reduced to ashes by vanquishing Vulcan.” [See Gesta Normannorum, Chapter 2, paragraphs 5 and 6].